Literature context: oratories catalog #711-225-152, RRID:AB_2340612) and donkey anti-chicken Cy5 1:
A growing number of studies implicate the brain's reward circuitry in aggressive behavior. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms within brain reward regions that modulate the intensity of aggression as well as motivation for it have been underexplored. Here, we investigate the cell-type-specific influence of ΔFosB, a transcription factor known to regulate a range of reward and motivated behaviors, acting in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key reward region, in male aggression in mice. We show that ΔFosB is specifically increased in dopamine D1 receptor (Drd1)-expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs) in NAc after repeated aggressive encounters. Viral-mediated induction of ΔFosB selectively in D1-MSNs of NAc intensifies aggressive behavior without affecting the preference for the aggression-paired context in a conditioned place preference (CPP) assay. In contrast, ΔFosB induction selectively in D2-MSNs reduces the time spent exploring the aggression-paired context during CPP without affecting the intensity of aggression per se. These data strongly support a dissociable cell-type-specific role for ΔFosB in the NAc in modulating aggression and aggression reward.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Aggressive behavior is associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders and can be disruptive for affected individuals as well as their victims. Studies have shown a positive reinforcement mechanism underlying aggressive behavior that shares many common features with drug addiction. Here, we explore the cell-type-specific role of the addiction-associated transcription factor ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens in aggression. We found that ΔFosB expression promotes aggressive behavior, effects that are dissociable from its effects on aggression reward. This finding is a significant first step in identifying therapeutic targets for the reduction of aggressive behavior across a range of neuropsychiatric illnesses.
Literature context: ti-rabbit IgG (H+L) Cy2 cat no. 711-225-152 and donkey anti-rabbit IgG (H+L
Transcriptome profiling is widely used to infer functional states of specific cell types, as well as their responses to stimuli, to define contributions to physiology and pathophysiology. Focusing on microglia, the brain's macrophages, we report here a side-by-side comparison of classical cell-sorting-based transcriptome sequencing and the 'RiboTag' method, which avoids cell retrieval from tissue context and yields translatome sequencing information. Conventional whole-cell microglial transcriptomes were found to be significantly tainted by artifacts introduced by tissue dissociation, cargo contamination and transcripts sequestered from ribosomes. Conversely, our data highlight the added value of RiboTag profiling for assessing the lineage accuracy of Cre recombinase expression in transgenic mice. Collectively, this study indicates method-based biases, reveals observer effects and establishes RiboTag-based translatome profiling as a valuable complement to standard sorting-based profiling strategies.
Literature context: mmunoResearch Cat# 711-225-152, RRID:AB_2340612 Secondary antibodies Alexa Fluo
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked progressive muscle degenerative disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a 13-year-old male patient carrying a deletion mutation of exons 45-50; iPSCs were subsequently differentiated into cardiomyocytes. iPSCs exhibit expression of the pluripotent markers (SOX2, NANOG, OCT4), differentiation capacity into the three germ layers, normal karyotype, genetic identity to the skin biopsy dermal fibroblasts and the patient-specific dystrophin mutation.
Literature context: ImmunoResearch Cat#711-225-152; RRID:AB_2340612 Donkey polyclonal anti-rat Cy3
Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission controls behaviors important for survival, including voluntary movement, reward processing, and detection of salient events, such as food or mate availability. Dopaminergic tone also influences circadian physiology and behavior. Although the evolutionary significance of this input is appreciated, its precise neurophysiological architecture remains unknown. Here, we identify a novel, direct connection between the DA neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). We demonstrate that D1 dopamine receptor (Drd1) signaling within the SCN is necessary for properly timed resynchronization of activity rhythms to phase-shifted light:dark cycles and that elevation of DA tone through selective activation of VTA DA neurons accelerates photoentrainment. Our findings demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for direct DA input to the master circadian clock and highlight the importance of an evolutionarily significant relationship between the circadian system and the neuromodulatory circuits that govern motivational behaviors.
Literature context: -225-152, RRID:AB_2340612 Alexa Fluo
Microglia seed the embryonic neuro-epithelium, expand and actively sculpt neuronal circuits in the developing central nervous system, but eventually adopt relative quiescence and ramified morphology in the adult. Here, we probed the impact of post-transcriptional control by microRNAs (miRNAs) on microglial performance during development and adulthood by generating mice lacking microglial Dicer expression at these distinct stages. Conditional Dicer ablation in adult microglia revealed that miRNAs were required to limit microglial responses to challenge. After peripheral endotoxin exposure, Dicer-deficient microglia expressed more pro-inflammatory cytokines than wild-type microglia and thereby compromised hippocampal neuronal functions. In contrast, prenatal Dicer ablation resulted in spontaneous microglia activation and revealed a role for Dicer in DNA repair and preservation of genome integrity. Accordingly, Dicer deficiency rendered otherwise radio-resistant microglia sensitive to gamma irradiation. Collectively, the differential impact of the Dicer ablation on microglia of the developing and adult brain highlights the changes these cells undergo with time.
Pasireotide, a somatostatin analog, is reported to have anti-proliferative effects in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). We therefore assessed the efficacy of pasireotide for treating pancreatic and pituitary NETs that develop in a mouse model of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). Men1(+/-) mice were treated from age 12 mo with 40 mg/kg pasireotide long-acting release formulation, or PBS, intramuscularly monthly for 9 mo. The Men1(+/-) mice had magnetic resonance imaging at 12 and 21 mo, and from 20 mo oral 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine for 1 mo, to assess tumor development and proliferation, respectively. NETs were collected at age 21 mo, and proliferation and apoptosis assessed by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assays, respectively. Pasireotide-treated Men1(+/-) mice had increased survival (pasireotide, 80.9% vs PBS, 65.2%; P < .05), with fewer mice developing pancreatic NETs (pasireotide, 86.9% vs PBS, 96.9%; P < .05) and smaller increases in pituitary NET volumes (pre-treated vs post-treated, 0.803 ± 0.058 mm(3) vs 2.872 ± 0.728 mm(3) [pasireotide] compared with 0.844 ± 0.066 mm(3) vs 8.847 ±1.948 mm(3) [PBS]; P < .01). In addition, pasireotide-treated mice had fewer pancreatic NETs compared with PBS-treated mice (2.36 ± 0.25 vs 3.72 ± 0.32, respectively; P < .001), with decreased proliferation in pancreatic NETs (pasireotide, 0.35 ± 0.03% vs PBS, 0.78 ± 0.08%; P < .0001) and pituitary NETs (pasireotide, 0.73 ±0.07% vs PBS, 1.81 ± 0.15%; P < .0001), but increased apoptosis in pancreatic NETs (pasireotide, 0.42 ± 0.05% vs PBS, 0.19 ± 0.03%; P < .001) and pituitary NETs (pasireotide, 14.75 ± 1.58% vs PBS, 2.35 ± 0.44%; P < .001). Thus, pasireotide increased survival and inhibited pancreatic and pituitary NET growth, thereby indicating its potential as an anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic therapy.
Literature context: 1-225-152 RRID:AB_2340612), Cy2-conj
Neuronal activity is regulated in a homeostatic manner through changes in inhibitory GABA and excitatory glutamate (Glu) AMPA (A) receptors (GluARs). Using immunofluorescent staining, we examined whether calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα)-labeled (+) excitatory neurons in the barrel cortex undergo such homeostatic regulation following enforced waking with associated cortical activation during the day when mice normally sleep the majority of the time. Sleep deprived mice were prevented from falling asleep by unilateral whisker stimulation and sleep recovery (SR) mice allowed to sleep freely following deprivation. In parallel with changes in c-Fos reflecting changes in activity, (β2-3 subunits of) GABAA Rs were increased on the membrane of CaMKIIα+ neurons with enforced waking and returned to baseline levels with SR in barrel cortex on sides both contra- and ipsilateral to the whisker stimulation. The GABAAR increase was correlated with increased gamma electroencephalographic (EEG) activity across conditions. On the other hand, (GluA1 subunits of) AMPA Rs were progressively removed from the membrane of CaMKIIα+ neurons by (Rab5+) early endosomes during enforced waking and returned to the membrane by (Rab11+) recycling endosomes during SR. The internalization of the GluA1Rs paralleled the expression of Arc, which mediates homeostatic regulation of AMPA receptors through an endocytic pathway. The reciprocal changes in GluA1Rs relative to GABAARs suggest homeostatic down-scaling during enforced waking and sensory stimulation and restorative up-scaling during recovery sleep. Such homeostatic changes with sleep-wake states and their associated cortical activities could stabilize excitability and activity in excitatory cortical neurons.
Literature context: esearch (RRID:AB_10015282, RRID:AB_2340612, RRID:AB_2307443, RRID:AB_23406
p27Kip1 (p27) is a cyclin-CDK inhibitor and negative regulator of cell proliferation. p27 also controls other cellular processes including migration and cytoplasmic p27 can act as an oncogene. Furthermore, cytoplasmic p27 promotes invasion and metastasis, in part by promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Herein, we find that p27 promotes cell invasion by binding to and regulating the activity of Cortactin, a critical regulator of invadopodia formation. p27 localizes to invadopodia and limits their number and activity. p27 promotes the interaction of Cortactin with PAK1. In turn, PAK1 promotes invadopodia turnover by phosphorylating Cortactin, and expression of Cortactin mutants for PAK-targeted sites abolishes p27's effect on invadopodia dynamics. Thus, in absence of p27, cells exhibit increased invadopodia stability due to impaired PAK1-Cortactin interaction, but their invasive capacity is reduced compared to wild-type cells. Overall, we find that p27 directly promotes cell invasion by facilitating invadopodia turnover via the Rac1/PAK1/Cortactin pathway.
Rhythmic events in female reproductive physiology, including ovulation, are tightly controlled by the circadian timing system. The molecular clock, a feedback loop oscillator of clock gene transcription factors, dictates rhythms of gene expression in the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis. Circadian disruption due to environmental factors (eg, shift work) or genetic manipulation of the clock has negative impacts on fertility. Although the central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus classically regulates the timing of ovulation, we have shown that this rhythm also depends on phasic sensitivity to LH. We hypothesized that this rhythm relies on clock function in a specific cellular compartment of the ovarian follicle. To test this hypothesis we generated mice with deletion of the Bmal1 locus in ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) (Granulosa Cell Bmal1 KO; GCKO) or theca cells (TCs) (Theca Cell Bmal1 KO; TCKO). Reproductive cycles, preovulatory LH secretion, ovarian morphology and behavior were not grossly altered in GCKO or TCKO mice. We detected phasic sensitivity to LH in wild-type littermate control (LC) and GCKO mice but not TCKO mice. This decline in sensitivity to LH is coincident with impaired fertility and altered patterns of LH receptor (Lhcgr) mRNA abundance in the ovary of TCKO mice. These data suggest that the TC is a pacemaker that contributes to the timing and amplitude of ovulation by modulating phasic sensitivity to LH. The TC clock may play a critical role in circadian disruption-mediated reproductive pathology and could be a target for chronobiotic management of infertility due to environmental circadian disruption and/or hormone-dependent reprogramming in women.
Prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3), encoded by the gene PCSK1, is critical for peptide hormone synthesis. An increasing number of studies have shown that inactivating mutations in PCSK1 are correlated with endocrine pathologies ranging from intestinal dysfunction to morbid obesity, whereas the common nonsynonymous polymorphisms rs6232 (N221D) and rs6234-rs6235 (Q665E-S690T) are highly associated with obesity risk. In this report, we revisited the biochemical and cellular properties of PC1/3 variants in the context of a wild-type PC1/3 background instead of the S357G hypermorph background used for all previous studies. In the wild-type background the PC1/3 N221D variant exhibited 30% lower enzymatic activity in a fluorogenic assay than wild-type PC1/3; this inhibition was greater than that detected in an equivalent experiment using the PC1/3 S357G background. A PC1/3 variant with the linked carboxyl-terminal polymorphisms Q665E-S690T did not show this difference. We also analyzed the biochemical properties of 2 PC1/3 mutants, G209R and G593R, which are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and studied their effects on wild-type PC1/3. The expression of ER-retained mutants induced ER stress markers and also resulted in dominant-negative blockade of wild-type PC1/3 prodomain cleavage and decreased expression of wild-type PC1/3, suggesting facilitation of the entry of wild-type protein to a degradative proteasomal pathway. Dominant-negative effects of PC1/3 mutations on the expression and maturation of wild-type protein, with consequential effects on PC1/3 availability, add a new element which must be considered in population and clinical studies of this gene.
Throughout most of the ovulatory cycle, estrogen negative feedback restrains the GnRH neuronal system. Just before ovulation, however, estrogen negative feedback is removed to permit stimulation of the preovulatory GnRH/LH surge (positive feedback) by the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The mammalian ortholog of avian gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone, RFamide-related peptide 3 (RFRP-3), participates in the circadian-timed removal of estrogen negative feedback to permit the LH surge. The present study examined the specific neurochemical means by which the SCN controls RFRP-3 activity and explored whether the RFRP-3 system exhibits time-dependent responsiveness to SCN signaling to precisely time the LH surge. We found that RFRP-3 cells in female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) receive close appositions from SCN-derived vasopressin-ergic and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-ergic terminal fibers. Central VIP administration markedly suppressed RFRP-3 cellular activity in the evening, but not the morning, relative to saline controls, whereas vasopressin was without effect at either time point. Double-label in situ hybridization for Rfrp-3 and the VIP receptors VPAC1 and VPAC2 revealed that the majority of RFRP-3 cells do not coexpress either receptor in Syrian hamsters or mice, suggesting that SCN VIP-ergic signaling inhibits RFRP-3 cells indirectly. The timing of this VIP-mediated disinhibition is further coordinated via temporally gated responsiveness of RFRP-3 cells to circadian signaling. Together, these findings reveal a novel circadian hierarchy of control coordinating the preovulatory LH surge and ovulation.
Literature context: -225-152, RRID:AB_2340612; Jackson I
OBJECTIVE: Perineuronal nets (PN) form a specialized extracellular matrix around certain highly active neurons within the central nervous system and may help to stabilize synaptic contacts, promote local ion homeostasis, or play a protective role. Within the ocular motor system, excitatory burst neurons and omnipause neurons are highly active cells that generate rapid eye movements - saccades; both groups of neurons contain the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin and are ensheathed by PN. Experimental lesions of excitatory burst neurons and omnipause neurons cause slowing or complete loss of saccades. Selective palsy of saccades in humans is reported following cardiac surgery, but such cases have shown normal brainstem neuroimaging, with only one clinicopathological study that demonstrated paramedian pontine infarction. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that lesions of PN surrounding these brainstem saccade-related neurons may cause saccadic palsy. METHODS: Together with four controls we studied the brain of a patient who had developed a permanent selective saccadic palsy following cardiac surgery and died several years later. Sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded brainstem blocks were applied to double-immunoperoxidase staining of parvalbumin and three different components of PN. Triple immunofluorescence labeling for all PN components served as internal controls. Combined immunostaining of parvalbumin and synaptophysin revealed the presence of synapses. RESULTS: Excitatory burst neurons and omnipause neurons were preserved and still received synaptic input, but their surrounding PN showed severe loss or fragmentation. INTERPRETATION: Our findings support current models and experimental studies of the brainstem saccade-generating neurons and indicate that damage to PN may permanently impair the function of these neurons that the PN ensheathe. How a postulated hypoxic mechanism could selectively damage the PN remains unclear. We propose that the well-studied saccadic eye movement system provides an accessible model to evaluate the role of PN in health and disease.
Timing of metabolic processes is crucial for balanced physiology; many studies have shown the deleterious effects of untimely food intake. The basis for this might be an interaction between the arcuate nucleus (ARC) as the main integration site for metabolic information and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) as the master clock. Here we show in male rats that the SCN influences ARC daily neuronal activity by imposing a daily rhythm on the α-MSH neurons with a peak in neuronal activity at the end of the dark phase. Bilateral SCN lesions showed a complete disappearance of ARC neuronal rhythms and unilateral SCN lesions showed a decreased activation in the ARC at the lesioned side. Moreover light exposure during the dark phase inhibited ARC and α-MSH neuronal activity. The daily inhibition of ARC neuronal activity occurred in light-dark conditions as well as in dark-dark conditions, demonstrating the inhibitory effect to be mediated by increased SCN (subjective) day neuronal activity. Injections into the SCN with the neuronal tracer cholera toxin B showed that α-MSH neurons receive direct projections from the SCN. The present study demonstrates that the SCN activates and possibly also inhibits depending on the moment of the circadian cycle ARC α-MSH neurons via direct neuronal input. The persistence of these activity patterns in fasted animals demonstrates that this SCN-ARC interaction is not necessarily satiety associated but may support physiological functions associated with changes in the sleep-wake cycle.