Literature context: hermo Fisher Scientific A21134; RRID:AB_2535773 Chicken polyclonal anti-GFP ant
Action potentials clustered into high-frequency bursts play distinct roles in neural computations. However, little is known about ionic currents that control the duration and probability of these bursts. We found that, in cartwheel inhibitory interneurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, the likelihood of bursts and the interval between their spikelets were controlled by Ca2+ acting across two nanodomains, one between plasma membrane P/Q Ca2+ channels and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ryanodine receptors and another between ryanodine receptors and large-conductance, voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels. Each spike triggered Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) from the ER immediately beneath somatic, but not axonal or dendritic, plasma membrane. Moreover, immunolabeling demonstrated close apposition of ryanodine receptors and BK channels. Double-nanodomain coupling between somatic plasma membrane and hypolemmal ER cisterns provides a unique mechanism for rapid control of action potentials on the millisecond timescale.
Literature context: :RRID:AB_2535773 1:250) for 1.5-2 hr at room tem
Aging stem cells lose the capacity to properly respond to injury and regenerate their residing tissues. Here, we utilized the ability of Drosophila melanogaster germline stem cells (GSCs) to survive exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation (IR) as a model of adult stem cell injury and identified a regeneration defect in aging GSCs: while aging GSCs survive exposure to IR, they fail to reenter the cell cycle and regenerate the germline in a timely manner. Mechanistically, we identify foxo and mTOR homologue, Tor as important regulators of GSC quiescence following exposure to ionizing radiation. foxo is required for entry in quiescence, while Tor is essential for cell cycle reentry. Importantly, we further show that the lack of regeneration in aging germ line stem cells after IR can be rescued by loss of foxo.
To generate rhythmic motor behaviors, both single neurons and neural circuits require a balance between excitatory inputs that trigger action potentials and inhibitory inputs that promote a stable resting potential (E/I balance). Previous studies have focused on individual neurons and have shown that, over a short spatial scale, excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) synapses tend to form structured territories with inhibitory inputs enriched on cell bodies and proximal dendrites and excitatory inputs on distal dendrites. However, systems-level E/I patterns, at spatial scales larger than single neurons, are largely uncharted. We used immunostaining for PSD-95 and gephyrin postsynaptic scaffolding proteins as proxies for excitatory and inhibitory synapses, respectively, to quantify the numbers and map the distributions of E/I synapses in zebrafish spinal cord at both an embryonic stage and a larval stage. At the embryonic stage, we found that PSD-95 puncta outnumber gephyrin puncta, with the number of gephyrin puncta increasing to match that of PSD-95 puncta at the larval stage. At both stages, PSD-95 puncta are enriched in the most lateral neuropil corresponding to distal dendrites while gephyrin puncta are enriched on neuronal somata and in the medial neuropil. Significantly, similar to synaptic puncta, neuronal processes also exhibit medial-lateral territories at both developmental stages with enrichment of glutamatergic (excitatory) processes laterally and glycinergic (inhibitory) processes medially. This establishment of neuropil excitatory-inhibitory structure largely precedes dendritic arborization of primary motor neurons, suggesting that the structured neuropil could provide a framework for the development of E/I balance at the cellular level. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1649-1667, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Voltage-gated Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 (L-type) Ca2+ channels regulate neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory. Densin-180 (densin) is an excitatory synaptic protein that promotes Ca2+-dependent facilitation of voltage-gated Cav1.3 Ca2+ channels in transfected cells. Mice lacking densin (densin KO) exhibit defects in synaptic plasticity, spatial memory, and increased anxiety-related behaviors-phenotypes that more closely match those in mice lacking Cav1.2 than Cav1.3. Therefore, we investigated the functional impact of densin on Cav1.2. We report that densin is an essential regulator of Cav1.2 in neurons, but has distinct modulatory effects compared with its regulation of Cav1.3. Densin binds to the N-terminal domain of Cav1.2, but not that of Cav1.3, and increases Cav1.2 currents in transfected cells and in neurons. In transfected cells, densin accelerates the forward trafficking of Cav1.2 channels without affecting their endocytosis. Consistent with a role for densin in increasing the number of postsynaptic Cav1.2 channels, overexpression of densin increases the clustering of Cav1.2 in dendrites of hippocampal neurons in culture. Compared with wild-type mice, the cell surface levels of Cav1.2 in the brain, as well as Cav1.2 current density and signaling to the nucleus, are reduced in neurons from densin KO mice. We conclude that densin is an essential regulator of neuronal Cav1 channels and ensures efficient Cav1.2 Ca2+ signaling at excitatory synapses.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The number and localization of voltage-gated Cav Ca2+ channels are crucial determinants of neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission. We report that the protein densin-180 is highly enriched at excitatory synapses in the brain and enhances the cell surface trafficking and postsynaptic localization of Cav1.2 L-type Ca2+ channels in neurons. This interaction promotes coupling of Cav1.2 channels to activity-dependent gene transcription. Our results reveal a mechanism that may contribute to the roles of Cav1.2 in regulating cognition and mood.