Literature context: hermo Fisher Scientific A-5750, RRID:AB_2536190), rabbit anti-human/rat CRH ser
Inhibitory interneurons sculpt the outputs of excitatory circuits to expand the dynamic range of information processing. In mammalian retina, >30 types of amacrine cells provide lateral inhibition to vertical, excitatory bipolar cell circuits, but functional roles for only a few amacrine cells are well established. Here, we elucidate the function of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-expressing amacrine cells labeled in Cre-transgenic mice of either sex. CRH cells costratify with the ON alpha ganglion cell, a neuron highly sensitive to positive contrast. Electrophysiological and optogenetic analyses demonstrate that two CRH types (CRH-1 and CRH-3) make GABAergic synapses with ON alpha cells. CRH-1 cells signal via graded membrane potential changes, whereas CRH-3 cells fire action potentials. Both types show sustained ON-type responses to positive contrast over a range of stimulus conditions. Optogenetic control of transmission at CRH-1 synapses demonstrates that these synapses are tuned to low temporal frequencies, maintaining GABA release during fast hyperpolarizations during brief periods of negative contrast. CRH amacrine cell output is suppressed by prolonged negative contrast, when ON alpha ganglion cells continue to receive inhibitory input from converging OFF-pathway amacrine cells; the converging ON- and OFF-pathway inhibition balances tonic excitatory drive to ON alpha cells. Previously, it was demonstrated that CRH-1 cells inhibit firing by suppressed-by-contrast (SbC) ganglion cells during positive contrast. Therefore, divergent outputs of CRH-1 cells inhibit two ganglion cell types with opposite responses to positive contrast. The opposing responses of ON alpha and SbC ganglion cells are explained by differing excitation/inhibition balance in the two circuits.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A goal of neuroscience research is to explain the function of neural circuits at the level of specific cell types. Here, we studied the function of specific types of inhibitory interneurons, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) amacrine cells, in the mouse retina. Genetic tools were used to identify and manipulate CRH cells, which make GABAergic synapses with a well studied ganglion cell type, the ON alpha cell. CRH cells converge with other types of amacrine cells to tonically inhibit ON alpha cells and balance their high level of excitation. CRH cells diverge to different types of ganglion cell, the unique properties of which depend on their balance of excitation and inhibition.
Literature context: , FE: rabbit polyclonal, 1:800, RRID:AB_2536190 and RRID:AB_221562, respectivel
The structural and functional integrity of subgenual cingulate area 25 (A25) is crucial for emotional expression and equilibrium. A25 has a key role in affective networks, and its disruption has been linked to mood disorders, but its cortical connections have yet to be systematically or fully studied. Using neural tracers in rhesus monkeys, we found that A25 was densely connected with other ventromedial and posterior orbitofrontal areas associated with emotions and homeostasis. A moderate pathway linked A25 with frontopolar area 10, an area associated with complex cognition, which may regulate emotions and dampen negative affect. Beyond the frontal lobe, A25 was connected with auditory association areas and memory-related medial temporal cortices, and with the interoceptive-related anterior insula. A25 mostly targeted the superficial cortical layers of other areas, where broadly dispersed terminations comingled with modulatory inhibitory or disinhibitory microsystems, suggesting a dominant excitatory effect. The architecture and connections suggest that A25 is the consummate feedback system in the PFC. Conversely, in the entorhinal cortex, A25 pathways terminated in the middle-deep layers amid a strong local inhibitory microenvironment, suggesting gating of hippocampal output to other cortices and memory storage. The graded cortical architecture and associated laminar patterns of connections suggest how areas, layers, and functionally distinct classes of inhibitory neurons can be recruited dynamically to meet task demands. The complement of cortical connections of A25 with areas associated with memory, emotion, and somatic homeostasis provide the circuit basis to understand its vulnerability in psychiatric and neurologic disorders.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Integrity of the prefrontal subgenual cingulate cortex is crucial for healthy emotional function. Subgenual area 25 (A25) is mostly linked with other prefrontal areas associated with emotion in a dense network positioned to recruit large fields of cortex. In healthy states, A25 is associated with internal states, autonomic function, and transient negative affect. Constant hyperactivity in A25 is a biomarker for depression in humans and may trigger extensive activation in its dominant connections with areas associated with emotions and internal balance. A pathway between A25 and frontopolar area 10 may provide a critical link to regulate emotions and dampen persistent negative affect, which may be explored for therapeutic intervention in depression.
Literature context: ution; ThermoFisher Scientific; RRID:AB_2536190) (Table 1). These primary antib
The mammalian retina encodes visual information in dim light using rod photoreceptors and a specialized circuit: rods→rod bipolar cells→AII amacrine cell. The AII amacrine cell uses sign-conserving electrical synapses to modulate ON cone bipolar cell terminals and sign-inverting chemical (glycinergic) synapses to modulate OFF cone cell bipolar terminals; these ON and OFF cone bipolar terminals then drive the output neurons, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), following light increments and decrements, respectively. The AII amacrine cell also makes direct glycinergic synapses with certain RGCs, but it is not well established how many types receive this direct AII input. Here, we investigated functional AII amacrine→RGC synaptic connections in the retina of the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) by recording inhibitory currents from RGCs in the presence of ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) antagonists. This condition isolates a specific pathway through the AII amacrine cell that does not require iGluRs: cone→ON cone bipolar cell→AII amacrine cell→RGC. These recordings show that AII amacrine cells make direct synapses with OFF Alpha, OFF Delta and a smaller OFF transient RGC type that co-stratifies with OFF Alpha cells. However, AII amacrine cells avoid making synapses with numerous RGC types that co-stratify with the connected RGCs. Selective AII connections ensure that a privileged minority of RGC types receives direct input from the night-vision pathway, independent from OFF bipolar cell activity. Furthermore, these results illustrate the specificity of retinal connections, which cannot be predicted solely by co-stratification of dendrites and axons within the inner plexiform layer.
Literature context: LY, RRID:AB_2536190, 1:800; In
The bidirectional dialogue of the primate posterior orbitofrontal cortex (pOFC) with the amygdala is essential in cognitive-emotional functions. The pOFC also sends a uniquely one-way excitatory pathway to the amygdalar inhibitory intercalated masses (IM), which inhibit the medial part of the central amygdalar nucleus (CeM). Inhibition of IM has the opposite effect, allowing amygdalar activation of autonomic structures and emotional arousal. Using multiple labeling approaches to identify pathways and their postsynaptic sites in the amygdala in rhesus monkeys, we found that the anterior cingulate cortex innervated mostly the basolateral and CeM amygdalar nuclei, poised to activate CeM for autonomic arousal. By contrast, a pathway from pOFC to IM exceeded all other pathways to the amygdala by density and size and proportion of large and efficient terminals. Moreover, whereas pOFC terminals in IM innervated each of the three distinct classes of inhibitory neurons, most targeted neurons expressing dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32+), known to be modulated by dopamine. The predominant pOFC innervation of DARPP-32+ neurons suggests activation of IM and inhibition of CeM, resulting in modulated autonomic function. By contrast, inhibition of DARPP-32 neurons in IM by high dopamine levels disinhibits CeM and triggers autonomic arousal. The findings provide a mechanism to help explain how a strong pOFC pathway, which is poised to moderate activity of CeM, through IM, can be undermined by the high level of dopamine during stress, resulting in collapse of potent inhibitory mechanisms in the amygdala and heightened autonomic drive, as seen in chronic anxiety disorders.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The dialogue between prefrontal cortex and amygdala allows thoughts and emotions to influence actions. The posterior orbitofrontal cortex sends a powerful pathway that targets a special class of amygdalar intercalated mass (IM) inhibitory neurons, whose wiring may help modulate autonomic function. By contrast, the anterior cingulate cortex innervates other amygdalar parts, activating circuits to help avoid danger. Most IM neurons in primates label for the protein DARPP-32, known to be activated or inhibited based on the level of dopamine. Stress markedly increases dopamine release and inhibits IM neurons, compromises prefrontal control of the amygdala, and sets off a general alarm system as seen in affective disorders, such as chronic anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder.