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Alexa Fluor 647-AffiniPure Donkey Anti-Rat IgG (H+L) (min X Bov,Ck,Gt,GP,Sy Hms,Hrs,Hu,Ms,Rb,Shp Sr Prot) antibody

RRID:AB_2340694

Antibody ID

AB_2340694

Target Antigen

Rat IgG (H+L)

Proper Citation

(Jackson ImmunoResearch Labs Cat# 712-605-153, RRID:AB_2340694)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

Originating manufacturer of this product

Vendor

Jackson ImmunoResearch Labs Go To Vendor

Cat Num

712-605-153

The Strength of Mechanical Forces Determines the Differentiation of Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

  • Li J
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

The differentiation of alveolar epithelial type I (AT1) and type II (AT2) cells is essential for the lung gas exchange function. Disruption of this process results in neonatal death or in severe lung diseases that last into adulthood. We developed live imaging techniques to characterize the mechanisms that control alveolar epithelial cell differentiation. We discovered that mechanical forces generated from the inhalation of amniotic fluid by fetal breathing movements are essential for AT1 cell differentiation. We found that a large subset of alveolar progenitor cells is able to protrude from the airway epithelium toward the mesenchyme in an FGF10/FGFR2 signaling-dependent manner. The cell protrusion process results in enrichment of myosin in the apical region of protruded cells; this myosin prevents these cells from being flattened by mechanical forces, thereby ensuring their AT2 cell fate. Our study demonstrates that mechanical forces and local growth factors synergistically control alveolar epithelial cell differentiation.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - (United States)

Three-Dimensional Adipose Tissue Imaging Reveals Regional Variation in Beige Fat Biogenesis and PRDM16-Dependent Sympathetic Neurite Density.

  • Chi J
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jan 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

While the cell-intrinsic pathways governing beige adipocyte development and phenotype have been increasingly delineated, comparatively little is known about how beige adipocytes interact with other cell types in fat. Here, we introduce a whole-tissue clearing method for adipose that permits immunolabeling and three-dimensional profiling of structures including thermogenic adipocytes and sympathetic innervation. We found that tissue architecture and sympathetic innervation differ significantly between subcutaneous and visceral depots. Subcutaneous fat demonstrates prominent regional variation in beige fat biogenesis with localization of UCP1+ beige adipocytes to areas with dense sympathetic neurites. We present evidence that the density of sympathetic projections is dependent on PRDM16 in adipocytes, providing another potential mechanism underlying the metabolic benefits mediated by PRDM16. This powerful imaging tool highlights the interaction of tissue components during beige fat biogenesis and reveals a previously undescribed mode of regulation of the sympathetic nervous system by adipocytes.

Dynamic Control of X Chromosome Conformation and Repression by a Histone H4K20 Demethylase.

  • Brejc K
  • Cell
  • 2017 Sep 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chromatin modification and higher-order chromosome structure play key roles in gene regulation, but their functional interplay in controlling gene expression is elusive. We have discovered the machinery and mechanism underlying the dynamic enrichment of histone modification H4K20me1 on hermaphrodite X chromosomes during C. elegans dosage compensation and demonstrated H4K20me1's pivotal role in regulating higher-order chromosome structure and X-chromosome-wide gene expression. The structure and the activity of the dosage compensation complex (DCC) subunit DPY-21 define a Jumonji demethylase subfamily that converts H4K20me2 to H4K20me1 in worms and mammals. Selective inactivation of demethylase activity eliminates H4K20me1 enrichment in somatic cells, elevates X-linked gene expression, reduces X chromosome compaction, and disrupts X chromosome conformation by diminishing the formation of topologically associating domains (TADs). Unexpectedly, DPY-21 also associates with autosomes of germ cells in a DCC-independent manner to enrich H4K20me1 and trigger chromosome compaction. Our findings demonstrate the direct link between chromatin modification and higher-order chromosome structure in long-range regulation of gene expression.

Serotonergic Modulation Enables Pathway-Specific Plasticity in a Developing Sensory Circuit in Drosophila.

  • Kaneko T
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Aug 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

How experiences during development cause long-lasting changes in sensory circuits and affect behavior in mature animals are poorly understood. Here we establish a novel system for mechanistic analysis of the plasticity of developing neural circuits by showing that sensory experience during development alters nociceptive behavior and circuit physiology in Drosophila larvae. Despite the convergence of nociceptive and mechanosensory inputs on common second-order neurons (SONs), developmental noxious input modifies transmission from nociceptors to their SONs, but not from mechanosensors to the same SONs, which suggests striking sensory pathway specificity. These SONs activate serotonergic neurons to inhibit nociceptor-to-SON transmission; stimulation of nociceptors during development sensitizes nociceptor presynapses to this feedback inhibition. Our results demonstrate that, unlike associative learning, which involves inputs from two sensory pathways, sensory pathway-specific plasticity in the Drosophila nociceptive circuit is in part established through feedback modulation. This study elucidates a novel mechanism that enables pathway-specific plasticity in sensory systems. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Gli1+ Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Are a Key Driver of Bone Marrow Fibrosis and an Important Cellular Therapeutic Target.

  • Schneider RK
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Bone marrow fibrosis (BMF) develops in various hematological and non-hematological conditions and is a central pathological feature of myelofibrosis. Effective cell-targeted therapeutics are needed, but the cellular origin of BMF remains elusive. Here, we show using genetic fate tracing in two murine models of BMF that Gli1+ mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are recruited from the endosteal and perivascular niche to become fibrosis-driving myofibroblasts in the bone marrow. Genetic ablation of Gli1+ cells abolished BMF and rescued bone marrow failure. Pharmacological targeting of Gli proteins with GANT61 inhibited Gli1+ cell expansion and myofibroblast differentiation and attenuated fibrosis severity. The same pathway is also active in human BMF, and Gli1 expression in BMF significantly correlates with the severity of the disease. In addition, GANT61 treatment reduced the myofibroblastic phenotype of human MSCs isolated from patients with BMF, suggesting that targeting of Gli proteins could be a relevant therapeutic strategy.

Mosaic Analysis with Double Markers Reveals Distinct Sequential Functions of Lgl1 in Neural Stem Cells.

  • Beattie R
  • Neuron
  • 2017 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

The concerted production of neurons and glia by neural stem cells (NSCs) is essential for neural circuit assembly. In the developing cerebral cortex, radial glia progenitors (RGPs) generate nearly all neocortical neurons and certain glia lineages. RGP proliferation behavior shows a high degree of non-stochasticity, thus a deterministic characteristic of neuron and glia production. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling RGP behavior and proliferation dynamics in neurogenesis and glia generation remain unknown. By using mosaic analysis with double markers (MADM)-based genetic paradigms enabling the sparse and global knockout with unprecedented single-cell resolution, we identified Lgl1 as a critical regulatory component. We uncover Lgl1-dependent tissue-wide community effects required for embryonic cortical neurogenesis and novel cell-autonomous Lgl1 functions controlling RGP-mediated glia genesis and postnatal NSC behavior. These results suggest that NSC-mediated neuron and glia production is tightly regulated through the concerted interplay of sequential Lgl1-dependent global and cell intrinsic mechanisms.

Tridimensional Visualization and Analysis of Early Human Development.

  • Belle M
  • Cell
  • 2017 Mar 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Generating a precise cellular and molecular cartography of the human embryo is essential to our understanding of the mechanisms of organogenesis in normal and pathological conditions. Here, we have combined whole-mount immunostaining, 3DISCO clearing, and light-sheet imaging to start building a 3D cellular map of the human development during the first trimester of gestation. We provide high-resolution 3D images of the developing peripheral nervous, muscular, vascular, cardiopulmonary, and urogenital systems. We found that the adult-like pattern of skin innervation is established before the end of the first trimester, showing important intra- and inter-individual variations in nerve branches. We also present evidence for a differential vascularization of the male and female genital tracts concomitant with sex determination. This work paves the way for a cellular and molecular reference atlas of human cells, which will be of paramount importance to understanding human development in health and disease. PAPERCLIP.

Postembryonic lineages of the Drosophila ventral nervous system: Neuroglian expression reveals the adult hemilineage associated fiber tracts in the adult thoracic neuromeres.

  • Shepherd D
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

During larval life most of the thoracic neuroblasts (NBs) in Drosophila undergo a second phase of neurogenesis to generate adult-specific neurons that remain in an immature, developmentally stalled state until pupation. Using a combination of MARCM and immunostaining with a neurotactin antibody, Truman et al. (2004; Development 131:5167-5184) identified 24 adult-specific NB lineages within each thoracic hemineuromere of the larval ventral nervous system (VNS), but because of the neurotactin labeling of lineage tracts disappearing early in metamorphosis, they were unable extend the identification of these lineages into the adult. Here we show that immunostaining with an antibody against the cell adhesion molecule neuroglian reveals the same larval secondary lineage projections through metamorphosis and bfy identifying each neuroglian-positive tract at selected stages we have traced the larval hemilineage tracts for all three thoracic neuromeres through metamorphosis into the adult. To validate tract identifications we used the genetic toolkit developed by Harris et al. (2015; Elife 4) to preserve hemilineage-specific GAL4 expression patterns from larval into the adult stage. The immortalized expression proved a powerful confirmation of the analysis of the neuroglian scaffold. This work has enabled us to directly link the secondary, larval NB lineages to their adult counterparts. The data provide an anatomical framework that 1) makes it possible to assign most neurons to their parent lineage and 2) allows more precise definitions of the neuronal organization of the adult VNS based in developmental units/rules. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2677-2695, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG044486(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - U54 MH084690(United States)