Literature context: Fisher Scientific Cat# 40-2300; RRID:AB_2533457 Rat monoclonal anti-Uvomorulin/
Helicobacter pylori (Hp) vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) is a bacterial exotoxin that enters host cells and induces mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the extent to which VacA-dependent mitochondrial perturbations affect overall cellular metabolism is poorly understood. We report that VacA perturbations in mitochondria are linked to alterations in cellular amino acid homeostasis, which results in the inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and subsequent autophagy. mTORC1, which regulates cellular metabolism during nutrient stress, is inhibited during Hp infection by a VacA-dependent mechanism. This VacA-dependent inhibition of mTORC1 signaling is linked to the dissociation of mTORC1 from the lysosomal surface and results in activation of cellular autophagy through the Unc 51-like kinase 1 (Ulk1) complex. VacA intoxication results in reduced cellular amino acids, and bolstering amino acid pools prevents VacA-mediated mTORC1 inhibition. Overall, these studies support a model that Hp modulate host cell metabolism through the action of VacA at mitochondria.
Literature context: # 40-2300; RRID:AB_2533457 Rabbit anti-Cleaved caspase 3 C
The differentiation of alveolar epithelial type I (AT1) and type II (AT2) cells is essential for the lung gas exchange function. Disruption of this process results in neonatal death or in severe lung diseases that last into adulthood. We developed live imaging techniques to characterize the mechanisms that control alveolar epithelial cell differentiation. We discovered that mechanical forces generated from the inhalation of amniotic fluid by fetal breathing movements are essential for AT1 cell differentiation. We found that a large subset of alveolar progenitor cells is able to protrude from the airway epithelium toward the mesenchyme in an FGF10/FGFR2 signaling-dependent manner. The cell protrusion process results in enrichment of myosin in the apical region of protruded cells; this myosin prevents these cells from being flattened by mechanical forces, thereby ensuring their AT2 cell fate. Our study demonstrates that mechanical forces and local growth factors synergistically control alveolar epithelial cell differentiation.
Literature context: , RRID:AB_2533457 Occludin Santa Cruz Biotech. Ca
The blood-tumor barrier (BTB) is a major obstacle for drug delivery to malignant brain tumors such as glioblastoma (GBM). Disrupting the BTB is therefore highly desirable but complicated by the need to maintain the normal blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here we show that targeting glioma stem cell (GSC)-derived pericytes specifically disrupts the BTB and enhances drug effusion into brain tumors. We found that pericyte coverage of tumor vasculature is inversely correlated with GBM patient survival after chemotherapy. Eliminating GSC-derived pericytes in xenograft models disrupted BTB tight junctions and increased vascular permeability. We identified BMX as an essential factor for maintaining GSC-derived pericytes. Inhibiting BMX with ibrutinib selectively targeted neoplastic pericytes and disrupted the BTB, but not the BBB, thereby increasing drug effusion into established tumors and enhancing the chemotherapeutic efficacy of drugs with poor BTB penetration. These findings highlight the clinical potential of targeting neoplastic pericytes to significantly improve treatment of brain tumors.