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Donkey Anti-Rat IgG (H+L) Antibody, Alexa Fluor? 594 Conjugated


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

Donkey Rat IgG (H+L) Alexa Fluor? 594 rat

Proper Citation

(Thermo Fisher Scientific Cat# A-21209, RRID:AB_2535795)




Applications: IF (1 µg/mL), IHC (1-10 µg/mL), ICC (1 µg/mL)

Host Organism



Thermo Fisher Scientific Go To Vendor

Activation of GPR55 increases neural stem cell proliferation and promotes early adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  • Hill JD
  • Br. J. Pharmacol.
  • 2018 Jun 11

Literature context:


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The cannabinoid system exerts functional regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and adult neurogenesis, yet not all effects of cannabinoid-like compounds seen can be attributed to the cannabinoid 1 (CB1 ) or CB2 receptor. The recently de-orphaned GPR55 has been shown to be activated by numerous cannabinoid ligands suggesting that GPR55 is a third cannabinoid receptor. Here, we examined the role of GPR55 activation in NSC proliferation and early adult neurogenesis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effects of GPR55 agonists (LPI, O-1602, ML184) on human (h) NSC proliferation in vitro were assessed by flow cytometry. Human NSC differentiation was determined by flow cytometry, qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Immature neuron formation in the hippocampus of C57BL/6 and GPR55-/- mice was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. KEY RESULTS: Activation of GPR55 significantly increased proliferation rates of hNSCs in vitro. These effects were attenuated by ML193, a selective GPR55 antagonist. ML184 significantly promoted neuronal differentiation in vitro while ML193 reduced differentiation rates as compared to vehicle treatment. Continuous administration of O-1602 into the hippocampus via a cannula connected to an osmotic pump resulted in increased Ki67+ cells within the dentate gyrus. O-1602 increased immature neuron generation, as assessed by DCX+ and BrdU+ cells, as compared to vehicle-treated animals. GPR55-/- animals displayed reduced rates of proliferation and neurogenesis within the hippocampus while O-1602 had no effect as compared to vehicle controls. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Together, these findings suggest GPR55 activation as a novel target and strategy to regulate NSC proliferation and adult neurogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA 100707-12(United States)

Myoepithelial Cells of Submucosal Glands Can Function as Reserve Stem Cells to Regenerate Airways after Injury.

  • Tata A
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 May 3

Literature context:


Cells demonstrate plasticity following injury, but the extent of this phenomenon and the cellular mechanisms involved remain underexplored. Using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and lineage tracing, we uncover that myoepithelial cells (MECs) of the submucosal glands (SMGs) proliferate and migrate to repopulate the airway surface epithelium (SE) in multiple injury models. Specifically, SMG-derived cells display multipotency and contribute to basal and luminal cell types of the SMGs and SE. Ex vivo expanded MECs have the potential to repopulate and differentiate into SE cells when grafted onto denuded airway scaffolds. Significantly, we find that SMG-like cells appear on the SE of both extra- and intra-lobular airways of large animal lungs following severe injury. We find that the transcription factor SOX9 is necessary for MEC plasticity in airway regeneration. Because SMGs are abundant and present deep within airways, they may serve as a reserve cell source for enhancing human airway regeneration.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R00 HL127181()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK59630(United States)
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - U01 ES017219()

Nav1.1-Overexpressing Interneuron Transplants Restore Brain Rhythms and Cognition in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

  • Martinez-Losa M
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Apr 4

Literature context:


Inhibitory interneurons regulate the oscillatory rhythms and network synchrony that are required for cognitive functions and disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Network dysrhythmias in AD and multiple neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with hypofunction of Nav1.1, a voltage-gated sodium channel subunit predominantly expressed in interneurons. We show that Nav1.1-overexpressing, but not wild-type, interneuron transplants derived from the embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) enhance behavior-dependent gamma oscillatory activity, reduce network hypersynchrony, and improve cognitive functions in human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP)-transgenic mice, which simulate key aspects of AD. Increased Nav1.1 levels accelerated action potential kinetics of transplanted fast-spiking and non-fast-spiking interneurons. Nav1.1-deficient interneuron transplants were sufficient to cause behavioral abnormalities in wild-type mice. We conclude that the efficacy of interneuron transplantation and the function of transplanted cells in an AD-relevant context depend on their Nav1.1 levels. Disease-specific molecular optimization of cell transplants may be required to ensure therapeutic benefits in different conditions.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - C06 RR018928()
  • NIA NIH HHS - F32 AG043301()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG030207()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG036884()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG047313()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG051390()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG054214()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI059738-05(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30 NS065780()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS041787()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - U54 NS100717()

Developmental History Provides a Roadmap for the Emergence of Tumor Plasticity.

  • Tata PR
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 26

Literature context:


We show that the loss or gain of transcription factor programs that govern embryonic cell-fate specification is associated with a form of tumor plasticity characterized by the acquisition of alternative cell fates normally characteristic of adjacent organs. In human non-small cell lung cancers, downregulation of the lung lineage-specifying TF NKX2-1 is associated with tumors bearing features of various gut tissues. Loss of Nkx2-1 from murine alveolar, but not airway, epithelium results in conversion of lung cells to gastric-like cells. Superimposing oncogenic Kras activation enables further plasticity in both alveolar and airway epithelium, producing tumors that adopt midgut and hindgut fates. Conversely, coupling Nkx2-1 loss with foregut lineage-specifying SOX2 overexpression drives the formation of squamous cancers with features of esophageal differentiation. These findings demonstrate that elements of pathologic tumor plasticity mirror the normal developmental history of organs in that cancer cells acquire cell fates associated with developmentally related neighboring organs.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01CA172025(United States)
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - K99 HL127181()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - P30 HL101287()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R00 HL127181()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL118185()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007205()

Generation of a GDE heterozygous mutation human embryonic stem cell line WAe001-A-14 by CRISPR/Cas9 editing.

  • Xu G
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2018 Jan 9

Literature context:


Glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE) plays a critical role in glycogenolysis. Mutations in the GDE gene are associated with a metabolic disease known as glycogen storage disease type III (GSDIII). We generated a mutant GDE human embryonic stem cell line, WAe001-A-14, using the CRISPR/Cas9 editing system. This cell line contains a 24-nucleotide deletion within exon-13 of GDE, resulting in 8 amino acids (TRLGISSL) missing of the GDE protein from amino acid position 567 to 575. The WAe001-A-14 cell line maintains typical stem cell morphology, pluripotency and in vitro differentiation potential, and a normal karyotype.

Brain endothelial cells induce astrocytic expression of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 by a Notch-dependent mechanism.

  • Lee ML
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Dec 7

Literature context:


Neuron-secreted factors induce astrocytic expression of the glutamate transporter, GLT-1 (excitatory amino acid transporter 2). In addition to their elaborate anatomic relationships with neurons, astrocytes also have processes that extend to and envelop the vasculature. Although previous studies have demonstrated that brain endothelia contribute to astrocyte differentiation and maturation, the effects of brain endothelia on astrocytic expression of GLT-1 have not been examined. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that endothelia induce expression of GLT-1 by co-culturing astrocytes from mice that utilize non-coding elements of the GLT-1 gene to control expression of reporter proteins with the mouse endothelial cell line, bEND.3. We found that endothelia increased steady state levels of reporter and GLT-1 mRNA/protein. Co-culturing with primary rat brain endothelia also increases reporter protein, GLT-1 protein, and GLT-1-mediated glutamate uptake. The Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, bone morphogenic protein/transforming growth factor β, and nitric oxide pathways have been implicated in endothelia-to-astrocyte signaling; we provide multiple lines of evidence that none of these pathways mediate the effects of endothelia on astrocytic GLT-1 expression. Using transwells with a semi-permeable membrane, we demonstrate that the effects of the bEND.3 cell line are dependent upon contact. Notch has also been implicated in endothelia-astrocyte signaling in vitro and in vivo. The first step of Notch signaling requires cleavage of Notch intracellular domain by γ-secretase. We demonstrate that the γ-secretase inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester blocks endothelia-induced increases in GLT-1. We show that the levels of Notch intracellular domain are higher in nuclei of astrocytes co-cultured with endothelia, an effect also blocked by N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester. Finally, infection of co-cultures with shRNA directed against recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin kappa J, a Notch effector, also reduces endothelia-dependent increases in enhanced green fluorescent protein and GLT-1. Together, these studies support a novel role for Notch in endothelia-dependent induction of GLT-1 expression. Cover Image for this issue: doi. 10.1111/jnc.13825.

Generation of a SMO homozygous knockout human embryonic stem cell line WAe001-A-16 by CRISPR/Cas9 editing.

  • Wu F
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2017 Dec 27

Literature context:


The human SMO protein encoded by the smoothened (SMO) gene acts as a positive mediator for Hedgehog signaling. This pathway regulates many cellular activities, developmental morphogenesis, and tumorigenesis. Using CRISPR/Cas9 to edit human embryonic stem cell line WA01 (H1), we established a SMO mutant cell line (WAe001-A-16). This cell line has a 40bp homozygous deletion in exon 2 of SMO leading to a shift in the open reading frame and early termination at amino acid position 287. WAe001-A-16 maintains a normal karyotype, parental cell morphology, pluripotency markers, and the capacity to differentiate into all three germline layers.

Melanocyte Stem Cell Activation and Translocation Initiate Cutaneous Melanoma in Response to UV Exposure.

  • Moon H
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Nov 2

Literature context:


Melanoma is one of the deadliest cancers, yet the cells of origin and mechanisms of tumor initiation remain unclear. The majority of melanomas emerge from clear skin without a precursor lesion, but it is unknown whether these melanomas can arise from melanocyte stem cells (MCSCs). Here we employ mouse models to define the role of MCSCs as melanoma cells of origin, demonstrate that MCSC quiescence acts as a tumor suppressor, and identify the extrinsic environmental and molecular factors required for the critical early steps of melanoma initiation. Specifically, melanomas originate from melanoma-competent MCSCs upon stimulation by UVB, which induces MCSC activation and translocation via an inflammation-dependent process. Moreover, the chromatin-remodeling factor Hmga2 in the skin plays a critical role in UVB-mediated melanomagenesis. These findings delineate melanoma formation from melanoma-competent MCSCs following extrinsic stimuli, and they suggest that abrogation of Hmga2 function in the microenvironment can suppress MCSC-originating cutaneous melanomas.

Aldosterone-Sensing Neurons in the NTS Exhibit State-Dependent Pacemaker Activity and Drive Sodium Appetite via Synergy with Angiotensin II Signaling.

  • Resch JM
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Sep 27

Literature context:


Sodium deficiency increases angiotensin II (ATII) and aldosterone, which synergistically stimulate sodium retention and consumption. Recently, ATII-responsive neurons in the subfornical organ (SFO) and aldosterone-sensitive neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTSHSD2 neurons) were shown to drive sodium appetite. Here we investigate the basis for NTSHSD2 neuron activation, identify the circuit by which NTSHSD2 neurons drive appetite, and uncover an interaction between the NTSHSD2 circuit and ATII signaling. NTSHSD2 neurons respond to sodium deficiency with spontaneous pacemaker-like activity-the consequence of "cardiac" HCN and Nav1.5 channels. Remarkably, NTSHSD2 neurons are necessary for sodium appetite, and with concurrent ATII signaling their activity is sufficient to produce rapid consumption. Importantly, NTSHSD2 neurons stimulate appetite via projections to the vlBNST, which is also the effector site for ATII-responsive SFO neurons. The interaction between angiotensin signaling and NTSHSD2 neurons provides a neuronal context for the long-standing "synergy hypothesis" of sodium appetite regulation.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F32 DK103387()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK046200()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK057521()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK075632()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK089044()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK096010()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK111401()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - K08 NS099425()

Distinct Ventral Pallidal Neural Populations Mediate Separate Symptoms of Depression.

  • Knowland D
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jul 13

Literature context:


Major depressive disorder (MDD) patients display a common but often variable set of symptoms making successful, sustained treatment difficult to achieve. Separate depressive symptoms may be encoded by differential changes in distinct circuits in the brain, yet how discrete circuits underlie behavioral subsets of depression and how they adapt in response to stress has not been addressed. We identify two discrete circuits of parvalbumin-positive (PV) neurons in the ventral pallidum (VP) projecting to either the lateral habenula or ventral tegmental area contributing to depression. We find that these populations undergo different electrophysiological adaptations in response to social defeat stress, which are normalized by antidepressant treatment. Furthermore, manipulation of each population mediates either social withdrawal or behavioral despair, but not both. We propose that distinct components of the VP PV circuit can subserve related, yet separate depressive-like phenotypes in mice, which could ultimately provide a platform for symptom-specific treatments of depression.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH107742()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH108594()

Human embryonic lung epithelial tips are multipotent progenitors that can be expanded in vitro as long-term self-renewing organoids.

  • Nikolić MZ
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 30

Literature context:


The embryonic mouse lung is a widely used substitute for human lung development. For example, attempts to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells to lung epithelium rely on passing through progenitor states that have only been described in mouse. The tip epithelium of the branching mouse lung is a multipotent progenitor pool that self-renews and produces differentiating descendants. We hypothesized that the human distal tip epithelium is an analogous progenitor population and tested this by examining morphology, gene expression and in vitro self-renewal and differentiation capacity of human tips. These experiments confirm that human and mouse tips are analogous and identify signalling pathways that are sufficient for long-term self-renewal of human tips as differentiation-competent organoids. Moreover, we identify mouse-human differences, including markers that define progenitor states and signalling requirements for long-term self-renewal. Our organoid system provides a genetically-tractable tool that will allow these human-specific features of lung development to be investigated.

Adrenal Development in Mice Requires GATA4 and GATA6 Transcription Factors.

  • Tevosian SG
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Jul 20

Literature context:


The adrenal glands consist of an outer cortex and an inner medulla, and their primary purposes include hormone synthesis and secretion. The adrenal cortex produces a complex array of steroid hormones, whereas the medulla is part of the sympathetic nervous system and produces the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine. In the mouse, GATA binding protein (GATA) 4 and GATA6 transcription factors are coexpressed in several embryonic tissues, including the adrenal cortex. To explore the roles of GATA4 and GATA6 in mouse adrenal development, we conditionally deleted these genes in adrenocortical cells using the Sf1Cre strain of animals. We report here that mice with Sf1Cre-mediated double deletion of Gata4 and Gata6 genes lack identifiable adrenal glands, steroidogenic factor 1-positive cortical cells and steroidogenic gene expression in the adrenal location. The inactivation of the Gata6 gene alone (Sf1Cre;Gata6(flox/flox)) drastically reduced the adrenal size and corticosterone production in the adult animals. Adrenocortical aplasia is expected to result in the demise of the animal within 2 weeks after birth unless glucocorticoids are provided. In accordance, Sf1Cre;Gata4(flox/flox)Gata6(flox/flox) females depend on steroid supplementation to survive after weaning. Surprisingly, Sf1Cre;Gata4(flox/flox)Gata6(flox/flox) males appear to live normal lifespans as vital steroidogenic synthesis shifts to their testes. Our results reveal a requirement for GATA factors in adrenal development and provide a novel tool to characterize the transcriptional network controlling adrenocortical cell fates.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R56 NS042861(United States)