Literature context: rmo Fischer Scientific, A-10040 RRID:AB_2534016 Donkey anti-goat 488 4 Âµg/mL Th
Principal neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) receive powerful ascending excitation and pass on the auditory information with exquisite temporal fidelity. Despite being dominated by ascending inputs, the VCN also receives descending cholinergic connections from olivocochlear neurons and from higher regions in the pontomesencephalic tegmentum. In Mongolian gerbils, acetylcholine acts as an excitatory and modulatory neurotransmitter on VCN neurons, but the anatomical structure of cholinergic innervation of gerbil VCN is not well described. We applied fluorescent immunohistochemical staining to elucidate the development and the cellular localization of presynaptic and postsynaptic components of the cholinergic system in the VCN of the Mongolian gerbil. We found that cholinergic fibers (stained with antibodies against the vesicular acetylcholine transporter) were present before hearing onset at P5, but innervation density increased in animals after P10. Early in development cholinergic fibers invaded the VCN from the medial side, spread along the perimeter and finally innervated all parts of the nucleus only after the onset of hearing. Cholinergic fibers ran in a rostro-caudal direction within the nucleus and formed en-passant swellings in the neuropil between principal neurons. Nicotinic and muscarinic receptors were expressed differentially in the VCN, with nicotinic receptors being mostly expressed in dendritic areas while muscarinic receptors were located predominantly in somatic membranes. These anatomical data support physiological indications that cholinergic innervation plays a role in modulating information processing in the cochlear nucleus.
Literature context: Fisher scientific Cat# A10040, RRID:AB_2534016 Alexa Fluor 546 Donkey anti Mou
Chronic liver injury can cause cirrhosis and impaired liver regeneration, impairing organ function. Adult livers can regenerate in response to parenchymal insults, and multiple cellular sources have been reported to contribute to this response. In this study, we modeled human chronic liver injuries, in which such responses are blunted, without genetic manipulations, and assessed potential contributions of non-parenchymal cells (NPCs) to hepatocyte regeneration. We show that NPC-derived hepatocytes replenish a large fraction of the liver parenchyma following severe injuries induced by long-term thioacetamide (TAA) or 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) treatment. Through lineage tracing of biliary epithelial cells (BECs), we show that BECs are a source of new hepatocytes and gain an Hnf4α+CK19+ bi-phenotypic state in periportal regions and fibrotic septa. Bi-phenotypic cells were also detected in cirrhotic human livers. Together, these data provide further support for hepatocyte regeneration from BECs without genetic interventions and show their cellular plasticity during severe liver injury.
Literature context: A10040, RRID:AB_2534016 anti goat 567 Life Technology A
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive degeneration of midbrain neurons (MBNs). Recent evidence suggests contribution of the adaptive immune system in PD. Here, we show a role for human T lymphocytes as cell death inducers of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived MBNs in sporadic PD. Higher Th17 frequencies were found in the blood of PD patients and increased numbers of T lymphocytes were detected in postmortem PD brain tissues. We modeled this finding using autologous co-cultures of activated T lymphocytes and iPSC-derived MBNs of sporadic PD patients and controls. After co-culture with T lymphocytes or the addition of IL-17, PD iPSC-derived MBNs underwent increased neuronal death driven by upregulation of IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) and NFκB activation. Blockage of IL-17 or IL-17R, or the addition of the FDA-approved anti-IL-17 antibody, secukinumab, rescued the neuronal death. Our findings indicate a critical role for IL-17-producing T lymphocytes in sporadic PD.
Literature context: RRID:AB_2534016 Donkey anti-Rabbit, Alexa Fluro
During development, progenitors progress through transition states. The cardiac epicardium contains progenitors of essential non-cardiomyocytes. The Hippo pathway, a kinase cascade that inhibits the Yap transcriptional co-factor, controls organ size in developing hearts. Here, we investigated Hippo kinases Lats1 and Lats2 in epicardial diversification. Epicardial-specific deletion of Lats1/2 was embryonic lethal, and mutant embryos had defective coronary vasculature remodeling. Single-cell RNA sequencing revealed that Lats1/2 mutant cells failed to activate fibroblast differentiation but remained in an intermediate cell state with both epicardial and fibroblast characteristics. Lats1/2 mutant cells displayed an arrested developmental trajectory with persistence of epicardial markers and expanded expression of Yap targets Dhrs3, an inhibitor of retinoic acid synthesis, and Dpp4, a protease that modulates extracellular matrix (ECM) composition. Genetic and pharmacologic manipulation revealed that Yap inhibits fibroblast differentiation, prolonging a subepicardial-like cell state, and promotes expression of matricellular factors, such as Dpp4, that define ECM characteristics.
Literature context: Fisher Scientific Cat. #A10040; RRID:AB_2534016 Bacterial and Virus Strains
Mitochondria associate with lipid droplets (LDs) in fat-oxidizing tissues, but the functional role of these peridroplet mitochondria (PDM) is unknown. Microscopic observation of interscapular brown adipose tissue reveals that PDM have unique protein composition and cristae structure and remain adherent to the LD in the tissue homogenate. We developed an approach to isolate PDM based on their adherence to LDs. Comparison of purified PDM to cytoplasmic mitochondria reveals that (1) PDM have increased pyruvate oxidation, electron transport, and ATP synthesis capacities; (2) PDM have reduced β-oxidation capacity and depart from LDs upon activation of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and β-oxidation; (3) PDM support LD expansion as Perilipin5-induced recruitment of mitochondria to LDs increases ATP synthase-dependent triacylglyceride synthesis; and (4) PDM maintain a distinct protein composition due to uniquely low fusion-fission dynamics. We conclude that PDM represent a segregated mitochondrial population with unique structure and function that supports triacylglyceride synthesis.
Literature context: Life Technologies Cat# A10040, RRID:AB_2534016 Donkey anti-goat Dylight 647 Ja
Maternal behaviors are essential for the survival of the young. Previous studies implicated the medial preoptic area (MPOA) as an important region for maternal behaviors, but details of the maternal circuit remain incompletely understood. Here we identify estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1)-expressing cells in the MPOA as key mediators of pup approach and retrieval. Reversible inactivation of MPOAEsr1+ cells impairs those behaviors, whereas optogenetic activation induces immediate pup retrieval. In vivo recordings demonstrate preferential activation of MPOAEsr1+ cells during maternal behaviors and changes in MPOA cell responses across reproductive states. Furthermore, channelrhodopsin-assisted circuit mapping reveals a strong inhibitory projection from MPOAEsr1+ cells to ventral tegmental area (VTA) non-dopaminergic cells. Pathway-specific manipulations reveal that this projection is essential for driving pup approach and retrieval and that VTA dopaminergic cells are reliably activated during those behaviors. Altogether, this study provides new insight into the neural circuit that generates maternal behaviors.
Literature context: H+L) Molecular Probes: A10040; RRID:AB_2534016 Donkey 1:500
The outer mitochondrial membrane translocator protein (TSPO) binds cholesterol with high affinity and is involved in mediating its delivery into mitochondria, the rate-limiting step in hormone-induced steroidogenesis. Specific ligand binding to TSPO has been shown to initiate steroid formation. However, recent studies of the genetic deletion of Tspo have provided conflicting results. Here, we address and extend previous studies by examining the effects of Tspo-specific mutations on steroid formation in hormone- and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-responsive MA-10 cells, using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Two mutant subcell lines, nG1 and G2G, each carrying a Tspo exon2-specific genome modification, and two control subcell lines, G1 and HH, each carrying a wild-type Tspo, were produced. In response to dibutyryl cAMP, the nG1 and G2G cells produced progesterone at levels significantly lower than those produced by the corresponding control cells G1 and HH. Neutral lipid homeostasis, which provides free cholesterol for steroid biosynthesis, was altered significantly in the Tspo mutant cells. Interestingly, the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) of the Tspo mutant cells was significantly reduced compared with that of the control cells, likely because of TSPO interactions with the voltage-dependent anion channel and tubulin at the outer mitochondrial membrane. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) expression was induced in nG1 cells, suggesting that reduced TSPO affected STAR synthesis and/or processing. Taken together, these results provide further evidence for the critical role of TSPO in steroid biosynthesis and suggest that it may function at least in part via its regulation of ΔΨm and effects on STAR.
Literature context: RRID:AB_2534016
The present study has taken advantage of publicly available cell type specific mRNA expression databases in order to identify potential genes participating in the development of retinal AII amacrine cells. We profile two such genes, Delta/Notch-like EGF repeat containing (Dner) and nuclear factor I/A (Nfia), that are each heavily expressed in AII amacrine cells in the mature mouse retina, and which conjointly identify this retinal cell population in its entirety when using antibodies to DNER and NFIA. DNER is present on the plasma membrane, while NFIA is confined to the nucleus, consistent with known functions of each of these two proteins. DNER also identifies some other subsets of retinal ganglion and amacrine cell types, along with horizontal cells, while NFIA identifies a subset of bipolar cells as well as Muller glia and astrocytes. During early postnatal development, NFIA labels astrocytes on the day of birth, AII amacrine cells at postnatal (P) day 5, and Muller glia by P10, when horizontal cells also transiently exhibit NFIA immunofluorescence. DNER, by contrast, is present in ganglion and amacrine cells on P1, also labeling the horizontal cells by P10. Developing AII amacrine cells exhibit accumulating DNER labeling at the dendritic stalk, labeling that becomes progressively conspicuous by P10, as it is in maturity. This developmental time course is consistent with a prospective role for each gene in the differentiation of AII amacrine cells.
Literature context: Fisher Scientific Cat# A10040, RRID:AB_2534016 Donkey Anti-sheep IgG Cy3 Jacks
Human autoantibodies to contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) are often associated with neuropathic pain, and CASPR2 mutations have been linked to autism spectrum disorders, in which sensory dysfunction is increasingly recognized. Human CASPR2 autoantibodies, when injected into mice, were peripherally restricted and resulted in mechanical pain-related hypersensitivity in the absence of neural injury. We therefore investigated the mechanism by which CASPR2 modulates nociceptive function. Mice lacking CASPR2 (Cntnap2-/-) demonstrated enhanced pain-related hypersensitivity to noxious mechanical stimuli, heat, and algogens. Both primary afferent excitability and subsequent nociceptive transmission within the dorsal horn were increased in Cntnap2-/- mice. Either immune or genetic-mediated ablation of CASPR2 enhanced the excitability of DRG neurons in a cell-autonomous fashion through regulation of Kv1 channel expression at the soma membrane. This is the first example of passive transfer of an autoimmune peripheral neuropathic pain disorder and demonstrates that CASPR2 has a key role in regulating cell-intrinsic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron excitability.
Literature context: -rabbit antibody (Cat#: A10040, RRID:AB_2534016, Thermo Fischer Scientific, dil
Midkine is a pleiotropic factor, which is involved in angiogenesis. However, its mode of action in this process is still ill defined. The function of midkine in arteriogenesis, the growth of natural bypasses from pre-existing collateral arteries, compensating for the loss of an occluded artery has never been investigated. Arteriogenesis is an inflammatory process, which relies on the proliferation of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. We show that midkine deficiency strikingly interferes with the proliferation of endothelial cells in arteriogenesis, thereby interfering with the process of collateral artery growth. We identified midkine to be responsible for increased plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), necessary and sufficient to promote endothelial cell proliferation in growing collaterals. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that leukocyte domiciled midkine mediates increased plasma levels of VEGFA relevant for upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase 1 and 3, necessary for proper endothelial cell proliferation, and that non-leukocyte domiciled midkine additionally improves vasodilation. The data provided on the role of midkine in endothelial proliferation are likely to be relevant for both, the process of arteriogenesis and angiogenesis. Moreover, our data might help to estimate the therapeutic effect of clinically applied VEGFA in patients with vascular occlusive diseases.
Literature context: nologies antibodies Cat# A10040 RRID:AB_2534016 Polyclonal
The tumor suppressor PTEN controls cell proliferation by regulating phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) activity, but the participation of PTEN in host defense against bacterial infection is less well understood. Anti-inflammatory PI3K-Akt signaling is suppressed in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), a disease characterized by hyper-inflammatory responses to airway infection. We found that Ptenl-/- mice, which lack the NH2-amino terminal splice variant of PTEN, were unable to eradicate Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the airways and could not generate sufficient anti-inflammatory PI3K activity, similar to what is observed in CF. PTEN and the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) interacted directly and this interaction was necessary to position PTEN at the membrane. CF patients under corrector-potentiator therapy, which enhances CFTR transport to the membrane, have increased PTEN amounts. These findings suggest that improved CFTR trafficking could enhance P. aeruginosa clearance from the CF airway by activating PTEN-mediated anti-bacterial responses and might represent a therapeutic strategy.
Literature context: er Scientific A10040 1:2000 RRID:AB_2534016 Donkey Î±-goat 555 Thermo Fisher
The embryonic mouse lung is a widely used substitute for human lung development. For example, attempts to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells to lung epithelium rely on passing through progenitor states that have only been described in mouse. The tip epithelium of the branching mouse lung is a multipotent progenitor pool that self-renews and produces differentiating descendants. We hypothesized that the human distal tip epithelium is an analogous progenitor population and tested this by examining morphology, gene expression and in vitro self-renewal and differentiation capacity of human tips. These experiments confirm that human and mouse tips are analogous and identify signalling pathways that are sufficient for long-term self-renewal of human tips as differentiation-competent organoids. Moreover, we identify mouse-human differences, including markers that define progenitor states and signalling requirements for long-term self-renewal. Our organoid system provides a genetically-tractable tool that will allow these human-specific features of lung development to be investigated.
Literature context: # A10040; RRID:AB_2534016 Goat anti-
Organ fitness depends on appropriate maintenance of stem cell populations, and aberrations in functional stem cell numbers are associated with malignancies and aging. Symmetrical division is the best characterized mechanism of stem cell replacement, but other mechanisms could also be deployed, particularly in situations of high stress. Here, we show that after severe depletion, intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the Drosophila midgut are replaced by spindle-independent ploidy reduction of cells in the enterocyte lineage through a process known as amitosis. Amitosis is also induced by the functional loss of ISCs coupled with tissue demand and in aging flies, underscoring the generality of this mechanism. However, we also found that random homologous chromosome segregation during ploidy reduction can expose deleterious mutations through loss of heterozygosity. Together, our results highlight amitosis as an unappreciated mechanism for restoring stem cell homeostasis, but one with some associated risk in animals carrying mutations.
Literature context: /A-10074; RRID:AB_2534016 Rabbit ant
Type 1 diabetes is characterized by the destruction of pancreatic β cells, and generating new insulin-producing cells from other cell types is a major aim of regenerative medicine. One promising approach is transdifferentiation of developmentally related pancreatic cell types, including glucagon-producing α cells. In a genetic model, loss of the master regulatory transcription factor Arx is sufficient to induce the conversion of α cells to functional β-like cells. Here, we identify artemisinins as small molecules that functionally repress Arx by causing its translocation to the cytoplasm. We show that the protein gephyrin is the mammalian target of these antimalarial drugs and that the mechanism of action of these molecules depends on the enhancement of GABAA receptor signaling. Our results in zebrafish, rodents, and primary human pancreatic islets identify gephyrin as a druggable target for the regeneration of pancreatic β cell mass from α cells.
Androgens play key roles in the morphological specification of male type sex attractive and reproductive organs, whereas little is known about the developmental mechanisms of such secondary sex characters. Medaka offers a clue about sexual differentiation. They show a prominent masculine sexual character for appendage development, the formation of papillary processes in the anal fin, which has been induced in females by exogenous androgen exposure. This current study shows that the development of papillary processes is promoted by androgen-dependent augmentation of bone morphogenic protein 7 (Bmp7) and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor-1 (Lef1). Androgen receptor (AR) subtypes, ARα and ARβ, are expressed in the distal region of outgrowing bone nodules of developing papillary processes. Development of papillary processes concomitant with the induction of Bmp7 and Lef1 in the distal bone nodules by exposure to methyltestosterone was significantly suppressed by an antiandrogen, flutamide, in female medaka. When Bmp signaling was inhibited in methyltestosterone-exposed females by its inhibitor, dorsomorphin, Lef1 expression was suppressed accompanied by reduced proliferation in the distal bone nodules and retarded bone deposition. These observations indicate that androgen-dependent expressions of Bmp7 and Lef1 are required for the bone nodule outgrowth leading to the formation of these secondary sex characteristics in medaka. The formation of androgen-induced papillary processes may provide insights into the mechanisms regulating the specification of sexual features in vertebrates.