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Phosphoglycerate Kinase Monoclonal Antibody (22C5D8)

RRID:AB_2532235

Antibody ID

AB_2532235

Target Antigen

Phosphoglycerate Kinase yeast

Proper Citation

(Thermo Fisher Scientific Cat# 459250, RRID:AB_2532235)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Applications: IF (5-10 µg/mL), ICC (5-10 µg/mL), WB (1.0 µg/mL)

Clone ID

Clone 22C5D8

Host Organism

mouse

Regulated Crossing-Over Requires Inactivation of Yen1/GEN1 Resolvase during Meiotic Prophase I.

  • Arter M
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Jun 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

During meiosis, crossover recombination promotes the establishment of physical connections between homologous chromosomes, enabling their bipolar segregation. To ensure that persistent recombination intermediates are disengaged prior to the completion of meiosis, the Yen1(GEN1) resolvase is strictly activated at the onset of anaphase II. Whether controlled activation of Yen1 is important for meiotic crossing-over is unknown. Here, we show that CDK-mediated phosphorylation of Yen1 averts its pervasive recruitment to recombination intermediates during prophase I. Yen1 mutants that are refractory to phosphorylation resolve DNA joint molecules prematurely and form crossovers independently of MutLγ, the central crossover resolvase during meiosis. Despite bypassing the requirement for MutLγ in joint molecule processing and promoting crossover-specific resolution, unrestrained Yen1 impairs the spatial distribution of crossover events, genome-wide. Thus, active suppression of Yen1 function, and by inference also of Mus81-Mms4(EME1) and Slx1-Slx4(BTBD12) resolvases, avoids precocious resolution of recombination intermediates to enable meiotic crossover patterning.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 294343(International)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM116895()

Phosphorylation-Mediated Clearance of Amyloid-like Assemblies in Meiosis.

  • Carpenter K
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 May 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Amyloids are fibrous protein assemblies that are often described as irreversible and intrinsically pathogenic. However, yeast cells employ amyloid-like assemblies of the RNA-binding protein Rim4 to control translation during meiosis. Here, we show that multi-site phosphorylation of Rim4 is critical for its regulated disassembly and degradation and that failure to clear Rim4 assemblies interferes with meiotic progression. Furthermore, we identify the protein kinase Ime2 to bring about Rim4 clearance via phosphorylation of Rim4's intrinsically disordered region. Rim4 phosphorylation leads to reversal of its amyloid-like properties and degradation by the proteasome. Our data support a model in which a threshold amount of phosphorylation, rather than modification of critical residues, is required for Rim4 clearance. Our results further demonstrate that at least some amyloid-like assemblies are not as irreversible as previously thought. We propose that the natural pathways by which cells process these structures could be deployed to act on disease-related amyloids.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM079771(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R35 GM124633()

The yeast H+-ATPase Pma1 promotes Rag/Gtr-dependent TORC1 activation in response to H+-coupled nutrient uptake.

  • Saliba E
  • Elife
  • 2018 Mar 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

The yeast Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (TORC1) plays a central role in controlling growth. How amino acids and other nutrients stimulate its activity via the Rag/Gtr GTPases remains poorly understood. We here report that the signal triggering Rag/Gtr-dependent TORC1 activation upon amino-acid uptake is the coupled H+ influx catalyzed by amino-acid/H+ symporters. H+-dependent uptake of other nutrients, ionophore-mediated H+ diffusion, and inhibition of the vacuolar V-ATPase also activate TORC1. As the increase in cytosolic H+ elicited by these processes stimulates the compensating H+-export activity of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase (Pma1), we have examined whether this major ATP-consuming enzyme might be involved in TORC1 control. We find that when the endogenous Pma1 is replaced with a plant H+-ATPase, H+ influx or increase fails to activate TORC1. Our results show that H+ influx coupled to nutrient uptake stimulates TORC1 activity and that Pma1 is a key actor in this mechanism.

Funding information:
  • Fonds De La Recherche Scientifique - FNRS - 22396499()
  • Fonds De La Recherche Scientifique - FNRS - 3.4.592.08.F()
  • Fonds De La Recherche Scientifique - FNRS - 30274494()
  • Fonds National de La Recherche Scientifique - 22396499()
  • Fonds National de La Recherche Scientifique - 3.4.592.08.F()
  • Fonds National de La Recherche Scientifique - 30274494()
  • Fonds pour la Formation à la Recherche dans l'Industrie et dans l'Agriculture - 21074048()
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)

Cells Escape an Operational Mitotic Checkpoint through a Stochastic Process.

  • Bonaiuti P
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2018 Jan 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Improperly attached chromosomes activate the mitotic checkpoint that arrests cell division before anaphase. Cells can maintain an arrest for several hours but eventually will resume proliferation, a process we refer to as adaptation. Whether adapting cells bypass an active block or whether the block has to be removed to resume proliferation is not clear. Likewise, it is not known whether all cells of a genetically homogeneous population are equally capable to adapt. Here, we show that the mitotic checkpoint is operational when yeast cells adapt and that each cell has the same propensity to adapt. Our results are consistent with a model of the mitotic checkpoint where adaptation is driven by random fluctuations of APC/CCdc20, the molecular species inhibited by the checkpoint. Our data provide a quantitative framework for understanding how cells overcome a constant stimulus that halts cell cycle progression.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01-AI041158(United States)

Late rDNA Condensation Ensures Timely Cdc14 Release and Coordination of Mitotic Exit Signaling with Nucleolar Segregation.

  • de Los Santos-Velázquez AI
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Nov 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

The nucleolus plays a pivotal role in multiple key cellular processes. An illustrative example is the regulation of mitotic exit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the nucleolar sequestration of the Cdc14 phosphatase. The peculiar structure of the nucleolus, however, has also its drawbacks. The repetitive nature of the rDNA gives rise to cohesion-independent linkages whose resolution in budding yeast requires the Cdc14-dependent inhibition of rRNA transcription, which facilitates condensin accessibility to this locus. Thus, the rDNA condenses and segregates later than most other yeast genomic regions. Here, we show that defective function of a small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particle (snoRNP) assembly factor facilitates condensin accessibility to the rDNA and induces nucleolar hyper-condensation. Interestingly, this increased compaction of the nucleolus interferes with the proper release of Cdc14 from this organelle. This observation provides an explanation for the delayed rDNA condensation in budding yeast, which is necessary to efficiently coordinate timely Cdc14 release and mitotic exit with nucleolar compaction and segregation.

Slp1-Emp65: A Guardian Factor that Protects Folding Polypeptides from Promiscuous Degradation.

  • Zhang S
  • Cell
  • 2017 Oct 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Newly synthesized proteins engage molecular chaperones that assist folding. Their progress is monitored by quality control systems that target folding errors for degradation. Paradoxically, chaperones that promote folding also direct unfolded polypeptides for degradation. Hence, a mechanism was previously hypothesized that prevents the degradation of actively folding polypeptides. In this study, we show that a conserved endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein complex, consisting of Slp1 and Emp65 proteins, performs this function in the ER lumen. The complex binds unfolded proteins and protects them from degradation during folding. In its absence, approximately 20%-30% of newly synthesized proteins that could otherwise fold are degraded. Although the Slp1-Emp65 complex hosts a broad range of clients, it is specific for soluble proteins. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the vulnerability of newly translated, actively folding polypeptides and the discovery of a new proteostasis functional class we term "guardian" that protects them from degradation.

Kinetochore inactivation by expression of a repressive mRNA.

  • Chen J
  • Elife
  • 2017 Sep 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Differentiation programs such as meiosis depend on extensive gene regulation to mediate cellular morphogenesis. Meiosis requires transient removal of the outer kinetochore, the complex that connects microtubules to chromosomes. How the meiotic gene expression program temporally restricts kinetochore function is unknown. We discovered that in budding yeast, kinetochore inactivation occurs by reducing the abundance of a limiting subunit, Ndc80. Furthermore, we uncovered an integrated mechanism that acts at the transcriptional and translational level to repress NDC80 expression. Central to this mechanism is the developmentally controlled transcription of an alternate NDC80 mRNA isoform, which itself cannot produce protein due to regulatory upstream ORFs in its extended 5' leader. Instead, transcription of this isoform represses the canonical NDC80 mRNA expression in cis, thereby inhibiting Ndc80 protein synthesis. This model of gene regulation raises the intriguing notion that transcription of an mRNA, despite carrying a canonical coding sequence, can directly cause gene repression.

Firing of Replication Origins Frees Dbf4-Cdc7 to Target Eco1 for Destruction.

  • Seoane AI
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Sep 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Robust progression through the cell-division cycle depends on the precisely ordered phosphorylation of hundreds of different proteins by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and other kinases. The order of CDK substrate phosphorylation depends on rising CDK activity, coupled with variations in substrate affinities for different CDK-cyclin complexes and the opposing phosphatases [1-4]. Here, we address the ordering of substrate phosphorylation by a second major cell-cycle kinase, Cdc7-Dbf4 or Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK). The primary function of DDK is to initiate DNA replication by phosphorylating the Mcm2-7 replicative helicase [5-7]. DDK also phosphorylates the cohesin acetyltransferase Eco1 [8]. Sequential phosphorylations of Eco1 by CDK, DDK, and Mck1 create a phosphodegron that is recognized by the ubiquitin ligase SCFCdc4. DDK, despite being activated in early S phase, does not phosphorylate Eco1 to trigger its degradation until late S phase [8]. DDK associates with docking sites on loaded Mcm double hexamers at unfired replication origins [9, 10]. We hypothesized that these docking interactions sequester limiting amounts of DDK, delaying Eco1 phosphorylation by DDK until replication is complete. Consistent with this hypothesis, we find that overproduction of DDK leads to premature Eco1 degradation. Eco1 degradation also occurs prematurely if Mcm complex loading at origins is prevented by depletion of Cdc6, and Eco1 is stabilized if loaded Mcm complexes are prevented from firing by a Cdc45 mutant. We propose that the timing of Eco1 phosphorylation, and potentially that of other DDK substrates, is determined in part by sequestration of DDK at unfired replication origins during S phase.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R35 GM118053()

Systematic Identification of MCU Modulators by Orthogonal Interspecies Chemical Screening.

  • Arduino DM
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Aug 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex is essential for calcium (Ca2+) uptake into mitochondria of all mammalian tissues, where it regulates bioenergetics, cell death, and Ca2+ signal transduction. Despite its involvement in several human diseases, we currently lack pharmacological agents for targeting uniporter activity. Here we introduce a high-throughput assay that selects for human MCU-specific small-molecule modulators in primary drug screens. Using isolated yeast mitochondria, reconstituted with human MCU, its essential regulator EMRE, and aequorin, and exploiting a D-lactate- and mannitol/sucrose-based bioenergetic shunt that greatly minimizes false-positive hits, we identify mitoxantrone out of more than 600 clinically approved drugs as a direct selective inhibitor of human MCU. We validate mitoxantrone in orthogonal mammalian cell-based assays, demonstrating that our screening approach is an effective and robust tool for MCU-specific drug discovery and, more generally, for the identification of compounds that target mitochondrial functions.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - P50 MH090963(United States)

Telomere Length Determines TERRA and R-Loop Regulation through the Cell Cycle.

  • Graf M
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jun 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

Maintenance of a minimal telomere length is essential to prevent cellular senescence. When critically short telomeres arise in the absence of telomerase, they can be repaired by homology-directed repair (HDR) to prevent premature senescence onset. It is unclear why specifically the shortest telomeres are targeted for HDR. We demonstrate that the non-coding RNA TERRA accumulates as HDR-promoting RNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops) preferentially at very short telomeres. The increased level of TERRA and R-loops, exclusively at short telomeres, is due to a local defect in RNA degradation by the Rat1 and RNase H2 nucleases, respectively. Consequently, the coordination of TERRA degradation with telomere replication is altered at shortened telomeres. R-loop persistence at short telomeres contributes to activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) and promotes recruitment of the Rad51 recombinase. Thus, the telomere length-dependent regulation of TERRA and TERRA R-loops is a critical determinant of the rate of replicative senescence.

In Vivo Ubiquitin Linkage-type Analysis Reveals that the Cdc48-Rad23/Dsk2 Axis Contributes to K48-Linked Chain Specificity of the Proteasome.

  • Tsuchiya H
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 May 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ubiquitin-binding domain (UBD) proteins regulate numerous cellular processes, but their specificities toward ubiquitin chain types in cells remain obscure. Here, we perform a quantitative proteomic analysis of ubiquitin linkage-type selectivity of 14 UBD proteins and the proteasome in yeast. We find that K48-linked chains are directed to proteasomal degradation through selectivity of the Cdc48 cofactor Npl4. Mutating Cdc48 results in decreased selectivity, and lacking Rad23/Dsk2 abolishes interactions between ubiquitylated substrates and the proteasome. Among them, only Npl4 has K48 chain specificity in vitro. Thus, the Cdc48 complex functions as a K48 linkage-specifying factor upstream of Rad23/Dsk2 for proteasomal degradation. On the other hand, K63 chains are utilized in endocytic pathways, whereas both K48 and K63 chains are found in the MVB and autophagic pathways. Collectively, our results provide an overall picture of the ubiquitin network via UBD proteins and identify the Cdc48-Rad23/Dsk2 axis as a major route to the proteasome.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS070300(United States)

Evolution of an intricate J-protein network driving protein disaggregation in eukaryotes.

  • Nillegoda NB
  • Elife
  • 2017 May 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hsp70 participates in a broad spectrum of protein folding processes extending from nascent chain folding to protein disaggregation. This versatility in function is achieved through a diverse family of J-protein cochaperones that select substrates for Hsp70. Substrate selection is further tuned by transient complexation between different classes of J-proteins, which expands the range of protein aggregates targeted by metazoan Hsp70 for disaggregation. We assessed the prevalence and evolutionary conservation of J-protein complexation and cooperation in disaggregation. We find the emergence of a eukaryote-specific signature for interclass complexation of canonical J-proteins. Consistently, complexes exist in yeast and human cells, but not in bacteria, and correlate with cooperative action in disaggregation in vitro. Signature alterations exclude some J-proteins from networking, which ensures correct J-protein pairing, functional network integrity and J-protein specialization. This fundamental change in J-protein biology during the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition allows for increased fine-tuning and broadening of Hsp70 function in eukaryotes.