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Alexa Fluor antibody

RRID:AB_2340621

β4GalT1 Mediates PPARγ N-Glycosylation to Attenuate Microglia Inflammatory Activation.

  • Liu X
  • Inflammation
  • 2018 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The inflammatory activation of microglia has double-edged effects in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. The ligand-activated transcriptional factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) inhibits the inflammatory response. β-1,4-Galactosyltransferase Ι (β1, 4GalT1) mediates N-glycosylation. In this study, the N-glycosylation of PPARγ, as well as two N-linked glycosylation sites in its DNA binding domain (DBD), was identified. Disruption of both sites by site-directed mutagenesis completely abrogated the N-glycosylation of PPARγ. PPAR wild-type (WT) transfection inhibited the inflammatory activation of microglia, while the anti-inflammatory function of unglycosylated PPARγ was down-regulated. In addition, β1, 4GalT1 was shown to interact with PPARγ and to mediate PPARγ glycosylation. β1, 4GalT1 promoted PPARγ's anti-transcription and anti-inflammatory functions. Collectively, our findings define that β-1, 4GalT1 mediated PPARγ glycosylation to attenuate the inflammatory activation of microglia, which has implications for potential therapies for CNS inflammatory diseases.

Funding information:
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China - 81401365()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM0737920(United States)

Comparing Effects of Transforming Growth Factor β1 on Microglia From Rat and Mouse: Transcriptional Profiles and Potassium Channels.

  • Lively S
  • Front Cell Neurosci
  • 2018 May 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

The cytokine, transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), is up-regulated after central nervous system (CNS) injuries or diseases involving microglial activation, and it has been proposed as a therapeutic agent for treating neuroinflammation. Microglia can produce and respond to TGFβ1. While rats and mice are commonly used for studying neuroinflammation, very few reports directly compare them. Such studies are important for improving pre-clinical studies and furthering translational progress in developing therapeutic interventions. After intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the rat striatum, the TGFβ1 receptor was highly expressed on microglia/macrophages within the hematoma. We recently found species similarities and differences in response to either a pro-inflammatory (interferon-γ, IFN-γ, +tumor necrosis factor, TNF-α) or anti-inflammatory interleukin-4 (IL-4) stimulus. Here, we assessed whether rat and mouse microglia differ in their responses to TGFβ1. Microglia were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice and treated with TGFβ1. We quantified changes in expression of >50 genes, in their morphology, proliferation, apoptosis and in three potassium channels that are considered therapeutic targets. Many inflammatory mediators, immune receptors and modulators showed species similarities, but notable differences included that, for some genes, only one species responded (e.g., Il4r, Il10, Tgfbr2, colony-stimulating factor receptor (Csf1r), Itgam, suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (Socs1), toll-like receptors 4 (Tlr4), P2rx7, P2ry12), and opposite responses were seen for others (Tgfb1, Myc, Ifngr1). In rat only, TGFβ1 affected microglial morphology and proliferation, but there was no apoptosis in either species. In both species, TGFβ1 dramatically increased Kv1.3 channel expression and current (no effects on Kir2.1). KCa3.1 showed opposite species responses: the current was low in unstimulated rat microglia and greatly increased by TGFβ1 but higher in control mouse cells and decreased by TGFβ1. Finally, we compared TGFβ1 and IL10 (often considered similar anti-inflammatory stimuli) and found many different responses in both species. Overall, the numerous species differences should be considered when characterizing neuroinflammation and microglial activation in vitro and in vivo, and when targeting potassium channels.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - K08 DK 02699(United States)

PRC1 Fine-tunes Gene Repression and Activation to Safeguard Skin Development and Stem Cell Specification.

  • Cohen I
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Polycomb repressive complexes (PRCs) 1 and 2 are essential chromatin regulators of cell identity. PRC1, a dominant executer of Polycomb-mediated control, functions as multiple sub-complexes that possess catalytic-dependent H2AK119 mono-ubiquitination (H2AK119ub) and catalytic-independent activities. Here, we show that, despite its well-established repressor functions, PRC1 binds to both silent and active genes. Through in vivo loss-of-function studies, we show that global PRC1 function is essential for skin development and stem cell (SC) specification, whereas PRC1 catalytic activity is dispensable. Further dissection demonstrated that both canonical and non-canonical PRC1 complexes bind to repressed genes, marked by H2AK119ub and PRC2-mediated H3K27me3. Interestingly, loss of canonical PRC1, PRC1 catalytic activity, or PRC2 leads to expansion of mechanosensitive Merkel cells in neonatal skin. Non-canonical PRC1 complexes, however, also bind to and promote expression of genes critical for skin development and SC formation. Together, our findings highlight PRC1's diverse roles in executing a precise developmental program.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R00 AR057817()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR063724()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS055261(United States)

Structural and Functional Rescue of Chronic Metabolically Stressed Optic Nerves through Respiration.

  • Harun-Or-Rashid M
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 May 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Axon degeneration can arise from metabolic stress, potentially a result of mitochondrial dysfunction or lack of appropriate substrate input. In this study, we investigated whether the metabolic vulnerability observed during optic neuropathy in the DBA/2J (D2) model of glaucoma is due to dysfunctional mitochondria or impaired substrate delivery to axons, the latter based on our observation of significantly decreased glucose and monocarboxylate transporters in D2 optic nerve (ON), human ON, and mice subjected to acute glaucoma injury. We placed both sexes of D2 mice destined to develop glaucoma and mice of a control strain, the DBA/2J-Gpnmb+, on a ketogenic diet to encourage mitochondrial function. Eight weeks of the diet generated mitochondria, improved energy availability by reversing monocarboxylate transporter decline, reduced glial hypertrophy, protected retinal ganglion cells and their axons from degeneration, and maintained physiological signaling to the brain. A robust antioxidant response also accompanied the response to the diet. These results suggest that energy compromise and subsequent axon degeneration in the D2 is due to low substrate availability secondary to transporter downregulation.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We show axons in glaucomatous optic nerve are energy depleted and exhibit chronic metabolic stress. Underlying the metabolic stress are low levels of glucose and monocarboxylate transporters that compromise axon metabolism by limiting substrate availability. Axonal metabolic decline was reversed by upregulating monocarboxylate transporters as a result of placing the animals on a ketogenic diet. Optic nerve mitochondria responded capably to the oxidative phosphorylation necessitated by the diet and showed increased number. These findings indicate that the source of metabolic challenge can occur upstream of mitochondrial dysfunction. Importantly, the intervention was successful despite the animals being on the cusp of significant glaucoma progression.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY022358()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY026662()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS058802(United States)

Functional disruption of stress modulatory circuits in a model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

  • Wulsin AC
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2018 May 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Clinical data suggest that the neuroendocrine stress response is chronically dysregulated in a subset of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), potentially contributing to both disease progression and the development of psychiatric comorbidities such as anxiety and depression. Whether neuroendocrine dysregulation and psychiatric comorbidities reflect direct effects of epilepsy-related pathologies, or secondary effects of disease burden particular to humans with epilepsy (i.e. social estrangement, employment changes) is not clear. Animal models provide an opportunity to dissociate these factors. Therefore, we queried whether epileptic mice would reproduce neuroendocrine and behavioral changes associated with human epilepsy. Male FVB mice were exposed to pilocarpine to induce status epilepticus (SE) and the subsequent development of spontaneous recurrent seizures. Morning baseline corticosterone levels were elevated in pilocarpine treated mice at 1, 7 and 10 weeks post-SE relative to controls. Similarly, epileptic mice had increased adrenal weight when compared to control mice. Exposure to acute restraint stress resulted in hypersecretion of corticosterone 30 min after the onset of the challenge. Anatomical analyses revealed reduced Fos expression in infralimbic and prelimbic prefrontal cortex, ventral subiculum and basal amygdala following restraint. No differences in Fos immunoreactivity were found in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, hippocampal subfields or central amygdala. In order to assess emotional behavior, a second cohort of mice underwent a battery of behavioral tests, including sucrose preference, open field, elevated plus maze, 24h home-cage monitoring and forced swim. Epileptic mice showed increased anhedonic behavior, hyperactivity and anxiety-like behaviors. Together these data demonstrate that epileptic mice develop HPA axis hyperactivity and exhibit behavioral dysfunction. Endocrine and behavioral changes are associated with impaired recruitment of forebrain circuits regulating stress inhibition and emotional reactivity. Loss of forebrain control may underlie pronounced endocrine dysfunction and comorbid psychopathologies seen in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MC_UP_A390_1107(United Kingdom)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM063483()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F30 NS095578()

Cell-Type-Specific Shank2 Deletion in Mice Leads to Differential Synaptic and Behavioral Phenotypes.

  • Kim R
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Apr 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Shank2 is an excitatory postsynaptic scaffolding protein implicated in synaptic regulation and psychiatric disorders including autism spectrum disorders. Conventional Shank2-mutant (Shank2-/-) mice display several autistic-like behaviors, including social deficits, repetitive behaviors, hyperactivity, and anxiety-like behaviors. However, cell-type-specific contributions to these behaviors have remained largely unclear. Here, we deleted Shank2 in specific cell types and found that male mice lacking Shank2 in excitatory neurons (CaMKII-Cre;Shank2fl/fl) show social interaction deficits and mild social communication deficits, hyperactivity, and anxiety-like behaviors. In particular, male mice lacking Shank2 in GABAergic inhibitory neurons (Viaat-Cre;Shank2fl/fl) display social communication deficits, repetitive self-grooming, and mild hyperactivity. These behavioral changes were associated with distinct changes in hippocampal and striatal synaptic transmission in the two mouse lines. These results indicate that cell-type-specific deletions of Shank2 in mice lead to differential synaptic and behavioral abnormalities.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Shank2 is an abundant excitatory postsynaptic scaffolding protein implicated in the regulation of excitatory synapses and diverse psychiatric disorders including autism spectrum disorders. Previous studies have reported in vivo functions of Shank2 mainly using global Shank2-null mice, but it remains largely unclear how individual cell types contribute to Shank2-dependent regulation of neuronal synapses and behaviors. Here, we have characterized conditional Shank2-mutant mice carrying the Shank2 deletion in excitatory and inhibitory neurons. These mouse lines display distinct alterations of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus and striatum that are associated with differential behavioral abnormalities in social, repetitive, locomotor, and anxiety-like domains.

Funding information:
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - P42ES013660(United States)

Excitatory Pathways from the Lateral Habenula Enable Propofol-Induced Sedation.

  • Gelegen C
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2018 Feb 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The lateral habenula has been widely studied for its contribution in generating reward-related behaviors [1, 2]. We have found that this nucleus plays an unexpected role in the sedative actions of the general anesthetic propofol. The lateral habenula is a glutamatergic, excitatory hub that projects to multiple targets throughout the brain, including GABAergic and aminergic nuclei that control arousal [3-5]. When glutamate release from the lateral habenula in mice was genetically blocked, the ability of propofol to induce sedation was greatly diminished. In addition to this reduced sensitivity to propofol, blocking output from the lateral habenula caused natural non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep to become highly fragmented, especially during the rest ("lights on") period. This fragmentation was largely reversed by the dual orexinergic antagonist almorexant. We conclude that the glutamatergic output from the lateral habenula is permissive for the sedative actions of propofol and is also necessary for the consolidation of natural sleep.

Funding information:
  • National Institute of General Medical Sciences - Gradaute Student Fellowship(United States)

Dopamine Development in the Mouse Orbital Prefrontal Cortex Is Protracted and Sensitive to Amphetamine in Adolescence.

  • Hoops D
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 Jan 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is divided into subregions, including the medial and orbital prefrontal cortices. Dopamine connectivity in the medial PFC (mPFC) continues to be established throughout adolescence as the result of the continuous growth of axons that innervated the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) prior to adolescence. During this period, dopamine axons remain vulnerable to environmental influences, such as drugs used recreationally by humans. The developmental trajectory of the orbital prefrontal dopamine innervation remains almost completely unstudied. Nonetheless, the orbital PFC (oPFC) is critical for some of the most complex functions of the PFC and is disrupted by drugs of abuse, both in adolescent humans and rodents. Here, we use quantitative neuroanatomy, axon-initiated viral-vector recombination, and pharmacology in mice to determine the spatiotemporal development of the dopamine innervation to the oPFC and its vulnerability to amphetamine in adolescence. We find that dopamine innervation to the oPFC also continues to increase during adolescence and that this increase is due to the growth of new dopamine axons to this region. Furthermore, amphetamine in adolescence dramatically reduces the number of presynaptic sites on oPFC dopamine axons. In contrast, dopamine innervation to the piriform cortex is not protracted across adolescence and is not impacted by amphetamine exposure during adolescence, indicating that dopamine development during adolescence is a uniquely prefrontal phenomenon. This renders these fibers, and the PFC in general, particularly vulnerable to environmental risk factors during adolescence, such as recreational drug use.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - F31 DA041188()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA037911()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK-47897(United States)

Pharmacological augmentation of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) protects against paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy.

  • LoCoco PM
  • Elife
  • 2017 Nov 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) arises from collateral damage to peripheral afferent sensory neurons by anticancer pharmacotherapy, leading to debilitating neuropathic pain. No effective treatment for CIPN exists, short of dose-reduction which worsens cancer prognosis. Here, we report that stimulation of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) produced robust neuroprotection in an aggressive CIPN model utilizing the frontline anticancer drug, paclitaxel (PTX). Daily treatment of rats with the first-in-class NAMPT stimulator, P7C3-A20, prevented behavioral and histologic indicators of peripheral neuropathy, stimulated tissue NAD recovery, improved general health, and abolished attrition produced by a near maximum-tolerated dose of PTX. Inhibition of NAMPT blocked P7C3-A20-mediated neuroprotection, whereas supplementation with the NAMPT substrate, nicotinamide, potentiated a subthreshold dose of P7C3-A20 to full efficacy. Importantly, P7C3-A20 blocked PTX-induced allodynia in tumored mice without reducing antitumoral efficacy. These findings identify enhancement of NAMPT activity as a promising new therapeutic strategy to protect against anticancer drug-induced peripheral neurotoxicity.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - T32 MH065214(United States)

Short-Term High-Fat Diet Increases Leptin Activation of CART Neurons and Advances Puberty in Female Mice.

  • Venancio JC
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Leptin is a permissive factor for puberty initiation, participating as a metabolic cue in the activation of the kisspeptin (Kiss1)-gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal circuitry; however, it has no direct effect on Kiss1 neurons. Leptin acts on hypothalamic cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neurons, participating in the regulation of energy homeostasis. We investigated the influence of a short-term high-fat diet (HFD) on the effect of leptin on puberty timing. Kiss1-hrGFP female mice received a HFD or regular diet (RD) after weaning at postnatal day (PN)21 and were studied at PN28 and PN32. The HFD increased body weight and plasma leptin concentrations and decreased the age at vaginal opening (HFD, 32 ± 0.53 days; RD, 38 ± 0.67 days). Similar colocalization of neurokinin B and dynorphin in Kiss1-hrGFP neurons of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) was observed between the HFD and RD groups. The HFD increased CART expression in the ARC and Kiss1 messenger RNA expression in the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV)/anterior periventricular (Pe). The HFD also increased the number of ARC CART neurons expressing leptin-induced phosphorylated STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) at PN32. Close apposition of CART fibers to Kiss1-hrGFP neurons was observed in the ARC of both RD- and HFD-fed mice. In conclusion, these data reinforce the notion that a HFD increases kisspeptin expression in the AVPV/Pe and advances puberty initiation. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the HFD-induced earlier puberty is associated with an increase in CART expression in the ARC. Therefore, these data indicate that CART neurons in the ARC can mediate the effect of leptin on Kiss1 neurons in early puberty induced by a HFD.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY05665(United States)

The Anterior Insular Cortex→Central Amygdala Glutamatergic Pathway Is Critical to Relapse after Contingency Management.

  • Venniro M
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Oct 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Despite decades of research on neurobiological mechanisms of psychostimulant addiction, the only effective treatment for many addicts is contingency management, a behavioral treatment that uses alternative non-drug reward to maintain abstinence. However, when contingency management is discontinued, most addicts relapse to drug use. The brain mechanisms underlying relapse after cessation of contingency management are largely unknown, and, until recently, an animal model of this human condition did not exist. Here we used a novel rat model, in which the availability of a mutually exclusive palatable food maintains prolonged voluntary abstinence from intravenous methamphetamine self-administration, to demonstrate that the activation of monosynaptic glutamatergic projections from anterior insular cortex to central amygdala is critical to relapse after the cessation of contingency management. We identified the anterior insular cortex-to-central amygdala projection as a new addiction- and motivation-related projection and a potential target for relapse prevention.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA DA000434-17()

Dynamic Control of X Chromosome Conformation and Repression by a Histone H4K20 Demethylase.

  • Brejc K
  • Cell
  • 2017 Sep 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chromatin modification and higher-order chromosome structure play key roles in gene regulation, but their functional interplay in controlling gene expression is elusive. We have discovered the machinery and mechanism underlying the dynamic enrichment of histone modification H4K20me1 on hermaphrodite X chromosomes during C. elegans dosage compensation and demonstrated H4K20me1's pivotal role in regulating higher-order chromosome structure and X-chromosome-wide gene expression. The structure and the activity of the dosage compensation complex (DCC) subunit DPY-21 define a Jumonji demethylase subfamily that converts H4K20me2 to H4K20me1 in worms and mammals. Selective inactivation of demethylase activity eliminates H4K20me1 enrichment in somatic cells, elevates X-linked gene expression, reduces X chromosome compaction, and disrupts X chromosome conformation by diminishing the formation of topologically associating domains (TADs). Unexpectedly, DPY-21 also associates with autosomes of germ cells in a DCC-independent manner to enrich H4K20me1 and trigger chromosome compaction. Our findings demonstrate the direct link between chromatin modification and higher-order chromosome structure in long-range regulation of gene expression.

Inhibitory Basal Ganglia Inputs Induce Excitatory Motor Signals in the Thalamus.

  • Kim J
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Aug 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Basal ganglia (BG) circuits orchestrate complex motor behaviors predominantly via inhibitory synaptic outputs. Although these inhibitory BG outputs are known to reduce the excitability of postsynaptic target neurons, precisely how this change impairs motor performance remains poorly understood. Here, we show that optogenetic photostimulation of inhibitory BG inputs from the globus pallidus induces a surge of action potentials in the ventrolateral thalamic (VL) neurons and muscle contractions during the post-inhibitory period. Reduction of the neuronal population with this post-inhibitory rebound firing by knockout of T-type Ca2+ channels or photoinhibition abolishes multiple motor responses induced by the inhibitory BG input. In a low dopamine state, the number of VL neurons showing post-inhibitory firing increases, while reducing the number of active VL neurons via photoinhibition of BG input, effectively prevents Parkinson disease (PD)-like motor symptoms. Thus, BG inhibitory input generates excitatory motor signals in the thalamus and, in excess, promotes PD-like motor abnormalities. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Amino Acid Transporter Slc38a5 Controls Glucagon Receptor Inhibition-Induced Pancreatic α Cell Hyperplasia in Mice.

  • Kim J
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Jun 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glucagon supports glucose homeostasis by stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis, in part by promoting the uptake and conversion of amino acids into gluconeogenic precursors. Genetic disruption or pharmacologic inhibition of glucagon signaling results in elevated plasma amino acids and compensatory glucagon hypersecretion involving expansion of pancreatic α cell mass. Recent findings indicate that hyperaminoacidemia triggers pancreatic α cell proliferation via an mTOR-dependent pathway. We confirm and extend these findings by demonstrating that glucagon pathway blockade selectively increases expression of the sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter Slc38a5 in a subset of highly proliferative α cells and that Slc38a5 controls the pancreatic response to glucagon pathway blockade; most notably, mice deficient in Slc38a5 exhibit markedly decreased α cell hyperplasia to glucagon pathway blockade-induced hyperaminoacidemia. These results show that Slc38a5 is a key component of the feedback circuit between glucagon receptor signaling in the liver and amino-acid-dependent regulation of pancreatic α cell mass in mice.

Effects of Oxidative Stress and Testosterone on Pro-Inflammatory Signaling in a Female Rat Dopaminergic Neuronal Cell Line.

  • Holmes S
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Parkinson's disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is associated with oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. These pathological markers can contribute to the loss of dopamine neurons in the midbrain. Interestingly, men have a 2-fold increased incidence for Parkinson's disease than women. Although the mechanisms underlying this sex difference remain elusive, we propose that the primary male sex hormone, testosterone, is involved. Our previous studies show that testosterone, through a putative membrane androgen receptor, can increase oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity in dopamine neurons. Based on these results, this study examines the role of nuclear factor κ B (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), and apoptosis in the deleterious effects of androgens in an oxidative stress environment. We hypothesize, under oxidative stress environment, testosterone via a putative membrane androgen receptor will exacerbate oxidative stress-induced NF-κB/COX2 signaling in N27 dopaminergic neurons, leading to apoptosis. Our data show that testosterone increased the expression of COX2 and apoptosis in dopamine neurons. Inhibiting the NF-κB and COX2 pathway with CAPE and ibuprofen, respectively, blocked testosterone's negative effects on cell viability, indicating that NF-κB/COX2 cascade plays a role in the negative interaction between testosterone and oxidative stress on neuroinflammation. These data further support the role of testosterone mediating the loss of dopamine neurons under oxidative stress conditions, which may be a key mechanism contributing to the increased incidence of Parkinson's disease in men compared with women.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - T32HD055165(United States)

Feature Integration Drives Probabilistic Behavior in the Drosophila Escape Response.

  • von Reyn CR
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Jun 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Animals rely on dedicated sensory circuits to extract and encode environmental features. How individual neurons integrate and translate these features into behavioral responses remains a major question. Here, we identify a visual projection neuron type that conveys predator approach information to the Drosophila giant fiber (GF) escape circuit. Genetic removal of this input during looming stimuli reveals that it encodes angular expansion velocity, whereas other input cell type(s) encode angular size. Motor program selection and timing emerge from linear integration of these two features within the GF. Linear integration improves size detection invariance over prior models and appropriately biases motor selection to rapid, GF-mediated escapes during fast looms. Our findings suggest feature integration, and motor control may occur as simultaneous operations within the same neuron and establish the Drosophila escape circuit as a model system in which these computations may be further dissected at the circuit level. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Mov10 suppresses retroelements and regulates neuronal development and function in the developing brain.

  • Skariah G
  • BMC Biol.
  • 2017 Jun 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Moloney leukemia virus 10 (Mov10) is an RNA helicase that mediates access of the RNA-induced silencing complex to messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Until now, its role as an RNA helicase and as a regulator of retrotransposons has been characterized exclusively in cell lines. We investigated the role of Mov10 in the mouse brain by examining its expression over development and attempting to create a Mov10 knockout mouse. Loss of both Mov10 copies led to early embryonic lethality. RESULTS: Mov10 was significantly elevated in postnatal murine brain, where it bound retroelement RNAs and mRNAs. Mov10 suppressed retroelements in the nucleus by directly inhibiting complementary DNA synthesis, while cytosolic Mov10 regulated cytoskeletal mRNAs to influence neurite outgrowth. We verified this important function by observing reduced dendritic arborization in hippocampal neurons from the Mov10 heterozygote mouse and shortened neurites in the Mov10 knockout Neuro2A cells. Knockdown of Fmrp also resulted in shortened neurites. Mov10, Fmrp, and Ago2 bound a common set of mRNAs in the brain. Reduced Mov10 in murine brain resulted in anxiety and increased activity in a novel environment, supporting its important role in the development of normal brain circuitry. CONCLUSIONS: Mov10 is essential for normal neuronal development and brain function. Mov10 preferentially binds RNAs involved in actin binding, neuronal projection, and cytoskeleton. This is a completely new and critically important function for Mov10 in neuronal development and establishes a precedent for Mov10 being an important candidate in neurological disorders that have underlying cytoarchitectural causes like autism and Alzheimer's disease.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL126845()

Transcriptional Elongation of HSV Immediate Early Genes by the Super Elongation Complex Drives Lytic Infection and Reactivation from Latency.

  • Alfonso-Dunn R
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 Apr 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

The cellular transcriptional coactivator HCF-1 is required for initiation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) lytic infection and for reactivation from latency in sensory neurons. HCF-1 stabilizes the viral Immediate Early (IE) gene enhancer complex and mediates chromatin transitions to promote IE transcription initiation. In infected cells, HCF-1 was also found to be associated with a network of transcription elongation components including the super elongation complex (SEC). IE genes exhibit characteristics of genes controlled by transcriptional elongation, and the SEC-P-TEFb complex is specifically required to drive the levels of productive IE mRNAs. Significantly, compounds that enhance the levels of SEC-P-TEFb also potently stimulated HSV reactivation from latency both in a sensory ganglia model system and in vivo. Thus, transcriptional elongation of HSV IE genes is a key limiting parameter governing both the initiation of HSV infection and reactivation of latent genomes.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM114141()

Quantitative analyses of cellularity and proliferative activity reveals the dynamics of the central canal lining during postnatal development of the rat.

  • Alexovič Matiašová A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

According to previous opinion, the derivation of neurons and glia from the central canal (CC) lining of the spinal cord in rodents should occur in the embryonic period. Reports of the mitotic activity observed in the lining during postnatal development have often been contradictory, and proliferation was ascribed to the generation of ependymocytes, which are necessary for the elongation of CC walls. Our study quantifies the intensity of proliferation and determines the cellularity of the CC lining in reference to lumbar spinal segment L4 during the postnatal development of rats. The presence of dividing cells peaks in the CC lining on postnatal day 8 (P8), with division occurring in 19.2% ± 3.2% of cells. In adult rats, 3.6% ± 0.9% of cells still proliferate, whereas, in mice, 10.3% ± 2.3% of cells at P8 and only 0.6% ± 0.2% of cells in the CC lining in adulthood are proliferating. In the rat, the length of the cell cycle increases from 100.3 ± 35.7 hours at P1 to 401.4 ± 80.6 hours at P43, with a sudden extension between P15 and P22. Despite the intensive proliferation, the total cellularity of the CC lining at the L4 spinal segment significantly descended in from P8 to P15. According to our calculations, the estimated cellularity was significantly higher compared with the measured cellularity of the CC lining at P15. Our results indicate that CC lining serves as a source of cells beyond ependymal cells during the first postnatal weeks of the rat. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:693-707, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY008120(United States)

Asymmetric effects of activating and inactivating cortical interneurons.

  • Phillips EA
  • Elife
  • 2016 Oct 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Bidirectional manipulations - activation and inactivation - are widely used to identify the functions supported by specific cortical interneuron types. Implicit in much of this work is the notion that tonic activation and inactivation will both produce valid, internally consistent insights into interneurons' computational roles. Here, using single-unit recordings in auditory cortex of awake mice, we show that this may not generally hold true. Optogenetically manipulating somatostatin-positive (Sst+) or parvalbumin-positive (Pvalb+) interneurons while recording tone-responses showed that Sst+ inactivation increased response gain, while Pvalb+ inactivation weakened tuning and decreased information transfer, implying that these neurons support delineable computational functions. But activating Sst+ and Pvalb+ interneurons revealed no such differences. We used a simple network model to understand this asymmetry, and showed how relatively small changes in key parameters, such as spontaneous activity or strength of the light manipulation, determined whether activation and inactivation would produce consistent or paradoxical conclusions regarding interneurons' computational functions.

Chronically Increased Amino Acids Improve Insulin Secretion, Pancreatic Vascularity, and Islet Size in Growth-Restricted Fetal Sheep.

  • Brown LD
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Oct 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Placental insufficiency is associated with reduced supply of amino acids to the fetus and leads to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). IUGR fetuses are characterized by lower glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, smaller pancreatic islets with less β-cells, and impaired pancreatic vascularity. To test whether supplemental amino acids infused into the IUGR fetus could improve these complications of IUGR we used acute (hours) and chronic (11 d) direct fetal amino acid infusions into a sheep model of placental insufficiency and IUGR near the end of gestation. IUGR fetuses had attenuated acute amino acid-stimulated insulin secretion compared with control fetuses. These results were confirmed in isolated IUGR pancreatic islets. After the chronic fetal amino acid infusion, fetal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and islet size were restored to control values. These changes were associated with normalization of fetal pancreatic vascularity and higher fetal pancreatic vascular endothelial growth factor A protein concentrations. These results demonstrate that decreased fetal amino acid supply contributes to the pathogenesis of pancreatic islet defects in IUGR. Moreover, the results show that pancreatic islets in IUGR fetuses retain their ability to respond to increased amino acids near the end of gestation after chronic fetal growth restriction.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS081674(United States)

Registered report: Biomechanical remodeling of the microenvironment by stromal caveolin-1 favors tumor invasion and metastasis.

  • Fiering S
  • Elife
  • 2015 Jul 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology seeks to address growing concerns about reproducibility in scientific research by conducting replicating selected results from a number of high-profile papers in the field of cancer biology. The papers, which were published between 2010 and 2012 were selected on the basis of citations and Altimetric scores (Errington et al., 2014). This Registered report describes the proposed replication plan of key experiments from 'Biomechanical remodeling of the microenvironment by stromal caveolin-1 favors tumor invasion and metastasis' by Goetz and colleagues, published in Cell in 2011 (Goetz et al., 2011). The key experiments being replicated are those reported in Figures 7C (a-d), Supplemental Figure S2A, and Supplemental Figure S7C (a-c) (Goetz et al., 2011). In these experiments, which are a subset of all the experiments reported in the original publication, Goetz and colleagues show in a subcutaneous xenograft model that stromal caveolin-1 remodels the intratumoral microenvironment, which is correlated with increased metastasis formation. The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is a collaboration between the Center for Open Science and Science Exchange and the results of the replications will be published in eLife.

Funding information:
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - R03 DE025824(United States)

Immunohistochemical localization of DPP10 in rat brain supports the existence of a Kv4/KChIP/DPPL ternary complex in neurons.

  • Wang WC
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Subthreshold A-type K(+) currents (ISA s) have been recorded from the cell bodies of hippocampal and neocortical interneurons as well as neocortical pyramidal neurons. Kv4 channels are responsible for the somatodendritic ISA s. It has been proposed that neuronal Kv4 channels are ternary complexes including pore-forming Kv4 subunits, K(+) channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs), and dipeptidyl peptidase-like proteins (DPPLs). However, colocalization evidence was still lacking. The distribution of DPP10 mRNA in rodent brain has been reported but its protein localization remains unknown. In this study, we generated a DPP10 antibody to label DPP10 protein in adult rat brain by immunohistochemistry. Absent from glia, DPP10 proteins appear mainly in the cell bodies of DPP10(+) neurons, not only at the plasma membrane but also in the cytoplasm. At least 6.4% of inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampus coexpressed Kv4.3, KChIP1, and DPP10, with the highest density in the CA1 strata alveus/oriens/pyramidale and the dentate hilus. Colocalization of Kv4.3/KChIP1/DPP10 was also detected in at least 6.9% of inhibitory interneurons scattered throughout the neocortex. Both hippocampal and neocortical Kv4.3/KChIP1/DPP10(+) inhibitory interneurons expressed parvalbumin or somatostatin, but not calbindin or calretinin. Furthermore, we found colocalization of Kv4.2/Kv4.3/KChIP3/DPP10 in neocortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons and olfactory bulb mitral cells. Together, although DPP10 is also expressed in some brain neurons lacking Kv4 (such as parvalbumin- and somatostatin-positive Golgi cells in the cerebellum), colocalization of DPP10 with Kv4 and KChIP at the plasma membrane of ISA -expressing neuron somata supports the existence of Kv4/KChIP/DPPL ternary complex in vivo.

Restoration of dopamine signaling to the dorsal striatum is sufficient for aspects of active maternal behavior in female mice.

  • Henschen CW
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Nov 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Striatal dopamine (DA) is important for motivated behaviors, including maternal behavior. Recent evidence linking the dorsal striatum with goal-directed behavior suggests that DA signaling in the dorsal striatum, not just the nucleus accumbens, could be involved in maternal behavior. To investigate this question, we tested the maternal behavior of mice with DA genetically restricted to the dorsal striatum. These mice had a mild deficit in pup retrieval but had normal licking/grooming and nursing behavior; consequently, pups were weaned successfully. We also tested a separate group of mice with severely depleted DA in all striatal areas. They had severe deficits in pup retrieval and licking/grooming behavior, whereas nursing behavior was left intact; again, pups survived to weaning at normal rates. We conclude that DA signaling in the striatum is a part of the circuitry mediating maternal behavior and is specifically relevant for active, but not passive, maternal behaviors. In addition, DA in the dorsal striatum is sufficient to allow for active maternal behavior.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK057038(United States)