Injury, inflammation and nerve damage initiate a wide variety of cellular and molecular processes that culminate in hyperexcitation of sensory nerves, which underlies chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Using behavioral readouts of pain hypersensitivity induced by Angiotensin II (Ang II) injection into mouse hindpaws, our study shows that activation of the type 2 Ang II receptor (AT2R) and the cell damage-sensing ion channel TRPA1 are required for peripheral mechanical pain sensitization induced by Ang II in male and female mice. However, we show that AT2R is not expressed in mouse and human dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons. Instead, expression/activation of AT2R on peripheral/skin macrophages (MΦs) constitutes a critical trigger of mouse and human DRG sensory neuron excitation. Ang II-induced peripheral mechanical pain hypersensitivity can be attenuated by chemogenetic depletion of peripheral MΦs. Furthermore, AT2R activation in MΦs triggers production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, which trans-activate TRPA1 on mouse and human DRG sensory neurons, via cysteine-modification of the channel. Our study thus identifies a translatable immune cell-to-sensory neuron signaling crosstalk underlying peripheral nociceptor sensitization. This form of cell-to-cell signaling represents a critical peripheral mechanism for chronic pain, and thus identifies multiple druggable analgesic targets.Significance Statement: Pain is a widespread problem that is under-managed by currently available analgesics. Findings from a recent clinical trial on a type-II angiotensin II receptor (AT2R) antagonist showed effective analgesia for neuropathic pain. AT2R antagonists have been shown to reduce neuropathy-, inflammation- and bone cancer-associated pain in rodents. We report that activation of AT2R in macrophages that infiltrate the site of injury, but not in sensory neurons, triggers an intercellular redox communication with sensory neurons via activation of the cell damage/pain-sensing ion channel TRPA1. This macrophage-to-sensory neuron crosstalk results in peripheral pain sensitization. Our findings provide an evidence-based mechanism underlying the analgesic action of AT2R antagonists, which could accelerate the development of efficacious non-opioid analgesic drugs for multiple pain conditions.
Literature context: rmo Fischer Scientific, A-11055 RRID:AB_2534102 Donkey anti-goat 546 4 Âµg/mL Th
Principal neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) receive powerful ascending excitation and pass on the auditory information with exquisite temporal fidelity. Despite being dominated by ascending inputs, the VCN also receives descending cholinergic connections from olivocochlear neurons and from higher regions in the pontomesencephalic tegmentum. In Mongolian gerbils, acetylcholine acts as an excitatory and modulatory neurotransmitter on VCN neurons, but the anatomical structure of cholinergic innervation of gerbil VCN is not well described. We applied fluorescent immunohistochemical staining to elucidate the development and the cellular localization of presynaptic and postsynaptic components of the cholinergic system in the VCN of the Mongolian gerbil. We found that cholinergic fibers (stained with antibodies against the vesicular acetylcholine transporter) were present before hearing onset at P5, but innervation density increased in animals after P10. Early in development cholinergic fibers invaded the VCN from the medial side, spread along the perimeter and finally innervated all parts of the nucleus only after the onset of hearing. Cholinergic fibers ran in a rostro-caudal direction within the nucleus and formed en-passant swellings in the neuropil between principal neurons. Nicotinic and muscarinic receptors were expressed differentially in the VCN, with nicotinic receptors being mostly expressed in dendritic areas while muscarinic receptors were located predominantly in somatic membranes. These anatomical data support physiological indications that cholinergic innervation plays a role in modulating information processing in the cochlear nucleus.
Literature context: nos. A11055 and A10042; RRIDs: AB_2534102 and AB_2534017; Invitrogen, Car
Ovarian development requires coordinate communications among oocytes, granulosa cells, and theca cells. Two Hedgehog (Hh) pathway ligands, Desert hedgehog (Dhh) and Indian hedgehog (Ihh), are produced by the granulosa cells and work together to regulate theca cell specification and development. Mice lacking both Dhh and Ihh had loss of normal ovarian function, which raised the question of which biological actions are specifically controlled by each ligand during folliculogenesis. By comparing the reproductive fitness, hormonal profiles, and ovarian transcriptomes among control, Dhh single-knockout (KO), Ihh KO, and Dhh/Ihh double-knockout (DKO) mice, we examined the specific roles of Dhh and Ihh in these processes. Dhh/Ihh DKO female mice were infertile because of a lack of theca cells and their steroid product androgen. Although Dhh and Ihh KO mice were fertile with normal folliculogenesis, they had decreased androgen production and alterations in their ovarian transcriptomes. Absence of Ihh led to aberrant steroidogenesis and elevated inflammation responses, which were not found in Dhh KO mouse ovaries, implicating that IHH has a greater impact than DHH on the activation of the Hh signaling pathway in the ovary. Our findings provide insight into not only how the Hh pathway influences folliculogenesis but also the distinct and overlapping roles of Dhh and Ihh in supporting ovarian development.
Literature context: mo Fisher Scientific RRID:AB_2534102 Mouse Total STAT3 Cell Signalin
We investigated relationships among immune, metabolic, and sleep abnormalities in mice with non-metastatic mammary cancer. Tumor-bearing mice displayed interleukin-6 (IL-6)-mediated peripheral inflammation, coincident with altered hepatic glucose processing and sleep. Tumor-bearing mice were hyperphagic, had reduced serum leptin concentrations, and enhanced sensitivity to exogenous ghrelin. We tested whether these phenotypes were driven by inflammation using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against IL-6; despite the reduction in IL-6 signaling, metabolic and sleep abnormalities persisted. We next investigated neural populations coupling metabolism and sleep, and observed altered activity within lateral-hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin (HO) neurons. We used a dual HO-receptor antagonist to test whether increased HO signaling was causing metabolic abnormalities. This approach rescued metabolic abnormalities and enhanced sleep quality in tumor-bearing mice. Peripheral sympathetic denervation prevented tumor-induced increases in serum glucose. Our results link metabolic and sleep abnormalities via the HO system, and provide evidence that central neuromodulators contribute to tumor-induced changes in metabolism.
Literature context: 11055, RRID:AB_2534102 anti mouse 567 Life Technology
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive degeneration of midbrain neurons (MBNs). Recent evidence suggests contribution of the adaptive immune system in PD. Here, we show a role for human T lymphocytes as cell death inducers of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived MBNs in sporadic PD. Higher Th17 frequencies were found in the blood of PD patients and increased numbers of T lymphocytes were detected in postmortem PD brain tissues. We modeled this finding using autologous co-cultures of activated T lymphocytes and iPSC-derived MBNs of sporadic PD patients and controls. After co-culture with T lymphocytes or the addition of IL-17, PD iPSC-derived MBNs underwent increased neuronal death driven by upregulation of IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) and NFκB activation. Blockage of IL-17 or IL-17R, or the addition of the FDA-approved anti-IL-17 antibody, secukinumab, rescued the neuronal death. Our findings indicate a critical role for IL-17-producing T lymphocytes in sporadic PD.
Literature context: Fisher Scientific Cat# A-11055, RRID:AB_2534102 Bacterial and Virus Strains
Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic assemblies of mRNPs stalled in translation initiation. They are induced by various stress conditions, including exposure to the environmental toxin and carcinogen arsenic. While perturbed SG turnover is linked to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, the molecular mechanisms underlying SG formation and turnover are still poorly understood. Here, we show that ZFAND1 is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of SG clearance. ZFAND1 interacts with two key factors of protein degradation, the 26S proteasome and the ubiquitin-selective segregase p97, and recruits them to arsenite-induced SGs. In the absence of ZFAND1, SGs lack the 26S proteasome and p97, accumulate defective ribosomal products, and persist after arsenite removal, indicating their transformation into aberrant, disease-linked SGs. Accordingly, ZFAND1 depletion is epistatic to the expression of pathogenic mutant p97 with respect to SG clearance, suggesting that ZFAND1 function is relevant to the multisystem degenerative disorder IBMPFD/ALS.
Literature context: ; Invitrogen, Catalog #A-11055; RRID:AB_2534102). Sections were mounted on slid
Astrocyte-derived factors can control synapse formation and functions, making astrocytes an attractive target for regulating neuronal circuits and associated behaviors. Abnormal astrocyte-neuronal interactions are also implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases associated with impaired learning and memory. However, little is known about astrocyte-mediated mechanisms that regulate learning and memory. Here, we propose astrocytic ephrin-B1 as a regulator of synaptogenesis in adult hippocampus and mouse learning behaviors. We found that astrocyte-specific ablation of ephrin-B1 in male mice triggers an increase in the density of immature dendritic spines and excitatory synaptic sites in the adult CA1 hippocampus. However, the prevalence of immature dendritic spines is associated with decreased evoked postsynaptic firing responses in CA1 pyramidal neurons, suggesting impaired maturation of these newly formed and potentially silent synapses or increased excitatory drive on the inhibitory neurons resulting in the overall decreased postsynaptic firing. Nevertheless, astrocyte-specific ephrin-B1 knock-out male mice exhibit normal acquisition of fear memory but enhanced contextual fear memory recall. In contrast, overexpression of astrocytic ephrin-B1 in the adult CA1 hippocampus leads to the loss of dendritic spines, reduced excitatory input, and impaired contextual memory retention. Our results suggest that astrocytic ephrin-B1 may compete with neuronal ephrin-B1 and mediate excitatory synapse elimination through its interactions with neuronal EphB receptors. Indeed, a deletion of neuronal EphB receptors impairs the ability of astrocytes expressing functional ephrin-B1 to engulf synaptosomes in vitro Our findings demonstrate that astrocytic ephrin-B1 regulates long-term contextual memory by restricting new synapse formation in the adult hippocampus.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT These studies address a gap in our knowledge of astrocyte-mediated regulation of learning and memory by unveiling a new role for ephrin-B1 in astrocytes and elucidating new mechanisms by which astrocytes regulate learning. Our studies explore the mechanisms underlying astrocyte regulation of hippocampal circuit remodeling during learning using new genetic tools that target ephrin-B signaling in astrocytes in vivo On a subcellular level, astrocytic ephrin-B1 may compete with neuronal ephrin-B1 and trigger astrocyte-mediated elimination of EphB receptor-containing synapses. Given the role EphB receptors play in neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases, these findings establish a foundation for future studies of astrocyte-mediated synaptogenesis in clinically relevant conditions that can help to guide the development of clinical applications for a variety of neurological disorders.
Literature context: at #A11039; RRID:AB_2534102 Alexa 488, sheep Invitrogen Cat
Pyramidal neurons express rich repertoires of leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing adhesion molecules with similar synaptogenic activity in culture. The in vivo relevance of this molecular diversity is unclear. We show that hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons express multiple synaptogenic LRR proteins that differentially distribute to the major excitatory inputs on their apical dendrites. At Schaffer collateral (SC) inputs, FLRT2, LRRTM1, and Slitrk1 are postsynaptically localized and differentially regulate synaptic structure and function. FLRT2 controls spine density, whereas LRRTM1 and Slitrk1 exert opposing effects on synaptic vesicle distribution at the active zone. All LRR proteins differentially affect synaptic transmission, and their combinatorial loss results in a cumulative phenotype. At temporoammonic (TA) inputs, LRRTM1 is absent; FLRT2 similarly controls functional synapse number, whereas Slitrk1 function diverges to regulate postsynaptic AMPA receptor density. Thus, LRR proteins differentially control synaptic architecture and function and act in input-specific combinations and a context-dependent manner to specify synaptic properties.
Literature context: hermo Fisher Scientific A11055; RRID:AB_2534102 Donkey anti-Goat IgG (H+L) Cros
Upon stress, cytoplasmic mRNA is sequestered to insoluble ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules, such as the stress granule (SG). Partially due to the belief that translationally suppressed mRNAs are recruited to SGs in bulk, stress-induced dynamic redistribution of mRNA has not been thoroughly characterized. Here, we report that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress targets only a small subset of translationally suppressed mRNAs into the insoluble RNP granule fraction (RG). This subset, characterized by extended length and adenylate-uridylate (AU)-rich motifs, is highly enriched with genes critical for cell survival and proliferation. This pattern of RG targeting was conserved for two other stress types, heat shock and arsenite toxicity, which induce distinct responses in the total cytoplasmic transcriptome. Nevertheless, stress-specific RG-targeting motifs, such as guanylate-cytidylate (GC)-rich motifs in heat shock, were also identified. Previously underappreciated, transcriptome profiling in the RG may contribute to understanding human diseases associated with RNP dysfunction, such as cancer and neurodegeneration.
Literature context: DonkeyGoatIgG(HÂ +Â L)488Life TechA11055DonkeyGoatIgG(HÂ +Â L)350Life Tech
The retina is a thin neural tissue sitting on the backside of the eye, composed of light-sensing cells, interneurons, and output ganglion neurons. The latter send electrical signals to higher visual centers in the brain. Transgenic mouse lines are becoming one of the most valuable mammalian animal models for the study of visual signal processing within the retina. Especially, the generation of Cre recombinase transgenic mouse lines provides a powerful tool for genetic manipulation. A key step for the utilization of transgenic lines is the characterization of their transgene expression patterns in the retina. Here we describe a standard protocol for characterizing the expression pattern of the Cre recombinase or fluorescent proteins in the retina with an immunohistochemical approach.
Literature context: trogen Cat# A-11055, RRID:AB_2534102 Alexa donkey anti-rabbit 555 In
Diversified neurons are essential for sensorimotor function, but whether astrocytes become specialized to optimize circuit performance remains unclear. Large fast α-motor neurons (FαMNs) of spinal cord innervate fast-twitch muscles that generate peak strength. We report that ventral horn astrocytes express the inward-rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 (a.k.a. Kcnj10) around MNs in a VGLUT1-dependent manner. Loss of astrocyte-encoded Kir4.1 selectively altered FαMN size and function and led to reduced peak strength. Overexpression of Kir4.1 in astrocytes was sufficient to increase MN size through activation of the PI3K/mTOR/pS6 pathway. Kir4.1 was downregulated cell autonomously in astrocytes derived from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with SOD1 mutation. However, astrocyte Kir4.1 was dispensable for FαMN survival even in the mutant SOD1 background. These findings show that astrocyte Kir4.1 is essential for maintenance of peak strength and suggest that Kir4.1 downregulation might uncouple symptoms of muscle weakness from MN cell death in diseases like ALS.
Literature context: RRID:AB_2534102 Donkey anti-Goat, Alexa Fluro 5
During development, progenitors progress through transition states. The cardiac epicardium contains progenitors of essential non-cardiomyocytes. The Hippo pathway, a kinase cascade that inhibits the Yap transcriptional co-factor, controls organ size in developing hearts. Here, we investigated Hippo kinases Lats1 and Lats2 in epicardial diversification. Epicardial-specific deletion of Lats1/2 was embryonic lethal, and mutant embryos had defective coronary vasculature remodeling. Single-cell RNA sequencing revealed that Lats1/2 mutant cells failed to activate fibroblast differentiation but remained in an intermediate cell state with both epicardial and fibroblast characteristics. Lats1/2 mutant cells displayed an arrested developmental trajectory with persistence of epicardial markers and expanded expression of Yap targets Dhrs3, an inhibitor of retinoic acid synthesis, and Dpp4, a protease that modulates extracellular matrix (ECM) composition. Genetic and pharmacologic manipulation revealed that Yap inhibits fibroblast differentiation, prolonging a subepicardial-like cell state, and promotes expression of matricellular factors, such as Dpp4, that define ECM characteristics.
Literature context: 88 Thermo Fisher Cat# A-11055; RRID:AB_2534102 donkey anti-goat; Alexa Fluor 5
Basal cells (BCs) are p63-expressing multipotent progenitors of skin, tracheoesophageal and urinary tracts. p63 is abundant in developing airways; however, it remains largely unclear how embryonic p63+ cells contribute to the developing and postnatal respiratory tract epithelium, and ultimately how they relate to adult BCs. Using lineage-tracing and functional approaches in vivo, we show that p63+ cells arising from the lung primordium are initially multipotent progenitors of airway and alveolar lineages but later become restricted proximally to generate the tracheal adult stem cell pool. In intrapulmonary airways, these cells are maintained immature to adulthood in bronchi, establishing a rare p63+Krt5- progenitor cell population that responds to H1N1 virus-induced severe injury. Intriguingly, this pool includes a CC10 lineage-labeled p63+Krt5- cell subpopulation required for a full H1N1-response. These data elucidate key aspects in the establishment of regionally distinct adult stem cell pools in the respiratory system, potentially with relevance to other organs.
Literature context: t IgG Invitrogen Cat# A-11055; RRID:AB_2534102 Alexa Fluor 594 Donkey anti-goa
We show that the loss or gain of transcription factor programs that govern embryonic cell-fate specification is associated with a form of tumor plasticity characterized by the acquisition of alternative cell fates normally characteristic of adjacent organs. In human non-small cell lung cancers, downregulation of the lung lineage-specifying TF NKX2-1 is associated with tumors bearing features of various gut tissues. Loss of Nkx2-1 from murine alveolar, but not airway, epithelium results in conversion of lung cells to gastric-like cells. Superimposing oncogenic Kras activation enables further plasticity in both alveolar and airway epithelium, producing tumors that adopt midgut and hindgut fates. Conversely, coupling Nkx2-1 loss with foregut lineage-specifying SOX2 overexpression drives the formation of squamous cancers with features of esophageal differentiation. These findings demonstrate that elements of pathologic tumor plasticity mirror the normal developmental history of organs in that cancer cells acquire cell fates associated with developmentally related neighboring organs.
Literature context: Fisher Scientific Cat# A-11055, RRID: AB_2534102Secondary antibodyDonkey anti-Go
Mutations in RAB39B are a known cause of X-linked early onset Parkinson's disease. Isogenic human embryonic stem cell lines carrying two independent deletions of RAB39B were generated using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing tool. The deletions were confirmed by PCR and direct sequence analysis in two edited stem cell lines. Both cell lines showed pluripotency and displayed a normal karyotype. Further, they were able to form embryoid bodies in vitro, and express markers indicative of differentiation to the three germ layers.
Literature context: exa 488 Thermo Fisher ID_source:RRID:AB_2534102 Dilution: 1:1000
The rodent olfactory bulb incorporates thousands of newly generated inhibitory neurons daily throughout adulthood, but the role of adult neurogenesis in olfactory processing is not fully understood. Here we adopted a genetic method to inducibly suppress adult neurogenesis and investigated its effect on behavior and bulbar activity. Mice without young adult-born neurons (ABNs) showed normal ability in discriminating very different odorants but were impaired in fine discrimination. Furthermore, two-photon calcium imaging of mitral cells (MCs) revealed that the ensemble odor representations of similar odorants were more ambiguous in the ablation animals. This increased ambiguity was primarily due to a decrease in MC suppressive responses. Intriguingly, these deficits in MC encoding were only observed during task engagement but not passive exposure. Our results indicate that young olfactory ABNs are essential for the enhancement of MC pattern separation in a task engagement-dependent manner, potentially functioning as a gateway for top-down modulation.
Literature context: ntific Cat# A-11055 also A11055 RRID:AB_2534102 Anti-guinea pig IgG (H+L) Donke
Type II spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are small caliber, unmyelinated afferents that extend dendritic arbors hundreds of microns along the cochlear spiral, contacting many outer hair cells (OHCs). Despite these many contacts, type II afferents are insensitive to sound and only weakly depolarized by glutamate release from OHCs. Recent studies suggest that type II afferents may be cochlear nociceptors, and can be excited by ATP released during tissue damage, by analogy to somatic pain-sensing C-fibers. The present work compares the expression patterns among cochlear type II afferents of two genes found in C-fibers: calcitonin-related polypeptide alpha (Calca/Cgrpα), specific to pain-sensing C-fibers, and tyrosine hydroxylase (Th), specific to low-threshold mechanoreceptive C-fibers, which was shown previously to be a selective biomarker of type II versus type I cochlear afferents (Vyas et al., ). Whole-mount cochlear preparations from 3-week- to 2-month-old CGRPα-EGFP (GENSAT) mice showed expression of Cgrpα in a subset of SGNs with type II-like peripheral dendrites extending beneath OHCs. Double labeling with other molecular markers confirmed that the labeled SGNs were neither type I SGNs nor olivocochlear efferents. Cgrpα starts to express in type II SGNs before hearing onset, but the expression level declines in the adult. The expression patterns of Cgrpα and Th formed opposing gradients, with Th being preferentially expressed in apical and Cgrpα in basal type II afferent neurons, indicating heterogeneity among type II afferent neurons. The expression of Th and Cgrpα was not mutually exclusive and co-expression could be observed, most abundantly in the middle cochlear turn.
Literature context: ey anti-Goat (Cat# A11055, RRID AB_10564074). For fluorescence, all section
The onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with subtle pathological changes including increased intracellular expression of amyloid-β (Aβ). A structure affected particularly early in the course of AD is the entorhinal cortex, where neuronal death in layer II is observed already at initial stages. Neurons in EC-layer II, particularly those that express the protein Reelin, give rise to projections to the hippocampal dentate gyrus and this projection shows severe loss of synaptic contacts during early-stage AD. Given this anatomical specificity, we sought to determine whether increased intracellular expression of Aβ is selectively associated with Reelin-immunoreactive neurons in layer II of the entorhinal cortex. Here we report that in a transgenic rat model, which mimics the onset and distribution of extracellular amyloid deposits seen in human AD subjects, expression of intracellular Aβ in entorhinal layer II selectively occurs in Reelin-immunoreactive neurons during the early, pre-plaque stage. This Reelin-Aβ association is also present in human subjects with AD-related pathological changes, even in early disease stages. These findings strongly indicate that Reelin-immunoreactive neurons in entorhinal layer II play a crucial role during the initial stages of AD, and may therefore lead to refined hypotheses concerning the origin of this devastating condition.
Literature context: Donkey; polyclonal IF 1:400 RRID:AB_2534102
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is believed to play a critical role in stress-induced synaptic formation and modification. In the current study, we explored the mechanisms underlying CRH modulation of synaptic formation in the hippocampus by using various models in vitro. In cultured hippocampal slices, CRH treatment decreased synapsin I and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) levels via CRH receptor type 1 (CRHR1). In isolated hippocampal neurons, however, it increased synapsin I-labeled presynaptic terminals and PSD95-labeled postsynaptic terminals via CRHR1. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of CRH on synapsin I-labeled and PSD95-labeled terminals occurred in the model of neuron-glia cocultures. These effects were prevented by CRHR1 antagonist. Moreover, treatment of the neurons with the media of CRH-treated glia led to a decrease in synaptic terminal formation. The media collected from CRH-treated glial cells with CRHR1 knockdown did not show an inhibitory effect on synaptic terminals in hippocampal neurons. Unbiased cytokine array coupled with confirmatory enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that CRH suppressed C-X-C motif chemokine 5 (CXCL5) production in glia via CRHR1. Administration of CXCL5 reversed the inhibitory effects of CRH-treated glia culture media on synaptic formation. Our data suggest that CRH suppresses synapse formation through inhibition of CXCL5 secretion from glia in the hippocampus. Our study indicates that glia-neuron intercommunication is one of the mechanisms responsible for neuronal circuit remodeling during stress.
Literature context: Goat IgG-Alexa Fluor 488 (RRID:AB_2534102) Donkey Thermo Fisher Scientifi
The blood-testis barrier (BTB), conferred by Sertoli cells in the mammalian testis, is an important ultrastructure that supports spermatogenesis. Studies using animal models have shown that a disruption of the BTB leads to meiotic arrest, causing defects in spermatogenesis and male infertility. To better understand the regulation of BTB dynamics, we report findings herein to understand the role of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), a downstream signaling protein of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), in promoting BTB disruption in the testis in vivo, making the barrier "leaky." Overexpression of wild-type rpS6 (rpS6-WT, the full-length cDNA cloned into the mammalian expression vector pCI-neo) and a constitutively active quadruple phosphomimetic mutant cloned into pCI-neo (p-rpS6-MT) vs. control (empty pCI-neo vector) was achieved by transfecting adult rat testes with the corresponding plasmid DNA using a Polyplus in vivo-jetPEI transfection reagent. On the basis of an in vivo functional BTB integrity assay, p-rpS6-MT was found to induce BTB disruption better than rpS6-WT did (and no effects in empty vector control), leading to defects in spermatogenesis, including loss of spermatid polarity and failure in the transport of cells (e.g., spermatids) and organelles (e.g., phagosomes), to be followed by germ exfoliation. More important, rpS6-WT and p-rpS6-MT exert their disruptive effects through changes in the organization of actin- and microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeletons, which are mediated by changes in the spatiotemporal expression of actin- and MT-based binding and regulatory proteins. In short, mTORC1/rpS6 signaling complex is a regulator of spermatogenesis and BTB by modulating the organization of the actin- and MT-based cytoskeletons.
Literature context: 11055 1:500 Donkey anti-goat RRID:AB_2534102
Ghrelin and its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a), are present in cardiac tissue. Activation of GHSR1a by ghrelin promotes cardiomyocyte contractility and survival, and changes in myocardial GHSR1a and circulating ghrelin track with end-stage heart failure, leading to the hypothesis that GHSR1a is a biomarker for heart failure. We hypothesized that GHSR1a could also be a biomarker for diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). We used two models of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DCM: group 1, adult mice treated with 35 mg/kg STZ for 3 days; and group 2, neonatal mice treated with 70 mg/kg STZ at days 2 and 5 after birth. In group 1, mild fasting hyperglycemia (11 mM) was first detected 8 weeks after the last injection, and in group 2, severe fasting hyperglycemia (20 mM) was first detected 1 to 3 weeks after the last injection. In group 1, left ventricular function was slightly impaired as measured by echocardiography, and Western blot analysis showed a significant decrease in myocardial GHSR1a. In group 2, GHSR1a levels were also decreased as assessed by Cy5-ghrelin(1-19) fluorescence microscopy, and there was a significant negative correlation between GHSR1a levels and glucose tolerance. There were significant positive correlations between GHSR1a and ghrelin and between GHSR1a and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2a (SERCA2a), a marker for contractility, but not between GHSR1a and B-type natriuretic peptide, a marker for heart failure. We conclude that the subclinical stage of DCM is accompanied by alterations in the myocardial ghrelin-GHSR1a system, suggesting the possibility of a biomarker for DCM.
Literature context: a Fluor 488 (Invitrogen A11055, RRID:AB_2534102). The primary antibodies have b
The mechanisms that link diet and body weight are not fully understood. A diet high in fat often leads to obesity, and this in part is the consequence of diet-induced injury to specific hypothalamic nuclei. It has been suggested that a diet high in fat leads to cell loss in the lateral hypothalamus, which contains specific populations of neurons that are essential for regulating energy homoeostasis; however, we do not know which cell types are affected by the diet. We studied the possibility that high-fat diet leads to a reduction in orexin-A/hypocretin-1 (Hcrt1) and/or melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) immunoreactivity in the lateral hypothalamus. We quantified immuno-labeled Hcrt1 and MCH cells in brain sections of mice fed a diet high in fat for up to 12 weeks starting at 4 weeks of age and found that this diet did not modify the number of Hcrt1- or MCH-immunoreactive neurons. By contrast, there were fewer Hcrt1- (but not MCH-) immunoreactive cells in genetically obese db/db mice compared to wild-type mice. Non-obese, heterozygous db/+ mice also had fewer Hcrt1-immunoreactive cells. Differences in the number of Hcrt1-immunoreactive cells were only a function of the db genotype but not of diet or body weight. Our findings show that the lateral hypothalamus is affected differently in the db genotype and in diet-induced obesity, and support the idea that not all hypothalamic neurons involved in energy balance regulation are sensitive to the effects of diet.
Literature context: RRID:AB_2534102 Secondary antibody Donkey anti-
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Mutations in the FHL2 (Four and a half LIM domains protein 2) gene are associated with cardiomyopathy in patients. Here, we generated two homozygous knockout lines using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated ablation in a human embryonic stem cell (hESC) WA09 line. These knockout lines exhibit a normal karyotype without expressing FHL2 protein, while maintaining pluripotency and differentiation properties. These isogenic mutation lines will be provided as a disease model for cardiomyopathy studies and drug screening.
Literature context: :200; Thermo Fisher scientific, RRID:AB_2534102), or Alexa Fluor647 (blue fluor
Inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) 4.1 channels in astrocytes regulate neuronal excitability by mediating spatial potassium buffering. Although dysfunction of astrocytic Kir4.1 channels is implicated in the development of epileptic seizures, the functional mechanisms of Kir4.1 channels in modulating epileptogenesis remain unknown. We herein evaluated the effects of Kir4.1 inhibition (blockade and knockdown) on expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a key modulator of epileptogenesis, in the primary cultures of mouse astrocytes. For blockade of Kir4.1 channels, we tested several antidepressant agents which reportedly bound to and blocked Kir4.1 channels in a subunit-specific manner. Treatment of astrocytes with fluoxetine enhanced BDNF mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent manner and increased the BDNF protein level. Other antidepressants (e.g., sertraline and imipramine) also increased the expression of BDNF mRNA with relative potencies similar to those for inhibition of Kir4.1 channels. In addition, suppression of Kir4.1 expression by the transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Kir4.1 significantly increased the mRNA and protein levels of BDNF. The BDNF induction by Kir4.1 siRNA transfection was suppressed by the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126, but not by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 or the JNK inhibitor SP600125. The present results demonstrated that inhibition of Kir4.1 channels facilitates BDNF expression in astrocytes primarily by activating the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway, which may be linked to the development of epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders.
Literature context: tific Cat# A-11055 also A11055; RRID:AB_2534102 LM agarose Promega Cat# V2111;
Stem cells must balance self-renewal and differentiation; thus, their activities are precisely controlled. In plants, the control circuits that underlie division and differentiation within meristems have been well studied, but those that underlie feedback on meristems from lateral organs remain largely unknown. Here we show that long-distance auxin transport mediates this feedback in a non-cell-autonomous manner. A low-auxin zone is associated with the shoot apical meristem (SAM) organization center, and auxin levels negatively affect SAM size. Using computational model simulations, we show that auxin transport from lateral organs can inhibit auxin transport from the SAM through an auxin transport switch and thus maintain SAM auxin homeostasis and SAM size. Genetic and microsurgical analyses confirmed the model's predictions. In addition, the model explains temporary change in SAM size of yabby mutants. Our study suggests that the canalization-based auxin flux can be widely adapted as a feedback control mechanism in plants.
Literature context: RRID:AB_2534102 Secondary antibodies Donkey ant
Glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE) plays a critical role in glycogenolysis. Mutations in the GDE gene are associated with a metabolic disease known as glycogen storage disease type III (GSDIII). We generated a mutant GDE human embryonic stem cell line, WAe001-A-14, using the CRISPR/Cas9 editing system. This cell line contains a 24-nucleotide deletion within exon-13 of GDE, resulting in 8 amino acids (TRLGISSL) missing of the GDE protein from amino acid position 567 to 575. The WAe001-A-14 cell line maintains typical stem cell morphology, pluripotency and in vitro differentiation potential, and a normal karyotype.
Literature context: Fisher Scientific Cat# A-11055; RRID:AB_2534102 Donkey anti-rabbit IgG Cy3 Jack
At the optic chiasm choice point, ipsilateral retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are repelled away from the midline by guidance cues, including Ephrin-B2 and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh). Although guidance cues are normally produced by cells residing at the choice point, the mRNA for Shh is not found at the optic chiasm. Here we show that Shh protein is instead produced by contralateral RGCs at the retina, transported anterogradely along the axon, and accumulates at the optic chiasm to repel ipsilateral RGCs. In vitro, contralateral RGC axons, which secrete Shh, repel ipsilateral RGCs in a Boc- and Smo-dependent manner. Finally, knockdown of Shh in the contralateral retina causes a decrease in the proportion of ipsilateral RGCs in a non-cell-autonomous manner. These findings reveal a role for axon-axon interactions in ipsilateral RGC guidance, and they establish that remotely produced cues can act at axon guidance midline choice points.
Literature context: a Fluor 488 Invitrogen A-11055, RRID:AB_2534102 Alexa FluorÂ® 488 AffiniPure F(a
X-linked diseases typically exhibit more severe phenotypes in males than females. In contrast, protocadherin 19 (PCDH19) mutations cause epilepsy in heterozygous females but spare hemizygous males. The cellular mechanism responsible for this unique pattern of X-linked inheritance is unknown. We show that PCDH19 contributes to adhesion specificity in a combinatorial manner such that mosaic expression of Pcdh19 in heterozygous female mice leads to striking sorting between cells expressing wild-type (WT) PCDH19 and null PCDH19 in the developing cortex, correlating with altered network activity. Complete deletion of PCDH19 in heterozygous mice abolishes abnormal cell sorting and restores normal network activity. Furthermore, we identify variable cortical malformations in PCDH19 epilepsy patients. Our results highlight the role of PCDH19 in determining cell adhesion affinities during cortical development and the way segregation of WT and null PCDH19 cells is associated with the unique X-linked inheritance of PCDH19 epilepsy.
In the mammalian vestibular periphery, electrical activation of the efferent vestibular system (EVS) has two effects on afferent activity: 1) it increases background afferent discharge and 2) decreases afferent sensitivity to rotational stimuli. Although the cellular mechanisms underlying these two contrasting afferent responses remain obscure, we postulated that the reduction in afferent sensitivity was attributed, in part, to the activation of α9- containing nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (α9*nAChRs) and small-conductance potassium channels (SK) in vestibular type II hair cells, as demonstrated in the peripheral vestibular system of other vertebrates. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of the predominant EVS neurotransmitter ACh on vestibular type II hair cells from wild-type (wt) and α9-subunit nAChR knockout (α9-/-) mice. Immunostaining for choline acetyltransferase revealed there were no obvious gross morphological differences in the peripheral EVS innervation among any of these strains. ACh application onto wt type II hair cells, at resting potentials, produced a fast inward current followed by a slower outward current, resulting in membrane hyperpolarization and decreased membrane resistance. Hyperpolarization and decreased resistance were due to gating of SK channels. Consistent with activation of α9*nAChRs and SK channels, these ACh-sensitive currents were antagonized by the α9*nAChR blocker strychnine and SK blockers apamin and tamapin. Type II hair cells from α9-/- mice, however, failed to respond to ACh at all. These results confirm the critical importance of α9nAChRs in efferent modulation of mammalian type II vestibular hair cells. Application of exogenous ACh reduces electrical impedance, thereby decreasing type II hair cell sensitivity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Expression of α9 nicotinic subunit was crucial for fast cholinergic modulation of mammalian vestibular type II hair cells. These findings show a multifaceted efferent mechanism for altering hair cell membrane potential and decreasing membrane resistance that should reduce sensitivity to hair bundle displacements.
Literature context: 488 Thermo Fisher Cat#A-11055; RRID:AB_2534102 Donkey anti-Goat IgG, Alexa Flu
CD4+ T cells orchestrate immune responses and destruction of allogeneic organ transplants, but how this process is regulated on a transcriptional level remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) was a key transcriptional determinant controlling T cell responses during transplantation. IRF4 deletion in mice resulted in progressive establishment of CD4+ T cell dysfunction and long-term allograft survival. Mechanistically, IRF4 repressed PD-1, Helios, and other molecules associated with T cell dysfunction. In the absence of IRF4, chromatin accessibility and binding of Helios at PD-1 cis-regulatory elements were increased, resulting in enhanced PD-1 expression and CD4+ T cell dysfunction. The dysfunctional state of Irf4-deficient T cells was initially reversible by PD-1 ligand blockade, but it progressively developed into an irreversible state. Hence, IRF4 controls a core regulatory circuit of CD4+ T cell dysfunction, and targeting IRF4 represents a potential therapeutic strategy for achieving transplant acceptance.
Literature context: RRID:AB_2534102 Secondary antibody Donkey anti
The human SMO protein encoded by the smoothened (SMO) gene acts as a positive mediator for Hedgehog signaling. This pathway regulates many cellular activities, developmental morphogenesis, and tumorigenesis. Using CRISPR/Cas9 to edit human embryonic stem cell line WA01 (H1), we established a SMO mutant cell line (WAe001-A-16). This cell line has a 40bp homozygous deletion in exon 2 of SMO leading to a shift in the open reading frame and early termination at amino acid position 287. WAe001-A-16 maintains a normal karyotype, parental cell morphology, pluripotency markers, and the capacity to differentiate into all three germline layers.
Literature context: or 488 ThermoFisher Cat#A11055; RRID:AB_2534102 Goat anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) High
Methods for the targeted disruption of protein function have revolutionized science and greatly expedited the systematic characterization of genes. Two main approaches are currently used to disrupt protein function: DNA knockout and RNA interference, which act at the genome and mRNA level, respectively. A method that directly alters endogenous protein levels is currently not available. Here, we present Trim-Away, a technique to degrade endogenous proteins acutely in mammalian cells without prior modification of the genome or mRNA. Trim-Away harnesses the cellular protein degradation machinery to remove unmodified native proteins within minutes of application. This rapidity minimizes the risk that phenotypes are compensated and that secondary, non-specific defects accumulate over time. Because Trim-Away utilizes antibodies, it can be applied to a wide range of target proteins using off-the-shelf reagents. Trim-Away allows the study of protein function in diverse cell types, including non-dividing primary cells where genome- and RNA-targeting methods are limited.
Literature context: Fluor 488 donkey anti-goat IgG (RRID:AB_2534102; 1 : 1000; Thermo Fisher Scient
Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) express two members of the classical protein kinase C (cPKC) subfamily, namely, PKCα and PKCγ. Previous studies on PKCγ knockout (KO) mice have revealed a critical role of PKCγ in the pruning of climbing fibers (CFs) from PCs during development. The question remains as to why only PKCγ and not PKCα is involved in CF synapse elimination from PCs. To address this question, we assessed the expression levels of PKCγ and PKCα in wild-type (WT) and PKCγ KO PCs using PC-specific quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunohistochemical analysis. The results revealed that the vast majority of cPKCs in PCs were PKCγ, whereas PKCα accounted for the remaining minimal fraction. The amount of PKCα was not up-regulated in PKCγ KO PCs. Lentiviral expression of PKCα in PKCγ KO PCs resulted in a 10-times increase in the amount of PKCα mRNA in the PKCγ KO PCs, compared to that in WT PCs. Our quantification showed that the expression levels of cPKC mRNA in PKCγ KO PCs increased roughly from 1% to 22% of that in WT PCs solely through PKCα expression. The up-regulation of PKCα in PKCγ KO PCs significantly rescued the impaired CF synapse elimination. Although both PKCα and PKCγ are capable of pruning supernumerary CF synapses from developing PCs, these results suggest that the expression levels of cPKCs in PKCγ KO PCs are too low for CF pruning.
Literature context: at IgG Thermo Fisher Scientific RRID:AB_2534102 Alexa Fluor 594 Donkey anti-Rab
Distinct subtypes of inhibitory interneuron are known to shape diverse rhythmic activities in the cortex, but how they interact to orchestrate specific band activity remains largely unknown. By recording optogenetically tagged interneurons of specific subtypes in the primary visual cortex of behaving mice, we show that spiking of somatostatin (SOM)- and parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons preferentially correlates with cortical beta and gamma band oscillations, respectively. Suppression of SOM cell spiking reduces the spontaneous low-frequency band (<30-Hz) oscillations and selectively reduces visually induced enhancement of beta oscillation. In comparison, suppressing PV cell activity elevates the synchronization of spontaneous activity across a broad frequency range and further precludes visually induced changes in beta and gamma oscillations. Rhythmic activation of SOM and PV cells in the local circuit entrains resonant activity in the narrow 5- to 30-Hz band and the wide 20- to 80-Hz band, respectively. Together, these findings reveal differential and cooperative roles of SOM and PV inhibitory neurons in orchestrating specific cortical oscillations.
Literature context: ) (Cat# A11055, RRID:AB_2534102), 546- (Cat# A11071, RRID: AB_2
Lysosomal proteolysis is essential for the quality control of intracellular components and the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Lysosomal alterations have been implicated as one of the main cellular defects contributing to the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism underlying lysosomal deficits in AD remains poorly understood. Here, we reveal that lysosomal deficits are attributed to retromer dysfunction induced by altered retromer trafficking in the axon of AD-related mutant human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) transgenic (Tg) mouse neurons. We demonstrate that retrograde transport of retromer is impaired, leading to its significant reduction in the soma and abnormal retention within late endosomes in distal axons of mutant hAPP neurons. Therefore, retromer-mediated endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptors (CI-MPR) in the soma is disrupted in mutant hAPP neurons, causing defects in lysosome biogenesis. Such defects result in protease deficiency in lysosomes and impaired lysosomal proteolysis, as evidenced by aberrant accumulation of sequestered substrates within lysosomes. Intriguingly, enhancement of retrograde transport in mutant hAPP neurons facilitates the trafficking of axonal retromer toward the soma and thus enhances protease transport to lysosomes, thereby restoring lysosomal proteolytic activity. Taken together, our study provides new insights into the regulation of retromer trafficking through retrograde axonal transport to fulfil its function in promoting lysosome biogenesis in the soma, suggesting a potential approach for rescuing lysosomal proteolysis deficits in AD.
Literature context: Fisher Scientific Cat#A-11055; RRID:AB_2534102 Donkey anti-goat IgG (H+L) cros
Melanoma is one of the deadliest cancers, yet the cells of origin and mechanisms of tumor initiation remain unclear. The majority of melanomas emerge from clear skin without a precursor lesion, but it is unknown whether these melanomas can arise from melanocyte stem cells (MCSCs). Here we employ mouse models to define the role of MCSCs as melanoma cells of origin, demonstrate that MCSC quiescence acts as a tumor suppressor, and identify the extrinsic environmental and molecular factors required for the critical early steps of melanoma initiation. Specifically, melanomas originate from melanoma-competent MCSCs upon stimulation by UVB, which induces MCSC activation and translocation via an inflammation-dependent process. Moreover, the chromatin-remodeling factor Hmga2 in the skin plays a critical role in UVB-mediated melanomagenesis. These findings delineate melanoma formation from melanoma-competent MCSCs following extrinsic stimuli, and they suggest that abrogation of Hmga2 function in the microenvironment can suppress MCSC-originating cutaneous melanomas.
Literature context: Scientific (Hong Kong) A-11055, RRID:AB_2534102 1/500, IHC
Craniofacial morphogenesis requires proper development of pharyngeal arches and epibranchial placodes. We show that the epibranchial placodes, in addition to giving rise to cranial sensory neurons, generate a novel lineage-related non-neuronal cell population for mouse pharyngeal arch development. Eya1 is essential for the development of epibranchial placodes and proximal pharyngeal arches. We identify an Eya1-Notch regulatory axis that specifies both the neuronal and non-neuronal commitment of the epibranchial placode, where Notch acts downstream of Eya1 and promotes the non-neuronal cell fate. Notch is regulated by the threonine phosphatase activity of Eya1. Eya1 dephosphorylates p-threonine-2122 of the Notch1 intracellular domain (Notch1 ICD), which increases the stability of Notch1 ICD and maintains Notch signaling activity in the non-neuronal epibranchial placodal cells. Our data unveil a more complex differentiation program in epibranchial placodes and an important role for the Eya1-Notch axis in craniofacial morphogenesis.
Literature context: oat 488 [ThermoFisher, A-11055; RRID:AB_2534102], Donkey anti-rat 568 [Abcam, a
Detachment of newborn neurons from the neuroepithelium is required for correct neuronal architecture and functional circuitry. This process, also known as delamination, involves adherens-junction disassembly and acto-myosin-mediated abscission, during which the centrosome is retained while apical/ciliary membranes are shed. Cell-biological mechanisms mediating delamination are, however, poorly understood. Using live-tissue and super-resolution imaging, we uncover a centrosome-nucleated wheel-like microtubule configuration, aligned with the apical actin cable and adherens-junctions within chick and mouse neuroepithelial cells. These microtubules maintain adherens-junctions while actin maintains microtubules, adherens-junctions and apical end-foot dimensions. During neuronal delamination, acto-myosin constriction generates a tunnel-like actin-microtubule configuration through which the centrosome translocates. This movement requires inter-dependent actin and microtubule activity, and we identify drebrin as a potential coordinator of these cytoskeletal dynamics. Furthermore, centrosome compromise revealed that this organelle is required for delamination. These findings identify new cytoskeletal configurations and regulatory relationships that orchestrate neuronal delamination and may inform mechanisms underlying pathological epithelial cell detachment.
Literature context: goat IgG donkey antibody (RRID: AB[lowen]2534102; Invitrogen) and Cy3-conjugated
Because a rank-ordered recruitment of motor units occurs during isometric contraction of jaw-closing muscles, jaw-closing motoneurons (MNs) may be recruited in a manner dependent on their soma sizes or input resistances (IRs). In the dorsolateral part of the trigeminal motor nucleus (dl-TMN) in rats, MNs abundantly express TWIK (two-pore domain weak inwardly rectifying K channel)-related acid-sensitive-K(+) channel (TASK)-1 and TASK3 channels, which determine the IR and resting membrane potential. Here we examined how TASK channels are involved in IR-dependent activation/recruitment of MNs in the rat dl-TMN by using multiple methods. The real-time PCR study revealed that single large MNs (>35 μm) expressed TASK1 and TASK3 mRNAs more abundantly compared with single small MNs (15-20 μm). The immunohistochemistry revealed that TASK1 and TASK3 channels were complementarily distributed in somata and dendrites of MNs, respectively. The density of TASK1 channels seemed to increase with a decrease in soma diameter while there were inverse relationships between the soma size of MNs and IR, resting membrane potential, or spike threshold. Dual whole-cell recordings obtained from smaller and larger MNs revealed that the recruitment of MNs depends on their IRs in response to repetitive stimulation of the presumed Ia afferents. 8-Bromoguanosine-cGMP decreased IRs in small MNs, while it hardly changed those in large MNs, and subsequently decreased the difference in spike-onset latency between the smaller and larger MNs, causing a synchronous activation of MNs. These results suggest that TASK channels play critical roles in rank-ordered recruitment of MNs in the dl-TMN.
Literature context: Life technologies Cat# A11055; RRID:AB_2534102 donkey anti-rabbit IgG-Alexa 64
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses viral replication in HIV-infected individuals but does not eliminate the reservoir of latently infected cells. Recent work identified PD-1+ follicular helper T (Tfh) cells as an important cellular compartment for viral persistence. Here, using ART-treated, SIV-infected rhesus macaques, we show that CTLA-4+PD-1- memory CD4+ T cells, which share phenotypic markers with regulatory T cells, were enriched in SIV DNA in blood, lymph nodes (LN), spleen, and gut, and contained replication-competent and infectious virus. In contrast to PD-1+ Tfh cells, SIV-enriched CTLA-4+PD-1- CD4+ T cells were found outside the B cell follicle of the LN, predicted the size of the persistent viral reservoir during ART, and significantly increased their contribution to the SIV reservoir with prolonged ART-mediated viral suppression. We have shown that CTLA-4+PD-1- memory CD4+ T cells are a previously unrecognized component of the SIV and HIV reservoir that should be therapeutically targeted for a functional HIV-1 cure.
Literature context: er Scientific, cat. no. A11055, RRID:AB_2534102)
Autofluorescence is a problem that interferes with immunofluorescent staining and complicates data analysis. Throughout the mouse embryo, red blood cells naturally fluoresce across multiple wavelengths, spanning the emission and excitation spectra of many commonly used fluorescent reporters, including antibodies, dyes, stains, probes, and transgenic proteins, making it difficult to distinguish assay fluorescence from endogenous fluorescence. Several tissue treatment methods have been developed to bypass this issue with varying degrees of success. Sudan Black B dye has been commonly used to quench autofluorescence, but can also introduce background fluorescence. Here we present a protocol for an alternative called TrueBlack Lipofuscin Autofluorescence Quencher. The protocol described in this unit demonstrates how TrueBlack efficiently quenches red blood cell autofluorescence across red and green wavelengths in fixed embryonic tissue without interfering with immunofluorescent signal intensity or introducing background staining. We also identify optimal incubation, concentration, and multiple usage conditions for routine immunofluorescence microscopy. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Literature context: ermo Fisher Scientific A-11055, RRID:AB_2534102 AlexaFluor Donkey Anti-Goat 568
Directing the fate of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into different lineages requires variable starting conditions and components with undefined activities, introducing inconsistencies that confound reproducibility and assessment of specific perturbations. Here we introduce a simple, modular protocol for deriving the four main ectodermal lineages from hPSCs. By precisely varying FGF, BMP, WNT, and TGFβ pathway activity in a minimal, chemically defined medium, we show parallel, robust, and reproducible derivation of neuroectoderm, neural crest (NC), cranial placode (CP), and non-neural ectoderm in multiple hPSC lines, on different substrates independently of cell density. We highlight the utility of this system by interrogating the role of TFAP2 transcription factors in ectodermal differentiation, revealing the importance of TFAP2A in NC and CP specification, and performing a small-molecule screen that identified compounds that further enhance CP differentiation. This platform provides a simple stage for systematic derivation of the entire range of ectodermal cell types.
Literature context: , A11055, RRID:AB_2534102 1:200
Using Nogo antibodies with defined binding specificity, Nogo-B, but not Nogo-A, was localized on radial glia in the floor plate of mouse embryos. The presence of Nogo-B was confirmed in Nogo-A knockout mice. In explant cultures of embryonic day (E) 11 and E12 spinal cord, blocking of NgR function with antagonist peptide NEP1-40 reduced the crossing of newly arrived commissural axons, resulting in an accumulation of growth cones in the floor plate. Analysis of growth cone morphology demonstrated an increase in size of growth cones in the floor plate after peptide treatment, which was not detected in axons growing toward the midline. In knockout embryos, midline crossing was not affected by absence of Nogo-A. In co-culture experiments using collagen gel, floor plate showed a strong inhibitory effect on the extension of post-commissural neurites from the spinal cord. This effect was abolished by NEP1-40, and was observed neither in pre-commissural neurites, nor in post-commissural neurites grown with floor plate derived from Nogo-A knockout embryo. Furthermore, western blot analysis of conditioned medium from floor plates showed a truncated form of Nogo with molecular weight of 37 kDa, which could mediate the diffusible effect to axon growth. We conclude that Nogo-B is expressed in the floor plate of mouse embryo, which probably mediates axon crossing in the spinal cord by repelling axons out of the midline when they start upregulate NgR. Nogo acts on axon growth not only through a contact-mediated mechanism, but also through a diffusible mechanism.
Literature context: :1000)Invitrogen (Thermo Fisher)A-11055Donkey anti-Mouse IgG (H+L) (1:5
Dural cerebral veins (CV) are required for cerebrospinal fluid reabsorption and brain homeostasis, but mechanisms that regulate their growth and remodeling are unknown. We report molecular and cellular processes that regulate dural CV development in mammals and describe venous malformations in humans with craniosynostosis and TWIST1 mutations that are recapitulated in mouse models. Surprisingly, Twist1 is dispensable in endothelial cells but required for specification of osteoprogenitor cells that differentiate into preosteoblasts that produce bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Inactivation of Bmp2 and Bmp4 in preosteoblasts and periosteal dura causes skull and CV malformations, similar to humans harboring TWIST1 mutations. Notably, arterial development appears normal, suggesting that morphogens from the skull and dura establish optimal venous networks independent from arterial influences. Collectively, our work establishes a paradigm whereby CV malformations result from primary or secondary loss of paracrine BMP signaling from preosteoblasts and dura, highlighting unique cellular interactions that influence tissue-specific angiogenesis in mammals.
Literature context: gate Invitrogen Cat #: A-11055; RRID:AB_2534102 Donkey anti-Rabbit IgG secondar
Sodium deficiency increases angiotensin II (ATII) and aldosterone, which synergistically stimulate sodium retention and consumption. Recently, ATII-responsive neurons in the subfornical organ (SFO) and aldosterone-sensitive neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTSHSD2 neurons) were shown to drive sodium appetite. Here we investigate the basis for NTSHSD2 neuron activation, identify the circuit by which NTSHSD2 neurons drive appetite, and uncover an interaction between the NTSHSD2 circuit and ATII signaling. NTSHSD2 neurons respond to sodium deficiency with spontaneous pacemaker-like activity-the consequence of "cardiac" HCN and Nav1.5 channels. Remarkably, NTSHSD2 neurons are necessary for sodium appetite, and with concurrent ATII signaling their activity is sufficient to produce rapid consumption. Importantly, NTSHSD2 neurons stimulate appetite via projections to the vlBNST, which is also the effector site for ATII-responsive SFO neurons. The interaction between angiotensin signaling and NTSHSD2 neurons provides a neuronal context for the long-standing "synergy hypothesis" of sodium appetite regulation.
Literature context: s Cat #A11055; RRID:AB_2534102 Alexa Fluor 555 Molecular Probe
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are age-related neurodegenerative disorders with shared genetic etiologies and overlapping clinical and pathological features. Here we studied a novel ALS/FTD family and identified the P362L mutation in the low-complexity domain (LCD) of T cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1 (TIA1). Subsequent genetic association analyses showed an increased burden of TIA1 LCD mutations in ALS patients compared to controls (p = 8.7 × 10-6). Postmortem neuropathology of five TIA1 mutations carriers showed a consistent pathological signature with numerous round, hyaline, TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43)-positive inclusions. TIA1 mutations significantly increased the propensity of TIA1 protein to undergo phase transition. In live cells, TIA1 mutations delayed stress granule (SG) disassembly and promoted the accumulation of non-dynamic SGs that harbored TDP-43. Moreover, TDP-43 in SGs became less mobile and insoluble. The identification of TIA1 mutations in ALS/FTD reinforces the importance of RNA metabolism and SG dynamics in ALS/FTD pathogenesis.
Literature context: ologies, Tokyo, Japan, A-11055, RRID:AB_2534102), Alexa 594 conjugated donkey a
Bral2 is a link protein stabilizing the binding between lecticans and hyaluronan in perineuronal nets and axonal coats (ACs) in specific brain regions. Using the real-time iontophoretic method and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance, we determined the extracellular space (ECS) volume fraction (α), tortuosity (λ), and apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADCW ) in the thalamic ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM) and sensorimotor cortex of young adult (3-6 months) and aged (14-20 months) Bral2-deficient (Bral2-/- ) mice and age-matched wild-type (wt) controls. The results were correlated with an analysis of extracellular matrix composition. In the cortex, no changes between wt and Bral2-/- were detected, either in the young or aged mice. In the VPM of aged but not in young Bral2-/- mice, we observed a significant decrease in α and ADCW in comparison with age-matched controls. Bral2 deficiency led to a reduction of both aggrecan- and brevican-associated perineuronal nets and a complete disruption of brevican-based ACs in young as well as aged VPM. Our data suggest that aging is a critical point that reveals the effect of Bral2 deficiency on VPM diffusion. This effect is probably mediated through the enhanced age-related damage of neurons lacking protective ACs, or the exhausting of compensatory mechanisms maintaining unchanged diffusion parameters in young Bral2-/- animals. A decreased ECS volume in aged Bral2-/- mice may influence the diffusion of neuroactive substances, and thus extrasynaptic and also indirectly synaptic transmission in this important nucleus of the somatosensory pathway.
Literature context: A-11055, RRID:AB_2534102 Alexafluor
Gastric and small intestinal organoids differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have revolutionized the study of gastrointestinal development and disease. Distal gut tissues such as cecum and colon, however, have proved considerably more challenging to derive in vitro. Here we report the differentiation of human colonic organoids (HCOs) from hPSCs. We found that BMP signaling is required to establish a posterior SATB2+ domain in developing and postnatal intestinal epithelium. Brief activation of BMP signaling is sufficient to activate a posterior HOX code and direct hPSC-derived gut tube cultures into HCOs. In vitro, HCOs express colonic markers and contained colon-specific cell populations. Following transplantation into mice, HCOs undergo morphogenesis and maturation to form tissue that exhibits molecular, cellular, and morphologic properties of human colon. Together these data show BMP-dependent patterning of human hindgut into HCOs, which will be valuable for studying diseases including colitis and colon cancer.
Literature context: Fluor 647Life TechnologiesA31573Donkey anti-goat Alexa Fluor 488Life TechnologiesA11055Donkey an
Major depressive disorder (MDD) patients display a common but often variable set of symptoms making successful, sustained treatment difficult to achieve. Separate depressive symptoms may be encoded by differential changes in distinct circuits in the brain, yet how discrete circuits underlie behavioral subsets of depression and how they adapt in response to stress has not been addressed. We identify two discrete circuits of parvalbumin-positive (PV) neurons in the ventral pallidum (VP) projecting to either the lateral habenula or ventral tegmental area contributing to depression. We find that these populations undergo different electrophysiological adaptations in response to social defeat stress, which are normalized by antidepressant treatment. Furthermore, manipulation of each population mediates either social withdrawal or behavioral despair, but not both. We propose that distinct components of the VP PV circuit can subserve related, yet separate depressive-like phenotypes in mice, which could ultimately provide a platform for symptom-specific treatments of depression.
Planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins confer polarization of a field of cells (eg, elongating/elongated spermatids) within the plane of an epithelium such as the seminiferous epithelium of the tubule during spermatogenesis. In adult rat testes, Sertoli and germ cells were found to express PCP core proteins (eg, Van Gogh-like 2 [Vangl2]), effectors, ligands, and signaling proteins. Vangl2 expressed predominantly by Sertoli cells was localized at the testis-specific, actin-rich ectoplasmic specialization (ES) at the Sertoli-spermatid interface in the adluminal compartment and also Sertoli-Sertoli interface at the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and structurally interacted with actin, N-cadherin, and another PCP/polarity protein Scribble. Vangl2 knockdown (KD) by RNA interference in Sertoli cells cultured in vitro with an established tight junction-permeability barrier led to BTB tightening, whereas its overexpression using a full-length cDNA construct perturbed the barrier function. These changes were mediated through an alteration on the organization actin microfilaments at the ES in Sertoli cells, involving actin-regulatory proteins, epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8, actin-related protein 3, and Scribble, which in turn affected the function of adhesion protein complexes at the ES during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. Using Polyplus in vivo-jetPEI reagent as a transfection medium to silence Vangl2 in the testis in vivo by RNA interference with high efficacy, Vangl2 KD led to changes in F-actin organization at the ES in the epithelium, impeding spermatid and phagosome transport and spermatid polarity, meiosis, and BTB dynamics. For instance, step 19 spermatids remained embedded in the epithelium alongside with step 9 and 10 spermatids in stages IX-X tubules. In summary, the PCP protein Vangl2 is an ES regulator through its effects on actin microfilaments in the testis.
Literature context: A-11055, RRID:AB_2534102 1:1,000
The retinae of many bird species contain a depression with high photoreceptor density known as the fovea. Many species of raptors have two foveae, a deep central fovea and a shallower temporal fovea. Birds have six types of photoreceptors: rods, active in dim light, double cones that are thought to mediate achromatic discrimination, and four types of single cones mediating color vision. To maximize visual acuity, the fovea should only contain photoreceptors contributing to high-resolution vision. Interestingly, it has been suggested that raptors might lack double cones in the fovea. We used transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry to evaluate this claim in five raptor species: the common buzzard (Buteo buteo), the honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus), the Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), the red kite (Milvus milvus), and the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). We found that all species, except the Eurasian sparrowhawk, lack double cones in the center of the central fovea. The size of the double cone-free zone differed between species. Only the common buzzard had a double cone-free zone in the temporal fovea. In three species, we examined opsin expression in the central fovea and found evidence that rod opsin positive cells were absent and violet-sensitive cone and green-sensitive cone opsin positive cells were present. We conclude that not only double cones, but also single cones may contribute to high-resolution vision in birds, and that raptors may in fact possess high-resolution tetrachromatic vision in the central fovea.
Literature context: # A-11055 RRID:AB_2534102), diluted
The formation of functional synapses requires coordinated assembly of presynaptic transmitter release machinery and postsynaptic trafficking of functional receptors and scaffolds. Here, we demonstrate a critical role of presynaptic cadherin/catenin cell adhesion complexes in stabilizing functional synapses and spines in the developing neocortex. Importantly, presynaptic expression of stabilized β-catenin in either layer (L) 4 excitatory neurons or L2/3 pyramidal neurons significantly upregulated excitatory synaptic transmission and dendritic spine density in L2/3 pyramidal neurons, while its sparse postsynaptic expression in L2/3 neurons had no such effects. In addition, presynaptic β-catenin expression enhanced release probability of glutamatergic synapses. Newly identified β-catenin-interacting protein p140Cap is required in the presynaptic locus for mediating these effects. Together, our results demonstrate that cadherin/catenin complexes stabilize functional synapses and spines through anterograde signaling in the neocortex and provide important molecular evidence for a driving role of presynaptic components in spinogenesis in the neocortex.
Literature context: lar Probes, Eugene, OR,A-11055, AB_2534102Donkey (polyclonal)Gamma immunog
Muscarinic cholinoreceptors regulate the neurosecretion process in vertebrate neuromuscular junctions. The diversity of muscarinic effects on acetylcholine (ACh) secretion may be attributed to the different muscarinic subtypes involved in this process. In the present study, the location of five muscarinic receptor subtypes (M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5) on the motor nerve terminals of frog cutaneous pectoris muscle was shown using specific polyclonal antibodies. The modulatory roles of these receptors were investigated via assessment of the effects of muscarine and specific muscarinic antagonists on the quantal content of endplate currents (EPCs) and the time course of secretion, which was estimated from the distribution of "real" synaptic delays of EPCs recorded in a low Ca2+/high Mg2+ solution. The agonist muscarine decreased the EPC quantal content and synchronized the release process. The depressing action of muscarine on the EPC quantal content was abolished only by pretreatment of the preparation with the M3 blockers 4-DAMP (1,1-Dimethyl-4-diphenylacetoxypiperidinium iodide) and J 104129 fumarate ((αR)-α-Cyclopentyl-α-hydroxy-N-[1-(4-methyl-3-pentenyl)-4-piperidinyl]benzeneacetamide fumarate). Moreover, antagonists of the M1, M2, M3 and M4 receptors per se diminished the intensity of secretion, which suggests a putative up-regulation of the release by endogenous ACh.
Literature context: A-11055, RRID:AB_2534102 Alexa 546-
In many vertebrates, postnatally generated neurons often migrate long distances to reach their final destination, where they help shape local circuit activity. Concerted action of extrinsic stimuli is required to regulate long-distance migration. Some migratory principles are evolutionarily conserved, whereas others are species and cell type specific. Here we identified a serotonergic mechanism that governs migration of postnatally generated neurons in the mouse brain. Serotonergic axons originating from the raphe nuclei exhibit a conspicuous alignment with subventricular zone-derived neuroblasts. Optogenetic axonal activation provides functional evidence for serotonergic modulation of neuroblast migration. Furthermore, we show that the underlying mechanism involves serotonin receptor 3A (5HT3A)-mediated calcium influx. Thus, 5HT3A receptor deletion in neuroblasts impaired speed and directionality of migration and abolished calcium spikes. We speculate that serotonergic modulation of postnatally generated neuroblast migration is evolutionarily conserved as indicated by the presence of serotonergic axons in migratory paths in other vertebrates.
Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are main candidates to stabilize neuronal microtubules, playing an important role in establishing axon-dendrite polarity. However, how MAPs are selectively targeted to specific neuronal compartments remains poorly understood. Here, we show specific localization of microtubule-associated protein 6 (MAP6)/stable tubule-only polypeptide (STOP) throughout neuronal maturation and its role in axonal development. In unpolarized neurons, MAP6 is present at the Golgi complex and in secretory vesicles. As neurons mature, MAP6 is translocated to the proximal axon, where it binds and stabilizes microtubules. Further, we demonstrate that dynamic palmitoylation, mediated by the family of α/β Hydrolase domain-containing protein 17 (ABHD17A-C) depalmitoylating enzymes, controls shuttling of MAP6 between membranes and microtubules and is required for MAP6 retention in axons. We propose a model in which MAP6's palmitoylation mediates microtubule stabilization, allows efficient organelle trafficking, and controls axon maturation in vitro and in situ.
Literature context: i-mouse IgGInvitrogenCat# A11017Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated donkey anti-goat IgGInvitrogenCat# A11055Alexa Fluor 594-conjugated goat
Cells exposed to hypoxia experience replication stress but do not accumulate DNA damage, suggesting sustained DNA replication. Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is the only enzyme capable of de novo synthesis of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs). However, oxygen is an essential cofactor for mammalian RNR (RRM1/RRM2 and RRM1/RRM2B), leading us to question the source of dNTPs in hypoxia. Here, we show that the RRM1/RRM2B enzyme is capable of retaining activity in hypoxia and therefore is favored over RRM1/RRM2 in order to preserve ongoing replication and avoid the accumulation of DNA damage. We found two distinct mechanisms by which RRM2B maintains hypoxic activity and identified responsible residues in RRM2B. The importance of RRM2B in the response to tumor hypoxia is further illustrated by correlation of its expression with a hypoxic signature in patient samples and its roles in tumor growth and radioresistance. Our data provide mechanistic insight into RNR biology, highlighting RRM2B as a hypoxic-specific, anti-cancer therapeutic target.
Literature context: _2534104, AB_2534102, RRID:AB_2
G-protein βγ subunits (Gβγ) interact with presynaptic proteins and regulate neurotransmitter release downstream of Ca2+ influx. To accomplish their roles in sensory signaling, photoreceptor synapses use specialized presynaptic proteins that support neurotransmission at active zone structures known as ribbons. While several G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) influence synaptic transmission at ribbon synapses of cones and other retinal neurons, it is unknown whether Gβγ contributes to these effects. We tested whether activation of one particular GPCR, a metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR), can reduce cone synaptic transmission via Gβγ in tiger salamander retinas. In recordings from horizontal cells, we found that an mGluR agonist (L-AP4) reduced cone-driven light responses and mEPSC frequency. In paired recordings of cones and horizontal cells, L-AP4 slightly reduced cone ICa (∼10%) and caused a larger reduction in cone-driven EPSCs (∼30%). Proximity ligation assay revealed direct interactions between SNAP-25 and Gβγ subunits in retinal synaptic layers. Pretreatment with the SNAP-25 cleaving protease BoNT/A inhibited L-AP4 effects on synaptic transmission, as did introduction of a peptide derived from the SNAP-25 C terminus. Introducing Gβγ subunits directly into cones reduced EPSC amplitude. This effect was inhibited by BoNT/A, supporting a role for Gβγ/SNAP-25 interactions. However, the mGluR-dependent reduction in ICa was not mimicked by Gβγ, indicating that this effect was independent of Gβγ. The finding that synaptic transmission at cone ribbon synapses is regulated by Gβγ/SNAP-25 interactions indicates that these mechanisms are shared by conventional and ribbon-type synapses. Gβγ liberated from other photoreceptor GPCRs is also likely to regulate synaptic transmission.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Dynamic regulation of synaptic transmission by presynaptic G-protein coupled receptors shapes information flow through neural circuits. At the first synapse in the visual system, presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) regulate cone photoreceptor synaptic transmission, although the mechanisms and functional impact of this are unclear. We show that mGluRs regulate light response encoding across the cone synapse, accomplished in part by triggering G-protein βγ subunits (Gβγ) interactions with SNAP-25, a core component of the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery. In addition to revealing a role in visual processing, this provides the first demonstration that Gβγ/SNAP-25 interactions regulate synaptic function at a ribbon-type synapse, contributing to an emerging picture of the ubiquity of Gβγ/SNARE interactions in regulating synaptic transmission throughout the nervous system.
Literature context: A-11055; RRID:AB_2534102 Chemicals,
Theta-gamma phase coupling and spike timing within theta oscillations are prominent features of the hippocampus and are often related to navigation and memory. However, the mechanisms that give rise to these relationships are not well understood. Using high spatial resolution electrophysiology, we investigated the influence of CA3 and entorhinal inputs on the timing of CA1 neurons. The theta-phase preference and excitatory strength of the afferent CA3 and entorhinal inputs effectively timed the principal neuron activity, as well as regulated distinct CA1 interneuron populations in multiple tasks and behavioral states. Feedback potentiation of distal dendritic inhibition by CA1 place cells attenuated the excitatory entorhinal input at place field entry, coupled with feedback depression of proximal dendritic and perisomatic inhibition, allowing the CA3 input to gain control toward the exit. Thus, upstream inputs interact with local mechanisms to determine theta-phase timing of hippocampal neurons to support memory and spatial navigation.
Literature context: so A11055 RRID:AB_2534102/Cat# A-110
The asymmetric location of stereociliary bundle (hair bundle) on the apical surface of mechanosensory hair cells (HCs) dictates the direction in which a given HC can respond to cues such as sound, head movements, and water pressure. Notably, vestibular sensory organs of the inner ear, the maculae, exhibit a line of polarity reversal (LPR) across which, hair bundles are polarized in a mirror-image pattern. Similarly, HCs in neuromasts of the zebrafish lateral line system are generated as pairs, and two sibling HCs develop opposite hair bundle orientations. Within these sensory organs, expression of the transcription factor Emx2 is restricted to only one side of the LPR in the maculae or one of the two sibling HCs in neuromasts. Emx2 mediates hair bundle polarity reversal in these restricted subsets of HCs and generates the mirror-image pattern of the sensory organs. Downstream effectors of Emx2 control bundle polarity cell-autonomously via heterotrimeric G proteins.
Literature context: A-11055, RRID:AB_2534102) secondary
The matricellular protein SMOC (Secreted Modular Calcium binding protein) is conserved phylogenetically from vertebrates to arthropods. We showed previously that SMOC inhibits bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling downstream of its receptor via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. In contrast, the most prominent effect of the Drosophila orthologue, pentagone (pent), is expanding the range of BMP signaling during wing patterning. Using SMOC deletion constructs we found that SMOC-∆EC, lacking the extracellular calcium binding (EC) domain, inhibited BMP2 signaling, whereas SMOC-EC (EC domain only) enhanced BMP2 signaling. The SMOC-EC domain bound HSPGs with a similar affinity to BMP2 and could expand the range of BMP signaling in an in vitro assay by competition for HSPG-binding. Together with data from studies in vivo we propose a model to explain how these two activities contribute to the function of Pent in Drosophila wing development and SMOC in mammalian joint formation.
Literature context: A-11055; RRID:AB_2534102 Donkey ant
Astrocytes extend highly branched processes that form functionally isolated microdomains, facilitating local homeostasis by redistributing ions, removing neurotransmitters, and releasing factors to influence blood flow and neuronal activity. Microdomains exhibit spontaneous increases in calcium (Ca2+), but the mechanisms and functional significance of this localized signaling are unknown. By developing conditional, membrane-anchored GCaMP3 mice, we found that microdomain activity that occurs in the absence of inositol triphosphate (IP3)-dependent release from endoplasmic reticulum arises through Ca2+ efflux from mitochondria during brief openings of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. These microdomain Ca2+ transients were facilitated by the production of reactive oxygen species during oxidative phosphorylation and were enhanced by expression of a mutant form of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 G93A) that causes astrocyte dysfunction and neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). By localizing mitochondria to microdomains, astrocytes ensure local metabolic support for energetically demanding processes and enable coupling between metabolic demand and Ca2+ signaling events.
Literature context: ","term_text":"A11055"}}A11055 [RRID: AB_2534102]1:1000Goat anti-human (biotinyl
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of adult disability, including cognitive impairment. Our laboratory has previously shown that treatment with function-blocking antibodies against the neurite growth inhibitory protein Nogo-A promotes functional recovery after stroke in adult and aged rats, including enhancing spatial memory performance, for which the hippocampus is critically important. Since spatial memory has been linked to hippocampal neurogenesis, we investigated whether anti-Nogo-A treatment increases hippocampal neurogenesis after stroke. Adult rats were subject to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion followed 1 week later by 2 weeks of antibody treatment. Cellular proliferation in the dentate gyrus was quantified at the end of treatment, and the number of newborn neurons was determined at 8 weeks post-stroke. Treatment with both anti-Nogo-A and control antibodies stimulated the accumulation of new microglia/macrophages in the dentate granule cell layer, but neither treatment increased cellular proliferation or the number of newborn neurons above stroke-only levels. These results suggest that anti-Nogo-A immunotherapy does not increase post-stroke hippocampal neurogenesis.
Literature context: , A-11055 RRID:AB_2534102), and Alex
Over the last decade, striatal cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) have reemerged as key actors in the pathophysiology of basal-ganglia-related movement disorders. However, the mechanisms involved are still unclear. In this study, we address the role of ChI activity in the expression of parkinsonian-like motor deficits in a unilateral nigrostriatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion model using optogenetic and pharmacological approaches. Dorsal striatal photoinhibition of ChIs in lesioned ChAT(cre/cre) mice expressing halorhodopsin in ChIs reduces akinesia, bradykinesia, and sensorimotor neglect. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) blockade by scopolamine produces similar anti-parkinsonian effects. To decipher which of the mAChR subtypes provides these beneficial effects, systemic and intrastriatal administration of the selective M1 and M4 mAChR antagonists telenzepine and tropicamide, respectively, were tested in the same model of Parkinson's disease. The two compounds alleviate 6-OHDA lesion-induced motor deficits. Telenzepine produces its beneficial effects by blocking postsynaptic M1 mAChRs expressed on medium spiny neurons (MSNs) at the origin of the indirect striatopallidal and direct striatonigral pathways. The anti-parkinsonian effects of tropicamide were almost completely abolished in mutant lesioned mice that lack M4 mAChRs specifically in dopamine D1-receptor-expressing neurons, suggesting that postsynaptic M4 mAChRs expressed on direct MSNs mediate the antiakinetic action of tropicamide. The present results show that altered cholinergic transmission via M1 and M4 mAChRs of the dorsal striatum plays a pivotal role in the occurrence of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The striatum, where dopaminergic and cholinergic systems interact, is the pivotal structure of basal ganglia involved in pathophysiological changes underlying Parkinson's disease. Here, using optogenetic and pharmacological approaches, we investigated the involvement of striatal cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) and muscarinic receptor subtypes (mAChRs) in the occurrence of a wide range of motor deficits such as akinesia, bradykinesia, motor coordination, and sensorimotor neglect after unilateral nigrostriatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesion in mice. Our results show that photoinhibition of ChIs in the dorsal striatum and pharmacological blockade of muscarinic receptors, specifically postsynaptic M1 and M4 mAChRs, alleviate lesion-induced motor deficits. The present study points to these receptor subtypes as potential targets for the symptomatic treatment of parkinsonian-like motor symptoms.
CRH family peptides play differential role during various physiological and pathophysiological responses, such as stress. Urocortins (UCNs) have been implicated to play complementary or contrasting actions for the effects of CRH during stress. It has been shown that activation of CRH receptor type 1 (CRHR1) results in decreased synapse formation in hippocampus. We therefore explored the effect of UCN2 and UCN3, the exclusive CRHR2 agonists, on synaptic formation in hippocampus. In hippocampal slices cultures, UCN2 but not UCN3 treatment increased the levels of presynaptic protein synapsinI and postsynaptic protein postsynaptic density 95 (PSD95), which was reversed by CRHR2 antagonist astressin 2B. In isolated hippocampal neurons, however, UCN2 decreased the numbers of synapsinI- and PSD95-labeled terminals/clusters via CRHR2. Treatment of hippocampal neurons with the media of UCN2-treated astrocytes led to an increase in synapsinI- and PSD95-labeled terminals. In neuron-astrocyte cocultures, UCN2 also enhanced the numbers and level of synapsinI- and PSD95-labeled terminals. These effects did not occur if glial cells were transfected with CRHR2 small interfering RNA. UCN2 but not UCN3 treatment induced nerve growth factor (NGF) production in astrocytes via CRHR2. The effects of the media of UCN2-treated glial cells on synapse formation in hippocampal neurons were prevented by administration of NGF receptor antagonists. Our data indicate that UCN2 promotes synapse formation in hippocampus via induction of NGF secretion from astrocytes. CRHR2 in glial cells mediates the stimulatory effects of CRH. Glia-neuron communication is critical for neuronal circuits remodeling and synaptic plasticity in response to neurohormones or neuromodulators.
The adrenal glands consist of an outer cortex and an inner medulla, and their primary purposes include hormone synthesis and secretion. The adrenal cortex produces a complex array of steroid hormones, whereas the medulla is part of the sympathetic nervous system and produces the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine. In the mouse, GATA binding protein (GATA) 4 and GATA6 transcription factors are coexpressed in several embryonic tissues, including the adrenal cortex. To explore the roles of GATA4 and GATA6 in mouse adrenal development, we conditionally deleted these genes in adrenocortical cells using the Sf1Cre strain of animals. We report here that mice with Sf1Cre-mediated double deletion of Gata4 and Gata6 genes lack identifiable adrenal glands, steroidogenic factor 1-positive cortical cells and steroidogenic gene expression in the adrenal location. The inactivation of the Gata6 gene alone (Sf1Cre;Gata6(flox/flox)) drastically reduced the adrenal size and corticosterone production in the adult animals. Adrenocortical aplasia is expected to result in the demise of the animal within 2 weeks after birth unless glucocorticoids are provided. In accordance, Sf1Cre;Gata4(flox/flox)Gata6(flox/flox) females depend on steroid supplementation to survive after weaning. Surprisingly, Sf1Cre;Gata4(flox/flox)Gata6(flox/flox) males appear to live normal lifespans as vital steroidogenic synthesis shifts to their testes. Our results reveal a requirement for GATA factors in adrenal development and provide a novel tool to characterize the transcriptional network controlling adrenocortical cell fates.
Gliosis, the activation of astrocyte and microglial cell populations, is a hallmark of central nervous system injury and is detectable using either immunohistochemistry or in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Obesity in rodents and humans is associated with gliosis of the arcuate nucleus, a key hypothalamic region for the regulation of energy homeostasis and adiposity, but whether this response is permanent or reversible is unknown. Here we combine terminal immunohistochemistry analysis with serial, noninvasive MRI to characterize the progression and reversibility of hypothalamic gliosis in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. The effects of HFD feeding for 16 weeks to increase body weight and adiposity relative to chow were nearly normalized after the return to chow feeding for an additional 4 weeks in the diet-reversal group. Mice maintained on the HFD for the full 20-week study period experienced continued weight gain associated with the expected increases of astrocyte and microglial activation in the arcuate nucleus, but these changes were not observed in the diet-reversal group. The proopiomelanocortin neuron number did not differ between groups. Although MRI demonstrated a positive correlation between body weight, adiposity, and the gliosis-associated T2 signal in the mediobasal hypothalamus, it did not detect the reversal of gliosis among the HFD-fed mice after the return to chow diet. We conclude that hypothalamic gliosis associated with 16-week HFD feeding is largely reversible in rodents, consistent with the reversal of the HFD-induced obesity phenotype, and extend published evidence regarding the utility of MRI as a tool for studying obesity-associated hypothalamic gliosis in vivo.
Literature context: bodyHostSource (Cat. #)DilutionÂ AlexaFluor 488 antigoatdonkeyInvitrogen (A11055)1:100Â A
The intracardiac nervous system represents the final common pathway for autonomic control of the vertebrate heart in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis. In teleost fishes, details of the organization of this system are not well understood. Here we investigated innervation patterns in the heart of the goldfish, a species representative of a large group of cyprinids. We used antibodies against the neuronal markers zn-12, acetylated tubulin, and human neuronal protein C/D, as well as choline acetyltransferase, tyrosine hydroxylase, nitric oxide synthetase, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) to detect neural elements and their transmitter contents in wholemounts and sections of cardiac tissue. All chambers of the heart were innervated by choline acetyltransferase-positive axons, implying cholinergic regulation; and by tyrosine hydroxylase-containing axons, implying adrenergic regulation. The mean total number of intracardiac neurons was 713 ± 78 (SE), nearly half of which were cholinergic. Neuronal somata were mainly located in a ganglionated plexus around the sinoatrial valves. Somata were contacted by cholinergic, adrenergic, nitrergic, and VIP-positive terminals. Putative pacemaker cells, identified by immunoreactivity for hyperpolarization activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4, were located in the base of the sinoatrial valves, and this region was densely innervated by cholinergic and adrenergic terminals. We have shown that the goldfish heart possesses the necessary neuroanatomical substrate for fine, region-by-region autonomic control of the myocardial effectors that are involved in determining cardiac output.
Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) has been shown to regulate wound healing in various tissues. Despite its known function in tissue regeneration, the role of Shh secreted from the gastric epithelium during tissue repair in the stomach remains unknown. Here we tested the hypothesis that Shh secreted from the acid-secreting parietal cell is a fundamental circulating factor that drives gastric repair. A mouse model expressing a parietal cell-specific deletion of Shh (PC-ShhKO) was generated using animals bearing loxP sites flanking exon 2 of the Shh gene (Shh(flx/flx)) and mice expressing a Cre transgene under the control of the H(+),K(+)-ATPase β-subunit promoter. Shh(flx/flx), the H(+),K(+)-ATPase β-subunit promoter, and C57BL/6 mice served as controls. Ulcers were induced via acetic acid injury. At 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 days after the ulcer induction, gastric tissue and blood samples were collected. Parabiosis experiments were used to establish the effect of circulating Shh on ulcer repair. Control mice exhibited an increased expression of Shh in the gastric tissue and plasma that correlated with the repair of injury within 7 days after surgery. PC-ShhKO mice showed a loss of ulcer repair and reduced Shh tissue and plasma concentrations. In a parabiosis experiment whereby a control mouse was paired with a PC-ShhKO littermate and both animals subjected to gastric injury, a significant increase in the circulating Shh was measured in both parabionts. Elevated circulating Shh concentrations correlated with the repair of gastric ulcers in the PC-ShhKO parabionts. Therefore, the acid-secreting parietal cell within the stomach acts as an endocrine source of Shh during repair.