Literature context: Fisher Scientific, cat# A10262, RRID:AB_2534023) was raised against GFP isolate
The dI1 commissural axons in the developing spinal cord, upon crossing the midline through the floor plate, make a sharp turn to grow rostrally. These post-crossing axons initially just extend adjacent to the floor plate without entering nearby motor columns. However, it remains poorly characterized how these post-crossing dI1 axons behave subsequently to this process. In the present study, to address this issue, we examined in detail the behavior of post-crossing dI1 axons in mice, using the Atoh1 enhancer-based conditional expression system that enables selective and sparse labeling of individual dI1 axons, together with Hb9 and ChAT immunohistochemistry for precise identification of spinal motor neurons (MNs). We found unexpectedly that the post-crossing segment of dI1 axons later gave off collateral branches that extended laterally to invade motor columns. Interestingly, these collateral branches emerged at around the time when their primary growth cones initiated invasion into motor columns. In addition, although the length of the laterally growing collateral branches increased with age, the majority of them remained within motor columns. Strikingly, these collateral branches further gave rise to multiple secondary branches in the region of MNs that innervate muscles close to the body axis. Moreover, these axonal branches formed presynaptic terminals on MNs. These observations demonstrate that dI1 commissural neurons develop axonal projection to spinal MNs via collateral branches arising later from the post-crossing segment of these axons. Our findings thus reveal a previously unrecognized projection of dI1 commissural axons that may contribute directly to generating proper motor output.
Literature context: Fisher Scientific CAT# A10262; RRID:AB_2534023 Mouse monoclonal anti-GFP Santa
Dendritic filopodia of developing neurons function as environmental sensors, regulating the spatial organization of dendrites and proper targeting to presynaptic partners. Dendritic filopodia morphology is determined by the balance of F-actin assembled via two major nucleating pathways, the ARP2/3 complex and formins. The inverse-BAR protein MTSS1 is highly expressed in Purkinje cells (PCs) and has been shown to upregulate ARP2/3 activity. PCs in MTSS1 conditional knockout mice showed dendrite hypoplasia due to excessive contact-induced retraction during development. This phenotype was concomitant with elongated dendritic filopodia and was phenocopied by overactivation of the actin nucleator formin DAAM1 localized in the tips of PC dendritic protrusions. Cell biology assays including single-molecule speckle microscopy demonstrated that MTSS1's C terminus binds to DAAM1 and paused DAAM1-mediated F-actin polymerization. Thus, MTSS1 plays a dual role as a formin inhibitor and ARP2/3 activator in dendritic filopodia, determining final neuronal morphology.
Literature context: rmoFisher Cat#A10262; RRID:AB_2534023 Rabbit polyclonal anti-GFP Ther
The brain clock that drives circadian rhythms of locomotor activity relies on a multi-oscillator neuronal network. In addition to synchronizing the clock with day-night cycles, light also reformats the clock-driven daily activity pattern. How changes in lighting conditions modify the contribution of the different oscillators to remodel the daily activity pattern remains largely unknown. Our data in Drosophila indicate that light readjusts the interactions between oscillators through two different modes. We show that a morning s-LNv > DN1p circuit works in series, whereas two parallel evening circuits are contributed by LNds and other DN1ps. Based on the photic context, the master pacemaker in the s-LNv neurons swaps its enslaved partner-oscillator-LNd in the presence of light or DN1p in the absence of light-to always link up with the most influential phase-determining oscillator. When exposure to light further increases, the light-activated LNd pacemaker becomes independent by decoupling from the s-LNvs. The calibration of coupling by light is layered on a clock-independent network interaction wherein light upregulates the expression of the PDF neuropeptide in the s-LNvs, which inhibits the behavioral output of the DN1p evening oscillator. Thus, light modifies inter-oscillator coupling and clock-independent output-gating to achieve flexibility in the network. It is likely that the light-induced changes in the Drosophila brain circadian network could reveal general principles of adapting to varying environmental cues in any neuronal multi-oscillator system.
Literature context: # A10262, RRID:AB_2534023 or Merck M
Astroglia are essential for brain development, homeostasis, and metabolic support. They also contribute actively to the formation and regulation of synaptic circuits, by successfully handling, integrating, and propagating physiological signals of neural networks. The latter occurs mainly by engaging a versatile mechanism of internal Ca2+ fluctuations and regenerative waves prompting targeted release of signaling molecules into the extracellular space. Astroglia also show substantial structural plasticity associated with age- and use-dependent changes in neural circuitry. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms are poorly understood, mainly because of the extraordinary complex morphology of astroglial compartments on the nanoscopic scale. This complexity largely prevents direct experimental access to astroglial processes, most of which are beyond the diffraction limit of optical microscopy. Here we employed super-resolution microscopy (direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy; dSTORM), to visualize astroglial organization on the nanoscale, in culture and in thin brain slices, as an initial step to understand the structural basis of astrocytic nano-physiology. We were able to follow nanoscopic morphology of GFAP-enriched astrocytes, which adapt a flattened shape in culture and a sponge-like structure in situ, with GFAP fibers of varied diameters. We also visualized nanoscopic astrocytic processes using the ubiquitous cytosolic astrocyte marker proteins S100β and glutamine synthetase. Finally, we overexpressed and imaged membrane-targeted pHluorin and lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (N-terminal domain) -green fluorescent protein (lck-GFP), to better understand the molecular cascades underlying some common astroglia-targeted fluorescence imaging techniques. The results provide novel, albeit initial, insights into the cellular organization of astroglia on the nanoscale, paving the way for function-specific studies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Literature context: Fisher Scientific Cat#: A10262; RRID:AB_2534023 Rabbit anti-RFP polyclonal anti
Sensory perception depends on interactions among cortical areas. These interactions are mediated by canonical patterns of connectivity in which higher areas send feedback projections to lower areas via neurons in superficial and deep layers. Here, we probed the circuit basis of interactions among two areas critical for touch perception in mice, whisker primary (wS1) and secondary (wS2) somatosensory cortices. Neurons in layer 4 of wS2 (S2L4) formed a major feedback pathway to wS1. Feedback from wS2 to wS1 was organized somatotopically. Spikes evoked by whisker deflections occurred nearly as rapidly in wS2 as in wS1, including among putative S2L4 → S1 feedback neurons. Axons from S2L4 → S1 neurons sent stimulus orientation-specific activity to wS1. Optogenetic excitation of S2L4 neurons modulated activity across both wS2 and wS1, while inhibition of S2L4 reduced orientation tuning among wS1 neurons. Thus, a non-canonical feedback circuit, originating in layer 4 of S2, rapidly modulates early tactile processing.
Literature context: cken anti-GFP Life Technologies RRID:AB_2534023 Rabbit anti-RFP Rockland RRID:
To interpret visual-motion events, the underlying computation must involve internal reference to the motion status of the observer's head. We show here that layer 6 (L6) principal neurons in mouse primary visual cortex (V1) receive a diffuse, vestibular-mediated synaptic input that signals the angular velocity of horizontal rotation. Behavioral and theoretical experiments indicate that these inputs, distributed over a network of 100 L6 neurons, provide both a reliable estimate and, therefore, physiological separation of head-velocity signals. During head rotation in the presence of visual stimuli, L6 neurons exhibit postsynaptic responses that approximate the arithmetic sum of the vestibular and visual-motion response. Functional input mapping reveals that these internal motion signals arrive into L6 via a direct projection from the retrosplenial cortex. We therefore propose that visual-motion processing in V1 L6 is multisensory and contextually dependent on the motion status of the animal's head.
Literature context: moFisher, Waltham, MA, RRID:AB_2534023), and rabbit anti-GFP (1:1000,
Synaptic cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) promote synapse formation in the developing nervous system. To what extent they maintain and can restore connections in the mature nervous system is unknown. Furthermore, how synaptic CAMs affect the growth of synapse-bearing neurites is unclear. Here, we use adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) to delete, re-, and overexpress the synaptic CAM NGL2 in individual retinal horizontal cells. When we removed NGL2 from horizontal cells, their axons overgrew and formed fewer synapses, irrespective of whether Ngl2 was deleted during development or in mature circuits. When we re-expressed NGL2 in knockout mice, horizontal cell axon territories and synapse numbers were restored, even if AAVs were injected after phenotypes had developed. Finally, overexpression of NGL2 in wild-type horizontal cells elevated synapse numbers above normal levels. Thus, NGL2 promotes the formation, maintenance, and restoration of synapses in the developing and mature retina, and restricts axon growth throughout life.
Literature context: ti-GFP Thermo Fisher Scientific RRID:AB_2534023 Rabbit polyclonal anti-RFP Rock
Synaptic connections between hippocampal mossy fibers (MFs) and CA3 pyramidal neurons are essential for contextual memory encoding, but the molecular mechanisms regulating MF-CA3 synapses during memory formation and the exact nature of this regulation are poorly understood. Here we report that the activity-dependent transcription factor Npas4 selectively regulates the structure and strength of MF-CA3 synapses by restricting the number of their functional synaptic contacts without affecting the other synaptic inputs onto CA3 pyramidal neurons. Using an activity-dependent reporter, we identified CA3 pyramidal cells that were activated by contextual learning and found that MF inputs on these cells were selectively strengthened. Deletion of Npas4 prevented both contextual memory formation and this learning-induced synaptic modification. We further show that Npas4 regulates MF-CA3 synapses by controlling the expression of the polo-like kinase Plk2. Thus, Npas4 is a critical regulator of experience-dependent, structural, and functional plasticity at MF-CA3 synapses during contextual memory formation.
Literature context: ermo Fisher Scientific, #A10262 RRID:AB_2534023
Piezo2 ion channels are critical determinants of the sense of light touch in vertebrates. Yet, their regulation is only incompletely understood. We recently identified myotubularin related protein-2 (Mtmr2), a phosphoinositide (PI) phosphatase, in the native Piezo2 interactome of murine dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Here, we demonstrate that Mtmr2 attenuates Piezo2-mediated rapidly adapting mechanically activated (RA-MA) currents. Interestingly, heterologous Piezo1 and other known MA current subtypes in DRG appeared largely unaffected by Mtmr2. Experiments with catalytically inactive Mtmr2, pharmacological blockers of PI(3,5)P2 synthesis, and osmotic stress suggest that Mtmr2-dependent Piezo2 inhibition involves depletion of PI(3,5)P2. Further, we identified a PI(3,5)P2 binding region in Piezo2, but not Piezo1, that confers sensitivity to Mtmr2 as indicated by functional analysis of a domain-swapped Piezo2 mutant. Altogether, our results propose local PI(3,5)P2 modulation via Mtmr2 in the vicinity of Piezo2 as a novel mechanism to dynamically control Piezo2-dependent mechanotransduction in peripheral sensory neurons.
Literature context: 1000, Thermo Fisher Scientific; RRID:AB_2534023) and rat anti-GFAP antibody (1:
Fine processes of astrocytes enwrap synapses and are well positioned to sense neuronal information via synaptic transmission. In rodents, astrocyte processes sense synaptic transmission via Gq-protein coupled receptors (GqPCR), including the P2Y1 receptor (P2Y1R), to generate Ca2+ signals. Astrocytes display numerous spontaneous microdomain Ca2+ signals; however, it is not clear whether such signals are due to local synaptic transmission and/or in what timeframe astrocytes sense local synaptic transmission. To ask whether GqPCRs mediate microdomain Ca2+ signals, we engineered mice (both sexes) to specifically overexpress P2Y1Rs in astrocytes, and we visualized Ca2+ signals via a genetically encoded Ca2+ indicator, GCaMP6f, in astrocytes from adult mice. Astrocytes overexpressing P2Y1Rs showed significantly larger Ca2+ signals in response to exogenously applied ligand and to repetitive electrical stimulation of axons compared with controls. However, we found no evidence of increased microdomain Ca2+ signals. Instead, Ca2+ waves appeared and propagated to occupy areas that were up to 80-fold larger than microdomain Ca2+ signals. These Ca2+ waves accounted for only 2% of total Ca2+ events, but they were 1.9-fold larger and 2.9-fold longer in duration than microdomain Ca2+ signals at processes. Ca2+ waves did not require action potentials for their generation and occurred in a probenecid-sensitive manner, indicating that the endogenous ligand for P2Y1R is elevated independently of synaptic transmission. Our data suggest that spontaneous microdomain Ca2+ signals occur independently of P2Y1R activation and that astrocytes may not encode neuronal information in response to synaptic transmission at a point source of neurotransmitter release.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Astrocytes are thought to enwrap synapses with their processes to receive neuronal information via Gq-protein coupled receptors (GqPCRs). Astrocyte processes display numerous microdomain Ca2+ signals that occur spontaneously. To determine whether GqPCRs play a role in microdomain Ca2+ signals and the timeframe in which astrocytes sense neuronal information, we engineered mice whose astrocytes specifically overexpress the P2Y1 receptor, a major GqPCR in astrocytes. We found that overexpression of P2Y1 receptors in astrocytes did not increase microdomain Ca2+ signals in astrocyte processes but caused Ca2+ wavelike signals. Our data indicate that spontaneous microdomain Ca2+ signals do not require activation of P2Y1 receptors.
Literature context: am, Massachusetts, USA) A10262, RRID:AB_2534023 1: 500
Regeneration responses in animals are widespread across phyla. To identify molecular players that confer regenerative capacities to non-regenerative species is of key relevance for basic research and translational approaches. Here, we report a differential response in retinal regeneration between medaka (Oryzias latipes) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). In contrast to zebrafish, medaka Müller glia (olMG) cells behave like progenitors and exhibit a restricted capacity to regenerate the retina. After injury, olMG cells proliferate but fail to self-renew and ultimately only restore photoreceptors. In our injury paradigm, we observed that in contrast to zebrafish, proliferating olMG cells do not maintain sox2 expression. Sustained sox2 expression in olMG cells confers regenerative responses similar to those of zebrafish MG (drMG) cells. We show that a single, cell-autonomous factor reprograms olMG cells and establishes a regeneration-like mode. Our results position medaka as an attractive model to delineate key regeneration factors with translational potential.
Literature context: entific Cat#A10262; RRID:AB_2534023 Rabbit Î±-PH3 Millipore Cat#06-5
The Hippo/Yki and RB/E2F pathways both regulate tissue growth by affecting cell proliferation and survival, but interactions between these parallel control systems are poorly defined. In this study, we demonstrate that interaction between Drosophila E2F1 and Sd disrupts Yki/Sd complex formation and thereby suppresses Yki target gene expression. RBF modifies these effects by reducing E2F1/Sd interaction. This regulation has significant effects on apoptosis, organ size, and progenitor cell proliferation. Using a combination of DamID-seq and RNA-seq, we identified a set of Yki targets that play a diversity of roles during development and are suppressed by E2F1. Further, we found that human E2F1 competes with YAP for TEAD1 binding, affecting YAP activity, indicating that this mode of cross-regulation is conserved. In sum, our study uncovers a previously unknown mechanism in which RBF and E2F1 modify Hippo signaling responses to modulate apoptosis, organ growth, and homeostasis.
Literature context: hermoFisher Scientific, A10262; RRID:AB_2534023), mouse anti-AÎ² 6E10 (1:500; Bi
Pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and reactive gliosis. Glial cells offer protection against AD by engulfing extracellular Aβ peptides, but the repertoire of molecules required for glial recognition and destruction of Aβ are still unclear. Here, we show that the highly conserved glial engulfment receptor Draper/MEGF10 provides neuroprotection in an AD model of Drosophila (both sexes). Neuronal expression of human Aβ42arc in adult flies results in robust Aβ accumulation, neurodegeneration, locomotor dysfunction, and reduced lifespan. Notably, all of these phenotypes are more severe in draper mutant animals, whereas enhanced expression of glial Draper reverses Aβ accumulation, as well as behavioral phenotypes. We also show that the signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat92E), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/AP-1 signaling, and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (Mmp1) are activated downstream of Draper in glia in response to Aβ42arc exposure. Furthermore, Aβ42-induced upregulation of the phagolysosomal markers Atg8 and p62 was notably reduced in draper mutant flies. Based on our findings, we propose that glia clear neurotoxic Aβ peptides in the AD model Drosophila brain through a Draper/STAT92E/JNK cascade that may be coupled to protein degradation pathways such as autophagy or more traditional phagolysosomal destruction methods.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alzheimer's disease (AD) and similar dementias are common incurable neurodegenerative disorders in the aging population. As the primary immune responders in the brain, glial cells are implicated as key players in the onset and progression of AD and related disorders. Here we show that the glial engulfment receptor Draper is protective in a Drosophila model of AD, reducing levels of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides, reversing locomotor defects, and extending lifespan. We further show that protein degradation pathways are induced downstream of Draper in AD model flies, supporting a model in which glia engulf and destroy Aβ peptides to reduce amyloid-associated toxicity.
Literature context: sher Scientific catalog #A10262 RRID:AB_2534023, 1:1000 dilution), rabbit anti-
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized pathologically by the selective loss of substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons. Recent evidence has suggested a role of LRRK2, linked to the most frequent familial PD, in regulating synaptic vesicle (SV) trafficking. However, the mechanism whereby LRRK2 mutants contribute to nigral vulnerability remains unclear. Here we show that the most common PD mutation LRRK2 G2019S impairs SV endocytosis in ventral midbrain (MB) neurons, including DA neurons, and the slowed endocytosis can be rescued by inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity. A similar endocytic defect, however, was not observed in LRRK2 mutant neurons from the neocortex (hereafter, cortical neurons) or the hippocampus, suggesting a brain region-specific vulnerability to the G2019S mutation. Additionally, we found MB-specific impairment of SV endocytosis in neurons carrying heterozygous deletion of SYNJ1 (PARK20), a gene that is associated with recessive Parkinsonism. Combining SYNJ1+/- and LRRK2 G2019S does not exacerbate SV endocytosis but impairs sustained exocytosis in MB neurons and alters specific motor functions of 1-year-old male mice. Interestingly, we show that LRRK2 directly phosphorylates synaptojanin1 in vitro, resulting in the disruption of endophilin-synaptojanin1 interaction required for SV endocytosis. Our work suggests a merge of LRRK2 and SYNJ1 pathogenic pathways in deregulating SV trafficking in MB neurons as an underlying molecular mechanism of early PD pathogenesis.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding midbrain dopaminergic (DAergic) neuron-selective vulnerability in PD is essential for the development of targeted therapeutics. We report, for the first time, a nerve terminal impairment in SV trafficking selectively in MB neurons but not cortical neurons caused by two PARK genes: LRRK2 (PARK8) and SYNJ1 (PARK20). We demonstrate that the enhanced kinase activity resulting from the most frequent G2019S mutation in LRRK2 is the key to this impairment. We provide evidence suggesting that LRRK2 G2019S and SYNJ1 loss of function share a similar pathogenic pathway in deregulating DAergic neuron SV endocytosis and that they play additive roles in facilitating each other's pathogenic functions in PD.
Literature context: ife Technologies RRID:AB_2534023 â€ƒâ€ƒâ€ƒâ€ƒRabbit anti-GFP (1:1000) Mo
Glycoprotein-deleted rabies virus-mediated monosynaptic tracing has become a standard method for neuronal circuit mapping, and is applied to virtually all parts of the rodent nervous system, including the spinal cord and primary sensory neurons. Here we identified two classes of unmyelinated sensory neurons (nonpeptidergic and C-fiber low-threshold mechanoreceptor neurons) resistant to direct and trans-synaptic infection from the spinal cord with rabies viruses that carry glycoproteins in their envelopes and that are routinely used for infection of CNS neurons (SAD-G and N2C-G). However, the same neurons were susceptible to infection with EnvA-pseudotyped rabies virus in tumor virus A receptor transgenic mice, indicating that resistance to retrograde infection was due to impaired virus adsorption rather than to deficits in subsequent steps of infection. These results demonstrate an important limitation of rabies virus-based retrograde tracing of sensory neurons in adult mice, and may help to better understand the molecular machinery required for rabies virus spread in the nervous system. In this study, mice of both sexes were used.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To understand the neuronal bases of behavior, it is important to identify the underlying neural circuitry. Rabies virus-based monosynaptic tracing has been used to identify neuronal circuits in various parts of the nervous system. This has included connections between peripheral sensory neurons and their spinal targets. These connections form the first synapse in the somatosensory pathway. Here we demonstrate that two classes of unmyelinated sensory neurons, which account for >40% of dorsal root ganglia neurons, display resistance to rabies infection. Our results are therefore critical for interpreting monosynaptic rabies-based tracing in the sensory system. In addition, identification of rabies-resistant neurons might provide a means for future studies addressing rabies pathobiology.
Literature context: isher Cat# A10262; RRID:AB_2534023 H3K4me1, rabbit, polyclonal Act
Chromosome conformation capture technologies have revealed important insights into genome folding. Yet, how spatial genome architecture is related to gene expression and cell fate remains unclear. We comprehensively mapped 3D chromatin organization during mouse neural differentiation in vitro and in vivo, generating the highest-resolution Hi-C maps available to date. We found that transcription is correlated with chromatin insulation and long-range interactions, but dCas9-mediated activation is insufficient for creating TAD boundaries de novo. Additionally, we discovered long-range contacts between gene bodies of exon-rich, active genes in all cell types. During neural differentiation, contacts between active TADs become less pronounced while inactive TADs interact more strongly. An extensive Polycomb network in stem cells is disrupted, while dynamic interactions between neural transcription factors appear in vivo. Finally, cell type-specific enhancer-promoter contacts are established concomitant to gene expression. This work shows that multiple factors influence the dynamics of chromatin interactions in development.
Literature context: Technologies, CatNo: A10262, RRID:AB_2534023) and sections were incubated fo
Serotonergic and glutamatergic neurons of median raphe region (MRR) play a pivotal role in the modulation of affective and cognitive functions. These neurons synapse both onto themselves and remote cortical areas. P2X7 receptors (P2rx7) are ligand gated ion channels expressed by central presynaptic excitatory nerve terminals and involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. P2rx7s are implicated in various neuropsychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia and depression. Here we investigated whether 5-HT release released from the hippocampal terminals of MRR is subject to modulation by P2rx7s. To achieve this goal, an optogenetic approach was used to selectively activate subpopulation of serotonergic terminals derived from the MRR locally, and one of its target area, the hippocampus. Optogenetic activation of neurons in the MRR with 20 Hz was correlated with freezing and enhanced locomotor activity of freely moving mice and elevated extracellular levels of 5-HT, glutamate but not GABA in vivo. Similar optical stimulation (OS) significantly increased [3H]5-HT and [3H]glutamate release in acute MRR and hippocampal slices. We examined spatial and temporal patterns of [3H]5-HT release and the interaction between the serotonin and glutamate systems. Whilst [3H]5-HT release from MRR neurons was [Ca2+]o-dependent and sensitive to TTX, CNQX and DL-AP-5, release from hippocampal terminals was not affected by the latter drugs. Hippocampal [3H]5-HT released by electrical but not OS was subject to modulation by 5- HT1B/D receptors agonist sumatriptan (1 μM), whereas the selective 5-HT1A agonist buspirone (0.1 μM) was without effect. [3H]5-HT released by electrical and optical stimulation was decreased in mice genetically deficient in P2rx7s, and after perfusion with selective P2rx7 antagonists, JNJ-47965567 (0.1 μM), and AZ-10606120 (0.1 μM). Optical and electrical stimulation elevated the extracellular level of ATP. Our results demonstrate for the first time the modulation of 5-HT release from hippocampal MRR terminals by the endogenous activation of P2rx7s. P2rx7 mediated modulation of 5-HT release could contribute to various physiological and pathophysiological phenomena, related to hippocampal serotonergic transmission.
Literature context: rmoFisher, RRID:AB_2534023). After incubation with primary
Vision in dim light depends on synapses between rods and rod bipolar cells (RBCs). Here, we find that these synapses exist in multiple configurations, in which single release sites of rods are apposed by one to three postsynaptic densities (PSDs). Single RBCs often form multiple PSDs with one rod; and neighboring RBCs share ~13% of their inputs. Rod-RBC synapses develop while ~7% of RBCs undergo programmed cell death (PCD). Although PCD is common throughout the nervous system, its influences on circuit development and function are not well understood. We generate mice in which ~53 and ~93% of RBCs, respectively, are removed during development. In these mice, dendrites of the remaining RBCs expand in graded fashion independent of light-evoked input. As RBC dendrites expand, they form fewer multi-PSD contacts with rods. Electrophysiological recordings indicate that this homeostatic co-regulation of neurite and synapse development preserves retinal function in dim light.
Literature context: #: A10262; RRID:AB_2534023 Rabbit anti-HSD2 Santa Cruz Bio
Sodium deficiency increases angiotensin II (ATII) and aldosterone, which synergistically stimulate sodium retention and consumption. Recently, ATII-responsive neurons in the subfornical organ (SFO) and aldosterone-sensitive neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTSHSD2 neurons) were shown to drive sodium appetite. Here we investigate the basis for NTSHSD2 neuron activation, identify the circuit by which NTSHSD2 neurons drive appetite, and uncover an interaction between the NTSHSD2 circuit and ATII signaling. NTSHSD2 neurons respond to sodium deficiency with spontaneous pacemaker-like activity-the consequence of "cardiac" HCN and Nav1.5 channels. Remarkably, NTSHSD2 neurons are necessary for sodium appetite, and with concurrent ATII signaling their activity is sufficient to produce rapid consumption. Importantly, NTSHSD2 neurons stimulate appetite via projections to the vlBNST, which is also the effector site for ATII-responsive SFO neurons. The interaction between angiotensin signaling and NTSHSD2 neurons provides a neuronal context for the long-standing "synergy hypothesis" of sodium appetite regulation.
Literature context: her Scientific, Waltham, MA USA RRID:AB_2534023 Rabbit anti-GFP (1 : 1000) Mole
Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector-mediated gene transfer into genetically defined neuron subtypes has become a powerful tool to study the neuroanatomy of neuronal circuits in the brain and to unravel their functions. More recently, this methodology has also become popular for the analysis of spinal cord circuits. To date, a variety of naturally occurring AAV serotypes and genetically modified capsid variants are available but transduction efficiency in spinal neurons, target selectivity, and the ability for retrograde tracing are only incompletely characterized. Here, we have compared the transduction efficiency of seven commonly used AAV serotypes after intraspinal injection. We specifically analyzed local transduction of different types of dorsal horn neurons, and retrograde transduction of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and of neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) and the somatosensory cortex (S1). Our results show that most of the tested rAAV vectors have similar transduction efficiency in spinal neurons. All serotypes analyzed were also able to transduce DRG neurons and descending RVM and S1 neurons via their spinal axon terminals. When comparing the commonly used rAAV serotypes to the recently developed serotype 2 capsid variant rAAV2retro, a > 20-fold increase in transduction efficiency of descending supraspinal neurons was observed. Conversely, transgene expression in retrogradely transduced neurons was strongly reduced when the human synapsin 1 (hSyn1) promoter was used instead of the strong ubiquitous hybrid cytomegalovirus enhancer/chicken β-actin promoter (CAG) or cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter fragments. We conclude that the use of AAV2retro greatly increases transduction of neurons connected to the spinal cord via their axon terminals, while the hSyn1 promoter can be used to minimize transgene expression in retrogradely connected neurons of the DRG or brainstem. Cover Image for this issue: doi. 10.1111/jnc.13813.
Literature context: i-GFP Life Technologies A10262; RRID:AB_2534023 Mouse monoclomal anti-NeuN Mill
The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a transducer of local dendritic translation, participates in learning and memory processes as well as in mechanisms underlying alcohol-drinking behaviors. Using an unbiased RNA-seq approach, we identified Prosapip1 as a novel downstream target of mTORC1 whose translation and consequent synaptic protein expression are increased in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice excessively consuming alcohol. We demonstrate that alcohol-dependent increases in Prosapip1 levels promote the formation of actin filaments, leading to changes in dendritic spine morphology of NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs). We further demonstrate that Prosapip1 is required for alcohol-dependent synaptic localization of GluA2 lacking AMPA receptors in NAc shell MSNs. Finally, we present data implicating Prosapip1 in mechanisms underlying alcohol self-administration and reward. Together, these data suggest that Prosapip1 in the NAc is a molecular transducer of structural and synaptic alterations that drive and/or maintain excessive alcohol use.
Literature context: onal) life technologies A10262; RRID:AB_2534023 1:750
Most organs rely on stem cells to maintain homeostasis during post-embryonic life. Typically, stem cells of independent lineages work coordinately within mature organs to ensure proper ratios of cell types. Little is known, however, on how these different stem cells locate to forming organs during development. Here we show that neuromasts of the posterior lateral line in medaka are composed of two independent life-long lineages with different embryonic origins. Clonal analysis and 4D imaging revealed a hierarchical organisation with instructing and responding roles: an inner, neural lineage induces the formation of an outer, border cell lineage (nBC) from the skin epithelium. Our results demonstrate that the neural lineage is necessary and sufficient to generate nBCs highlighting self-organisation principles at the level of the entire embryo. We hypothesise that induction of surrounding tissues plays a major role during the establishment of vertebrate stem cell niches.
Literature context: nti-GFP (ThermoFisher, #A10262, RRID:AB_2534023) at 1:1000; mouse anti-Draper (
Neural injury triggers swift responses from glia, including glial migration and phagocytic clearance of damaged neurons. The transcriptional programs governing these complex innate glial immune responses are still unclear. Here, we describe a novel injury assay in adult Drosophila that elicits widespread glial responses in the ventral nerve cord (VNC). We profiled injury-induced changes in VNC gene expression by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and found that responsive genes fall into diverse signaling classes. One factor, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), is induced in Drosophila ensheathing glia responding to severed axons. Interestingly, glial induction of MMP-1 requires the highly conserved engulfment receptor Draper, as well as AP-1 and STAT92E. In MMP-1 depleted flies, glia do not properly infiltrate neuropil regions after axotomy and, as a consequence, fail to clear degenerating axonal debris. This work identifies Draper-dependent activation of MMP-1 as a novel cascade required for proper glial clearance of severed axons.
Literature context: itrogen A-10262; RRID:AB_2534023 Goat polyclonal anti-chicken In
The formation and retrieval of a memory is thought to be accomplished by activation and reactivation, respectively, of the memory-holding cells (engram cells) by a common set of neural circuits, but this hypothesis has not been established. The medial temporal-lobe system is essential for the formation and retrieval of episodic memory for which individual hippocampal subfields and entorhinal cortex layers contribute by carrying out specific functions. One subfield whose function is poorly known is the subiculum. Here, we show that dorsal subiculum and the circuit, CA1 to dorsal subiculum to medial entorhinal cortex layer 5, play a crucial role selectively in the retrieval of episodic memories. Conversely, the direct CA1 to medial entorhinal cortex layer 5 circuit is essential specifically for memory formation. Our data suggest that the subiculum-containing detour loop is dedicated to meet the requirements associated with recall such as rapid memory updating and retrieval-driven instinctive fear responses.
Literature context: t#A10262; RRID:AB_2534023 Rabbit pol
Highly conserved intraflagellar transport (IFT) protein complexes direct both the assembly of primary cilia and the trafficking of signaling molecules. IFT complexes initially accumulate at the base of the cilium and periodically enter the cilium, suggesting an as-yet-unidentified mechanism that triggers ciliary entry of IFT complexes. Using affinity-purification and mass spectrometry of interactors of the centrosomal and ciliopathy protein, CEP19, we identify CEP350, FOP, and the RABL2B GTPase as proteins organizing the first known mechanism directing ciliary entry of IFT complexes. We discover that CEP19 is recruited to the ciliary base by the centriolar CEP350/FOP complex and then specifically captures GTP-bound RABL2B, which is activated via its intrinsic nucleotide exchange. Activated RABL2B then captures and releases its single effector, the intraflagellar transport B holocomplex, from the large pool of pre-docked IFT-B complexes, and thus initiates ciliary entry of IFT.
Literature context: t#A10262; RRID:AB_2534023 Rabbit pol
Neural networks are emerging as the fundamental computational unit of the brain and it is becoming progressively clearer that network dysfunction is at the core of a number of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Yet, our ability to target specific networks for functional or genetic manipulations remains limited. Monosynaptically restricted rabies virus facilitates the anatomical investigation of neural circuits. However, the inherent cytotoxicity of the rabies largely prevents its implementation in long-term functional studies and the genetic manipulation of neural networks. To overcome this limitation, we developed a self-inactivating ΔG-rabies virus (SiR) that transcriptionally disappears from the infected neurons while leaving permanent genetic access to the traced network. SiR provides a virtually unlimited temporal window for the study of network dynamics and for the genetic and functional manipulation of neural circuits in vivo without adverse effects on neuronal physiology and circuit function.
Literature context: t#A10262; RRID:AB_2534023 Chemicals,
Organ growth requires a careful balance between stem cell self-renewal and lineage commitment to ensure proper tissue expansion. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate this balance are unresolved in most organs, including skeletal muscle. Here we identify a long-lived stem cell pool that mediates growth of the zebrafish myotome. This population exhibits extensive clonal drift, shifting from random deployment of stem cells during development to reliance on a small number of dominant clones to fuel the vast majority of muscle growth. This clonal drift requires Meox1, a homeobox protein that directly inhibits the cell-cycle checkpoint gene ccnb1. Meox1 initiates G2 cell-cycle arrest within muscle stem cells, and disrupting this G2 arrest causes premature lineage commitment and the resulting defects in muscle growth. These findings reveal that distinct regulatory mechanisms orchestrate stem cell dynamics during organ growth, beyond the G0/G1 cell-cycle inhibition traditionally associated with maintaining tissue-resident stem cells.
Literature context: antibody (RRID:AB_2534023) was direc
The Nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 2 (Nr4a2) is crucial for the formation or maintenance of dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system including the retina, where dopaminergic amacrine cells contribute to visual function. Little is known about which cells express Nr4a2 at which developmental stage. Furthermore, whether Nr4a2 functions in combination with other genes is poorly understood. Thus, we generated a novel transgenic to visualize Nr4a2 expression in vivo during zebrafish retinogenesis. A 4.1 kb fragment of the nr4a2a promoter was used to drive green fluorescent protein expression in this Tg(nr4a2a:eGFP) line. In situ hybridization showed that transgene expression follows endogenous RNA expression at a cellular level. Temporal expression and lineages were quantified using in vivo time-lapse imaging in embryos. Nr4a2 expressing retinal subtypes were characterized immunohistochemically. Nr4a2a:eGFP labeled multiple neuron subtypes including 24.5% of all amacrine interneurons. Nr4a2a:eGFP labels all tyrosine hydroxylase labeled dopaminergic amacrine cells, and other nondopaminergic GABAergic amacrine populations. Nr4a2a:eGFP is confined to a specific progenitor lineage identified by sequential expression of the bhlh transcription factor Atonal7 (Atoh7) and Pancreas transcription factor 1a (Ptf1a), and labels postmitotic postmigratory amacrine cells. Thus, developmental Nr4a2a expression indicates a role during late differentiation of specific amacrine interneurons. Tg(nr4a2a:eGFP) is an early marker of distinct neurons including dopaminergic amacrine cells. It can be utilized to assess consequences of gene manipulations and understand whether Nr4a2 only carries out its role in the presence of specific coexpressed genes. This will allow Nr4a2 use to be refined for regenerative approaches.
Literature context: t# A10262 RRID:AB_2534023) and mouse
Attenuating the strength of fearful memories could benefit people disabled by memories of past trauma. Pavlovian conditioning experiments indicate that a retrieval cue can return a conditioned aversive memory to a labile state. However, means to enhance retrieval and render a memory more labile are unknown. We hypothesized that augmenting synaptic signaling during retrieval would increase memory lability. To enhance synaptic transmission, mice inhaled CO2 to induce an acidosis and activate acid sensing ion channels. Transient acidification increased the retrieval-induced lability of an aversive memory. The labile memory could then be weakened by an extinction protocol or strengthened by reconditioning. Coupling CO2 inhalation to retrieval increased activation of amygdala neurons bearing the memory trace and increased the synaptic exchange from Ca2+-impermeable to Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors. The results suggest that transient acidosis during retrieval renders the memory of an aversive event more labile and suggest a strategy to modify debilitating memories.
Literature context: olyclonal RRID:AB_2534023 1:1,000
Müller glia, the most abundant glia of vertebrate retina, have an elaborate morphology characterized by a vertical stalk that spans the retina and branches in each retinal layer. Müller glia play diverse, critical roles in retinal homeostasis, which are presumably enabled by their complex anatomy. However, much remains unknown, particularly in mouse, about the anatomical arrangement of Müller cells and their arbors, and how these features arise in development. Here we use membrane-targeted fluorescent proteins to reveal the fine structure of mouse Müller arbors. We find sublayer-specific arbor specializations within the inner plexiform layer (IPL) that occur consistently at defined laminar locations. We then characterize Müller glia spatial patterning, revealing how individual cells collaborate to form a pan-retinal network. Müller cells, unlike neurons, are spread across the retina with homogenous density, and their arbor sizes change little with eccentricity. Using Brainbow methods to label neighboring cells in different colors, we find that Müller glia tile retinal space with minimal overlap. The shape of their arbors is irregular but nonrandom, suggesting that local interactions between neighboring cells determine their territories. Finally, we identify a developmental window at postnatal Days 6 to 9 when Müller arbors first colonize the synaptic layers beginning in stereotyped inner plexiform layer sublaminae. Together, our study defines the anatomical arrangement of mouse Müller glia and their network in the radial and tangential planes of the retina, in development and adulthood. The local precision of Müller glia organization suggests that their morphology is sculpted by specific cell to cell interactions with neurons and each other.
It is known that angiotensin-II acts at its type-1 receptor to stimulate vasopressin (AVP) secretion, which may contribute to angiotensin-II-induced hypertension. Less well known is the impact of angiotensin type-2 receptor (AT2R) activation on these processes. Studies conducted in a transgenic AT2R enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter mouse revealed that although AT2R are not themselves localized to AVP neurons within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), they are localized to neurons that extend processes into the PVN. In the present set of studies, we set out to characterize the origin, phenotype, and function of nerve terminals within the PVN that arise from AT2R-enhanced green fluorescent protein-positive neurons and synapse onto AVP neurons. Initial experiments combined genetic and neuroanatomical techniques to determine that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons derived from the peri-PVN area containing AT2R make appositions onto AVP neurons within the PVN, thereby positioning AT2R to negatively regulate neuroendocrine secretion. Subsequent patch-clamp electrophysiological experiments revealed that selective activation of AT2R in the peri-PVN area using compound 21 facilitates inhibitory (ie, GABAergic) neurotransmission and leads to reduced activity of AVP neurons within the PVN. Final experiments determined the functional impact of AT2R activation by testing the effects of compound 21 on plasma AVP levels. Collectively, these experiments revealed that AT2R expressing neurons make GABAergic synapses onto AVP neurons that inhibit AVP neuronal activity and suppress baseline systemic AVP levels. These findings have direct implications in the targeting of AT2R for disorders of AVP secretion and also for the alleviation of high blood pressure.
Literature context: # A10262; RRID:AB_2534023 Rabbit pol
In many vertebrates, postnatally generated neurons often migrate long distances to reach their final destination, where they help shape local circuit activity. Concerted action of extrinsic stimuli is required to regulate long-distance migration. Some migratory principles are evolutionarily conserved, whereas others are species and cell type specific. Here we identified a serotonergic mechanism that governs migration of postnatally generated neurons in the mouse brain. Serotonergic axons originating from the raphe nuclei exhibit a conspicuous alignment with subventricular zone-derived neuroblasts. Optogenetic axonal activation provides functional evidence for serotonergic modulation of neuroblast migration. Furthermore, we show that the underlying mechanism involves serotonin receptor 3A (5HT3A)-mediated calcium influx. Thus, 5HT3A receptor deletion in neuroblasts impaired speed and directionality of migration and abolished calcium spikes. We speculate that serotonergic modulation of postnatally generated neuroblast migration is evolutionarily conserved as indicated by the presence of serotonergic axons in migratory paths in other vertebrates.
Mitral cells are the major projection neurons of the olfactory bulb. They receive olfactory inputs, regulate information, and project their axons to the olfactory cortex. To understand output regulation of mitral cells better, we established a method to visualize individual projection neurons and quantitatively examined their synaptic distribution. Individual mitral cells were labeled by viral injection, reconstructed three dimensionally with light microscopy, and serial sectioned for electron microscopy. Synaptic distributions were analyzed in electron microscopically reconstructed cell bodies, two regions of secondary dendrites (near the somata and ∼200 μm from the somata), and primary dendrites. The ratio of presynaptic sites (60%) and reciprocal synapses (60% presynaptic and 80% postsynaptic sites) were similar in each region. Characteristically, primary dendrite synapses were distributed mainly within the inner half of the external plexiform layer (EPL). For comparison, tufted cells were also examined, and the synaptic distribution in two secondary dendrite regions, which corresponded with mitral cells, was analyzed. The results showed that the ratio of reciprocal synapses (80% presynaptic and 90% postsynaptic sites) was greater than in mitral cells. The distribution of symmetrical synapses was also analyzed with synaptic and neuronal markers, such as parvalbumin, vesicular gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter, and gephyrin. Parvalbumin-expressing neurons tended to form synapses on secondary dendrites near the somata and were more uniformly distributed on primary dendrites of mitral cells. These results indicate that local mitral cell synaptic circuits are formed in accordance with their functional roles and restricted to the inner half of the EPL. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1633-1648, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Literature context: # A10262; RRID:AB_2534023 Goat polyc
Convergent input from different presynaptic partners shapes the responses of postsynaptic neurons. Whether developing postsynaptic neurons establish connections with each presynaptic partner independently or balance inputs to attain specific responses is unclear. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) receive convergent input from bipolar cell types with different contrast responses and temporal tuning. Here, using optogenetic activation and pharmacogenetic silencing, we found that type 6 bipolar (B6) cells dominate excitatory input to ONα-RGCs. We generated mice in which B6 cells were selectively removed from developing circuits (B6-DTA). In B6-DTA mice, ONα-RGCs adjusted connectivity with other bipolar cells in a cell-type-specific manner. They recruited new partners, increased synapses with some existing partners, and maintained constant input from others. Patch-clamp recordings revealed that anatomical rewiring precisely preserved contrast and temporal frequency response functions of ONα-RGCs, indicating that homeostatic plasticity shapes cell-type-specific wiring in the developing retina to stabilize visual information sent to the brain.
Literature context: # A10262; RRID:AB_2534023 Mouse mono
Piwi family protein Aubergine (Aub) maintains genome integrity in late germ cells of the Drosophila ovary through Piwi-associated RNA-mediated repression of transposon activities. Although it is highly expressed in germline stem cells (GSCs) and early progeny, it remains unclear whether it plays any roles in early GSC lineage development. Here we report that Aub promotes GSC self-renewal and GSC progeny differentiation. RNA-iCLIP results show that Aub binds the mRNAs encoding self-renewal and differentiation factors in cultured GSCs. Aub controls GSC self-renewal by preventing DNA-damage-induced Chk2 activation and by translationally controlling the expression of self-renewal factors. It promotes GSC progeny differentiation by translationally controlling the expression of differentiation factors, including Bam. Therefore, this study reveals a function of Aub in GSCs and their progeny, which promotes translation of self-renewal and differentiation factors by directly binding to its target mRNAs and interacting with translational initiation factors.
Literature context: #A10262, RRID:AB_11180610) in 1% BSA
Olfactory sensory axons converge in specific glomeruli where they form excitatory synapses onto dendrites of mitral/tufted (M/T) and juxtaglomerular (JG) cells, including periglomerular (PG), external tufted (ET), and superficial-short axon cells. JG cells consist of heterogeneous subpopulations with different neurochemical, physiological, and morphological properties. Among JG cells, previous electron microscopic (EM) studies have shown that the majority of synaptic inputs to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive neurons were asymmetrical synapses from olfactory nerve (ON) terminals. However, recent physiological results revealed that 70% of dopaminergic/γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons received polysynaptic inputs via ET cells, whereas the remaining 30% received monosynaptic ON inputs. To understand the discrepancies between EM and physiological data, we used serial EM analysis combined with confocal laser scanning microscope images to examine the spatial distribution of synapses on dendrites using mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of the TH promoter. The majority of synaptic inputs to TH-expressing JG cells were from ON terminals, and they preferentially targeted distal dendrites from the soma. On the other hand, the numbers of non-ON inputs were fewer and targeted proximal dendrites. Furthermore, individual TH-expressing JG cells formed serial synapses, such as M/T→TH→another presumed M/T or ON→TH→presumed M/T, but not reciprocal synapses. Serotonergic fibers also associated with somatic regions of TH neurons, displaying non-ON profiles. Thus, fewer proximal non-ON synapses provide more effective inputs than large numbers of distal ON synapses and may occur on the physiologically characterized population of dopaminergic-GABAergic neurons (70%) that receive their most effective inputs indirectly via an ON→ET→TH circuit. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1059-1074, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Literature context: # A10262, RRID:AB_2534023 mouse mono
Mechanisms regulating the surveillance and clearance of synaptic proteins are not well understood. Intriguingly, the loss of the presynaptic active zone proteins Piccolo and Bassoon triggers the loss of synaptic vesicles (SVs) and compromises synaptic integrity. Here we report that the destruction of SVs in boutons lacking Piccolo and Bassoon was associated with the induction of presynaptic autophagy, a process that depended on poly-ubiquitination, but not the E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah1. Surprisingly, gain or loss of function (LOF) of Bassoon alone suppressed or enhanced presynaptic autophagy, respectively, implying a fundamental role for Bassoon in the local regulation of presynaptic autophagy. Mechanistically, Bassoon was found to interact with Atg5, an E3-like ligase essential for autophagy, and to inhibit the induction of autophagy in heterologous cells. Importantly, Atg5 LOF as well as targeting an Atg5-binding peptide derived from Bassoon inhibited presynaptic autophagy in boutons lacking Piccolo and Bassoon, providing insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating presynaptic autophagy.
Literature context: # A10262, RRID:AB_11180610) in blocki
Odor information is regulated by olfactory inputs, bulbar interneurons, and centrifugal inputs in the olfactory bulb (OB). Cholinergic neurons projecting from the nucleus of the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca and the magnocellular preoptic nucleus are one of the primary centrifugal inputs to the OB. In this study, we focused on cholinergic regulation of the OB and analyzed neural morphology with a particular emphasis on the projection pathways of cholinergic neurons. Single-cell imaging of a specific neuron within dense fibers is critical to evaluate the structure and function of the neural circuits. We labeled cholinergic neurons by infection with virus vector and then reconstructed them three-dimensionally. We also examined the ultramicrostructure of synapses by electron microscopy tomography. To further clarify the function of cholinergic neurons, we performed confocal laser scanning microscopy to investigate whether other neurotransmitters are present within cholinergic axons in the OB. Our results showed the first visualization of complete cholinergic neurons, including axons projecting to the OB, and also revealed frequent axonal branching within the OB where it innervated multiple glomeruli in different areas. Furthermore, electron tomography demonstrated that cholinergic axons formed asymmetrical synapses with a morphological variety of thicknesses of the postsynaptic density. Although we have not yet detected the presence of other neurotransmitters, the range of synaptic morphology suggests multiple modes of transmission. The present study elucidates the ways that cholinergic neurons could contribute to the elaborate mechanisms involved in olfactory processing in the OB. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:574-591, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Literature context: FP 1:400 (RRID:AB_2534023, A10262, I
The segregation of the trophectoderm (TE) from the inner cell mass (ICM) in the mouse blastocyst is determined by position-dependent Hippo signaling. However, the window of responsiveness to Hippo signaling, the exact timing of lineage commitment and the overall relationship between cell commitment and global gene expression changes are still unclear. Single-cell RNA sequencing during lineage segregation revealed that the TE transcriptional profile stabilizes earlier than the ICM and prior to blastocyst formation. Using quantitative Cdx2-eGFP expression as a readout of Hippo signaling activity, we assessed the experimental potential of individual blastomeres based on their level of Cdx2-eGFP expression and correlated potential with gene expression dynamics. We find that TE specification and commitment coincide and occur at the time of transcriptional stabilization, whereas ICM cells still retain the ability to regenerate TE up to the early blastocyst stage. Plasticity of both lineages is coincident with their window of sensitivity to Hippo signaling.
Literature context: # A10262; RRID:AB_2534023 rat polycl
Brain development requires correct targeting of multiple thousand synaptic terminals onto staggeringly complex dendritic arbors. The mechanisms by which input synapse numbers are matched to dendrite size, and by which synaptic inputs from different transmitter systems are correctly partitioned onto a postsynaptic arbor, are incompletely understood. By combining quantitative neuroanatomy with targeted genetic manipulation of synaptic input to an identified Drosophila neuron, we show that synaptic inputs of two different transmitter classes locally direct dendrite growth in a competitive manner. During development, the relative amounts of GABAergic and cholinergic synaptic drive shift dendrites between different input domains of one postsynaptic neuron without affecting total arbor size. Therefore, synaptic input locally directs dendrite growth, but intra-neuronal dendrite redistributions limit morphological variability, a phenomenon also described for cortical neurons. Mechanistically, this requires local dendritic Ca2+ influx through Dα7nAChRs or through LVA channels following GABAAR-mediated depolarizations. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
Literature context: anti-GFP (RRID:AB_2534023 Invitrogen
Locomotion is an essential animal behavior used for translocation. The spinal cord acts as key executing center, but how it coordinates many body parts located across distance remains poorly understood. Here we employed mouse genetic and viral approaches to reveal organizational principles of long-projecting spinal circuits and their role in quadrupedal locomotion. Using neurotransmitter identity, developmental origin, and projection patterns as criteria, we uncover that spinal segments controlling forelimbs and hindlimbs are bidirectionally connected by symmetrically organized direct synaptic pathways that encompass multiple genetically tractable neuronal subpopulations. We demonstrate that selective ablation of descending spinal neurons linking cervical to lumbar segments impairs coherent locomotion, by reducing postural stability and speed during exploratory locomotion, as well as perturbing interlimb coordination during reinforced high-speed stepping. Together, our results implicate a highly organized long-distance projection system of spinal origin in the control of postural body stabilization and reliability during quadrupedal locomotion.
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in Frataxin (FXN). Loss of FXN causes impaired mitochondrial function and iron homeostasis. An elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was previously proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of FRDA. We recently showed that loss of frataxin homolog (fh), a Drosophila homolog of FXN, causes a ROS independent neurodegeneration in flies (Chen et al., 2016). In fh mutants, iron accumulation in the nervous system enhances the synthesis of sphingolipids, which in turn activates 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 (Pdk1) and myocyte enhancer factor-2 (Mef2) to trigger neurodegeneration of adult photoreceptors. Here, we show that loss of Fxn in the nervous system in mice also activates an iron/sphingolipid/PDK1/Mef2 pathway, indicating that the mechanism is evolutionarily conserved. Furthermore, sphingolipid levels and PDK1 activity are also increased in hearts of FRDA patients, suggesting that a similar pathway is affected in FRDA.
Literature context: #A10262, RRID:AB_2534023; goat-GFAP
The brain is critically dependent on the regulation of blood flow to nourish active neurons. One widely held hypothesis of blood flow regulation holds that active neurons stimulate Ca(2+) increases in glial cells, triggering glial release of vasodilating agents. This hypothesis has been challenged, as arteriole dilation can occur in the absence of glial Ca(2+) signaling. We address this controversy by imaging glial Ca(2+) signaling and vessel dilation in the mouse retina. We find that sensory stimulation results in Ca(2+) increases in the glial endfeet contacting capillaries, but not arterioles, and that capillary dilations often follow spontaneous Ca(2+) signaling. In IP3R2(-/-) mice, where glial Ca(2+) signaling is reduced, light-evoked capillary, but not arteriole, dilation is abolished. The results show that, independent of arterioles, capillaries actively dilate and regulate blood flow. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that glial Ca(2+) signaling regulates capillary but not arteriole blood flow. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: We show that a Ca(2+)-dependent glial cell signaling mechanism is responsible for regulating capillary but not arteriole diameter. This finding resolves a long-standing controversy regarding the role of glial cells in regulating blood flow, demonstrating that glial Ca(2+) signaling is both necessary and sufficient to dilate capillaries. While the relative contributions of capillaries and arterioles to blood flow regulation remain unclear, elucidating the mechanisms that regulate capillary blood flow may ultimately lead to the development of therapies for treating diseases where blood flow regulation is disrupted, including Alzheimer's disease, stroke, and diabetic retinopathy. This finding may also aid in revealing the underlying neuronal activity that generates BOLD fMRI signals.
Literature context: #A10262; RRID:AB_2534023). The foll
Animals use the sense of vision to scan their environment, respond to threats, and locate food sources. The neural computations underlying the selection of a particular behavior, such as escape or approach, require flexibility to balance potential costs and benefits for survival. For example, avoiding novel visual objects reduces predation risk but negatively affects foraging success. Zebrafish larvae approach small, moving objects ("prey") and avoid large, looming objects ("predators"). We found that this binary classification of objects by size is strongly influenced by feeding state. Hunger shifts behavioral decisions from avoidance to approach and recruits additional prey-responsive neurons in the tectum, the main visual processing center. Both behavior and tectal function are modulated by signals from the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis and the serotonergic system. Our study has revealed a neuroendocrine mechanism that modulates the perception of food and the willingness to take risks in foraging decisions.