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Peroxidase-AffiniPure Donkey Anti-Goat IgG (H+L) antibody


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

Goat IgG (H+L)

Proper Citation

(Jackson ImmunoResearch Labs Cat# 705-035-003, RRID:AB_2340390)


polyclonal antibody


Originating manufacturer of this product


Jackson ImmunoResearch Labs Go To Vendor

Cat Num


Rotenone inhibits axonogenesis via an Lfc/RhoA/ROCK pathway in cultured hippocampal neurons.

  • Bisbal M
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 Jul 4

Literature context:


Rotenone, a broad-spectrum insecticide, piscicide and pesticide, produces a complete and selective suppression of axonogenesis in cultured hippocampal neurons. This effect is associated with an inhibition of actin dynamics through activation of Ras homology member A (RhoA) activity. However, the upstream signaling mechanisms involved in rotenone-induced RhoA activation were unknown. We hypothesized that rotenone might inhibit axon growth by the activation of RhoA/ROCK pathway due to changes in microtubule (MT) dynamics and the concomitant release of Lfc, a MT-associated Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) for RhoA. In the present study we demonstrate that rotenone decreases MT stability in morphologically unpolarized neurons. Taxol (3 nM), a drug that stabilizes MT, attenuates the inhibitory effect of rotenone (0.1 μM) on axon formation. Radiometric Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET), revealed that this effect is associated with inhibition of rotenone-induced RhoA and ROCK activation. Interestingly, silencing of Lfc, but not of the RhoA GEF ArhGEF1, prevents the inhibitory effect of rotenone on axon formation. Our results suggest that rotenone-induced MT de-stabilization releases Lfc from MT thereby promoting RhoA and ROCK activities and the consequent inhibition of axon growth. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI073785(United States)

IRF8 Regulates Transcription of Naips for NLRC4 Inflammasome Activation.

  • Karki R
  • Cell
  • 2018 May 3

Literature context:


Inflammasome activation is critical for host defenses against various microbial infections. Activation of the NLRC4 inflammasome requires detection of flagellin or type III secretion system (T3SS) components by NLR family apoptosis inhibitory proteins (NAIPs); yet how this pathway is regulated is unknown. Here, we found that interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) is required for optimal activation of the NLRC4 inflammasome in bone-marrow-derived macrophages infected with Salmonella Typhimurium, Burkholderia thailandensis, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa but is dispensable for activation of the canonical and non-canonical NLRP3, AIM2, and Pyrin inflammasomes. IRF8 governs the transcription of Naips to allow detection of flagellin or T3SS proteins to mediate NLRC4 inflammasome activation. Furthermore, we found that IRF8 confers protection against bacterial infection in vivo, owing to its role in inflammasome-dependent cytokine production and pyroptosis. Altogether, our findings suggest that IRF8 is a critical regulator of NAIPs and NLRC4 inflammasome activation for defense against bacterial infection.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA163507()
  • NIA NIH HHS - AG032375(United States)
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI124346()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R37 AI101935()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR056296()

Angiogenin/Ribonuclease 5 Is an EGFR Ligand and a Serum Biomarker for Erlotinib Sensitivity in Pancreatic Cancer.

  • Wang YN
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Apr 9

Literature context:


Pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase) is a secreted enzyme critical for host defense. We discover an intrinsic RNase function, serving as a ligand for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a member of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The closely related bovine RNase A and human RNase 5 (angiogenin [ANG]) can trigger oncogenic transformation independently of their catalytic activities via direct association with EGFR. Notably, high plasma ANG level in PDAC patients is positively associated with response to EGFR inhibitor erlotinib treatment. These results identify a role of ANG as a serum biomarker that may be used to stratify patients for EGFR-targeted therapies, and offer insights into the ligand-receptor relationship between RNase and RTK families.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA016672()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA211615()
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA186892()
  • NCI NIH HHS - U01 CA201777()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM098294(United States)

Enhanced Expression of the Key Mitosis Regulator Cyclin B1 Is Mediated by PDZ-Binding Kinase in Islets of Pregnant Mice.

  • Uesato T
  • J Endocr Soc
  • 2018 Mar 1

Literature context:


The proliferation of pancreatic β cells is enhanced to enable an increase in β-cell mass and to compensate for insulin resistance during pregnancy. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, we previously investigated islets from pregnant and nonpregnant mice by gene expression profiling and found that the expression of postsynaptic density-95/Discs large/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ)-binding kinase (Pbk), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase family, is increased in pregnant mouse islets compared with control mouse islets. Among the pregnancy hormones, treatment with estradiol upregulated Pbk expression. Inhibition of Pbk expression using a small interfering RNA for Pbk reduced bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in mouse insulinoma 6 cells, which was accompanied by a decreased expression of Ccnb1, a regulatory gene involved in mitosis. Ccnb1 expression was augmented in mouse islets during pregnancy. The forced expression of Pbk using an adenovirus system in isolated mouse islets increased Ccnb1 expression, and the Pbk inhibitor HI-TOPK-032 suppressed Ccnb1 expression in islets isolated from pregnant mice. Our results suggest that Pbk contributes to the expansion of islets during pregnancy and that Ccnb1 may assist Pbk in its role in β-cell proliferation.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - T32 DK063687(United States)

AQP2 can modulate the pattern of Ca2+ transients induced by store-operated Ca2+ entry under TRPV4 activation.

  • Pizzoni A
  • J. Cell. Biochem.
  • 2017 Dec 16

Literature context:


There is increasing evidence indicating that aquaporins (AQPs) exert an influence in cell signaling by the interplay with the TRPV4 Ca2+ channel. Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and plasma membrane hyperpolarization due to opening of Ca2+ -activated potassium channels (KCa) are events that have been proposed to take place downstream of TRPV4 activation. A major mechanism for Ca2+ entry, activated after depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores and driven by electrochemical forces, is the store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). The consequences of the interplay between TRPV4 and AQPs on SOCE have not been yet investigated. The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that AQP2 can modulate SOCE by facilitating the interaction of TRPV4 with KCa channels in renal cells. Using fluorescent probe techniques, we studied intracellular Ca2+ concentration and membrane potential in response to activation of TRPV4 in two rat cortical collecting duct cell lines (RCCD1 ), one not expressing AQPs (WT-RCCD1 ) and the other transfected with AQP2 (AQP2-RCCD1 ). We found that AQP2 co-immunoprecipitates with TRPV4 and with the small-conductance potassium channel (SK3). We also showed that AQP2 is crucial for the activation of SK3 by TRPV4, leading to hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane. This seems to be relevant to modulate the magnitude of SOCE and is accompanied by TRPV4 translocation to the plasma membrane only in AQP2 expressing cells. These findings open the perspective to further investigate whether the interplay between different AQPs with TRPV4 and KCa channels can be an important mechanism to modulate SOCE with physiological relevance.

Funding information:
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - R01 DE016572(United States)

Thyroid Hormone Metabolism Defects in a Mouse Model of SBP2 Deficiency.

  • Fu J
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Dec 1

Literature context:


Selenocysteine insertion sequence binding protein 2 (SBP2) is an essential factor in selenoprotein synthesis. Patients with SBP2 defects have a characteristic thyroid phenotype and additional manifestations such as growth delay, male infertility, impaired motor coordination, and developmental delay. The thyroid phenotype has become pathognomonic for this defect, and putative deficiencies in the iodothyronine deiodinases selenoenzymes have been implicated. To investigate the role of SBP2 and selenoproteins in thyroid physiology and answer questions raised by the human syndrome, we generated a tamoxifen-inducible Sbp2 conditional knockout (iCKO) mouse model. These Sbp2-deficient mice have high serum thyroxine (T4), thyrotropin, and reverse triiodothyronine (T3), similar to the human phenotype of SBP2 deficiency, whereas serum T3 is normal. Their liver T4 and T3 content reflect the serum levels, and deiodinase 1 expression and enzymatic activity were decreased. In contrast, brain T3 content is decreased, indicative of local hypothyroidism, confirmed by the decreased expression of the thyroid hormone (TH) positively regulated gene hairless. Interestingly, the cerebrum T4 content did not parallel the high serum T4 levels, and the expression of TH transporters was decreased. Deiodinase 2 enzymatic activity and deiodinase 3 expression were decreased in cerebrum. The expression and/or activity of other selenoproteins were decreased in brain, liver, and serum, thus demonstrating a global deficiency in selenoprotein synthesis. Sbp2 iCKO mice replicate the thyroid phenotype of SBP2 deficiency and represent an important tool to advance our understanding of the role of SBP2 in thyroid homeostasis and for investigating selenoprotein biology relevant to human disease.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32-GM008541(United States)

L1 coupling to ankyrin and the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton modulates ethanol inhibition of L1 adhesion and ethanol teratogenesis.

  • Dou X
  • FASEB J.
  • 2017 Nov 8

Literature context:


Ethanol causes fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) partly by inhibiting cell adhesion mediated by the L1 neural cell adhesion molecule. Ethanol interacts with an alcohol binding pocket in the L1 extracellular domain (ECD), and dephosphorylation of S1248 in the L1 cytoplasmic domain (CD) renders L1 adhesion insensitive to inhibition by ethanol (L1 insensitive). The mechanism underlying this inside-out signaling is unknown. Here we show that phosphorylation of the human L1-CD at S1152, Y1176, S1181, and S1248 renders L1 sensitive to ethanol by promoting L1 coupling with ankyrin-G and the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton. Knockdown of ankyrin-G or L1 mutations that uncouple L1 from ankyrin reduce L1 sensitivity to ethanol, but not methanol, consistent with a small conformational change in the extracellular alcohol binding pocket. Phosphorylation of Y1176 and ankyrin-G coupling with L1 are higher in NIH/3T3 clonal cell lines in which ethanol inhibits L1 adhesion than in ethanol-resistant NIH/3T3 clonal cell lines. Similarly, phosphorylation of Y1176 is higher in C57BL/6J mice that are sensitive to ethanol teratogenesis than in ethanol resistant C57BL/6N mice. Finally, polymorphisms in genes that encode ankyrin-G and p90rsk, a kinase that phosphorylates S1152, are linked to facial dysmorphology in children with heavy prenatal ethanol exposure. These findings indicate that genes that regulate L1 coupling to ankyrin may influence susceptibility to FASD.-Dou, X., Menkari, C., Mitsuyama, R., Foroud, T., Wetherill, L., Hammond, P., Suttie, M., Chen, X., Chen, S.-Y., Charness, M. E., Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. L1 coupling to ankyrin and the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton modulates ethanol inhibition of L1 adhesion and ethanol teratogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA70907(United States)
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - P50 AA024337()
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - R01 AA020265()
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - R01 AA021434()

Nicotinamide Ameliorates Disease Phenotypes in a Human iPSC Model of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

  • Saini JS
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 May 4

Literature context:


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affects the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a cell monolayer essential for photoreceptor survival, and is the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly. There are no disease-altering therapies for dry AMD, which is characterized by accumulation of subretinal drusen deposits and complement-driven inflammation. We report the derivation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from patients with diagnosed AMD, including two donors with the rare ARMS2/HTRA1 homozygous genotype. The hiPSC-derived RPE cells produce several AMD/drusen-related proteins, and those from the AMD donors show significantly increased complement and inflammatory factors, which are most exaggerated in the ARMS2/HTRA1 lines. Using a panel of AMD biomarkers and candidate drug screening, combined with transcriptome analysis, we discover that nicotinamide (NAM) ameliorated disease-related phenotypes by inhibiting drusen proteins and inflammatory and complement factors while upregulating nucleosome, ribosome, and chromatin-modifying genes. Thus, targeting NAM-regulated pathways is a promising avenue for developing therapeutics to combat AMD.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - F32 EY025931()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY022079()
  • NIA NIH HHS - RF1 AG042932()

Caspase-8 Acts in a Non-enzymatic Role as a Scaffold for Assembly of a Pro-inflammatory "FADDosome" Complex upon TRAIL Stimulation.

  • Henry CM
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Feb 16

Literature context:


TRAIL is a potent inducer of apoptosis and has been studied almost exclusively in this context. However, TRAIL can also induce NFκB-dependent expression of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Surprisingly, whereas inhibition of caspase activity blocked TRAIL-induced apoptosis, but not cytokine production, knock down or deletion of caspase-8 suppressed both outcomes, suggesting that caspase-8 participates in TRAIL-induced inflammatory signaling in a scaffold role. Consistent with this, introduction of a catalytically inactive caspase-8 mutant into CASP-8 null cells restored TRAIL-induced cytokine production, but not cell death. Furthermore, affinity precipitation of the native TRAIL receptor complex revealed that pro-caspase-8 was required for recruitment of RIPK1, via FADD, to promote NFκB activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production downstream. Thus, caspase-8 can serve in two distinct roles in response to TRAIL receptor engagement, as a scaffold for assembly of a Caspase-8-FADD-RIPK1 "FADDosome" complex, leading to NFκB-dependent inflammation, or as a protease that promotes apoptosis.

Funding information:
  • Worldwide Cancer Research - 14-0323()