Currently no treatments exist for preterm infants with diffuse white matter injury (DWMI) caused by hypoxia. Due to improved care of preterm neonates and increased recognition by advanced imaging techniques, the prevalence of DWMI is increasing. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of DWMI is therefore of critical importance. The integrated stress response (ISR), a conserved eukaryotic response to myriad stressors including hypoxia, may play a role in hypoxia-induced DWMI and may represent a novel target for much needed therapies. In this study we utilize in vitro and in vivo hypoxic models of DWMI to investigate whether the ISR is involved in DWMI. We demonstrate that hypoxia activates the ISR in primary mouse oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in vitro and that genetically inhibiting the ISR in differentiating OPCs increases their susceptibility to in vitro hypoxia. We also show that a well-established in vivo mild chronic hypoxia (MCH) mouse model and a new severe acute hypoxia (SAH) mouse model of DWMI activates the initial step of the ISR. Nonetheless, genetic inhibition of the ISR has no detectable effect on either MCH or SAH-induced DWMI. In addition, we demonstrate that genetic enhancement of the ISR does not ameliorate MCH or SAH-induced DWMI. These studies suggest that while the ISR protects OPCs from hypoxia in vitro, it does not appear to play a major role in either MCH or SAH-induced DWMI and is therefore not a likely target for therapies aimed at improving neurological outcome in preterm neonates with hypoxia-induced DWMI.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTDiffuse white matter injury (DWMI) caused by hypoxia is a leading cause of neurological deficits following premature birth. An increased understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease is critical. The integrated stress response (ISR) is activated by hypoxia and protects oligodendrocyte lineage cells in other disease models. This has led to an interest in the potential role of the ISR in DWMI. Here we examine the ISR in hypoxia-induced DWMI and show that while the ISR protects oligodendrocyte lineage cells from hypoxia in vitro, genetic inhibition or enhancement of the ISR has no effect on hypoxia-induced DWMI in vivo suggesting that the ISR does not play a major role in, and is not a likely therapeutic target for, DWMI.