Literature context: oResearch Labs Cat#703-545-155; RRID:AB_2340375 Donkey anti-rabbit (Alexa Fluor
Astrocytes respond to neuronal activity and were shown to be necessary for plasticity and memory. To test whether astrocytic activity is also sufficient to generate synaptic potentiation and enhance memory, we expressed the Gq-coupled receptor hM3Dq in CA1 astrocytes, allowing their activation by a designer drug. We discovered that astrocytic activation is not only necessary for synaptic plasticity, but also sufficient to induce NMDA-dependent de novo long-term potentiation in the hippocampus that persisted after astrocytic activation ceased. In vivo, astrocytic activation enhanced memory allocation; i.e., it increased neuronal activity in a task-specific way only when coupled with learning, but not in home-caged mice. Furthermore, astrocytic activation using either a chemogenetic or an optogenetic tool during acquisition resulted in memory recall enhancement on the following day. Conversely, directly increasing neuronal activity resulted in dramatic memory impairment. Our findings that astrocytes induce plasticity and enhance memory may have important clinical implications for cognitive augmentation treatments.
Literature context: esearch catalog 703-545-155 RRID:AB_2340375), in PBT was then applied to th
Thiouracil (TU)-tagging is an intersectional method for covalently labeling newly transcribed RNAs within specific cell types. Cell type specificity is generated through targeted transgenic expression of the enzyme uracil phosphoribosyl transferase (UPRT); temporal specificity is generated through a pulse of the modified uracil analog 4TU. This technique has been applied in mouse using a Cre-dependent UPRT transgene, CA>GFPstop>HA-UPRT, to profile RNAs in endothelial cells, but it remained untested whether 4TU can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or whether this transgene can be used to purify neuronal RNAs. Here, we crossed the CA>GFPstop>HA-UPRT transgenic mouse to a Sepw1-cre line to express UPRT in layer 2/3 of visual cortex or to an Nr5a1-cre line to express UPRT in layer 4 of visual cortex. We purified thiol-tagged mRNA from both genotypes at postnatal day (P)12, as well as from wild-type (WT) mice not expressing UPRT (background control). We found that a comparison of Sepw1-purified RNA to WT or Nr5a1-purified RNA allowed us to identify genes enriched in layer 2/3 of visual cortex. Here, we show that Cre-dependent UPRT expression can be used to purify cell type-specific mRNA from the intact mouse brain and provide the first evidence that 4TU can cross the BBB to label RNA in vivo.
Literature context: mmunoresearch Cat# 703-545-155, RRID:AB_2340375 Cy2-streptavidin Jackson Immuno
Cerebral cortex size differs dramatically between reptiles, birds, and mammals, owing to developmental differences in neuron production. In mammals, signaling pathways regulating neurogenesis have been identified, but genetic differences behind their evolution across amniotes remain unknown. We show that direct neurogenesis from radial glia cells, with limited neuron production, dominates the avian, reptilian, and mammalian paleocortex, whereas in the evolutionarily recent mammalian neocortex, most neurogenesis is indirect via basal progenitors. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments in mouse, chick, and snake embryos and in human cerebral organoids demonstrate that high Slit/Robo and low Dll1 signaling, via Jag1 and Jag2, are necessary and sufficient to drive direct neurogenesis. Attenuating Robo signaling and enhancing Dll1 in snakes and birds recapitulates the formation of basal progenitors and promotes indirect neurogenesis. Our study identifies modulation in activity levels of conserved signaling pathways as a primary mechanism driving the expansion and increased complexity of the mammalian neocortex during amniote evolution.
Literature context: ImmunoResearch Cat# 703545155; RRID:AB_2340375 Anti-rabbit IgG, Cy3 Jackson Im
Intestinal macrophages are critical for gastrointestinal (GI) homeostasis, but our understanding of their role in regulating intestinal motility is incomplete. Here, we report that CX3C chemokine receptor 1-expressing muscularis macrophages (MMs) were required to maintain normal GI motility. MMs expressed the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel, which senses thermal, mechanical, and chemical cues. Selective pharmacologic inhibition of TRPV4 or conditional deletion of TRPV4 from macrophages decreased intestinal motility and was sufficient to reverse the GI hypermotility that is associated with chemotherapy treatment. Mechanistically, stimulation of MMs via TRPV4 promoted the release of prostaglandin E2 and elicited colon contraction in a paracrine manner via prostaglandin E receptor signaling in intestinal smooth muscle cells without input from the enteric nervous system. Collectively, our data identify TRPV4-expressing MMs as an essential component required for maintaining normal GI motility and provide potential drug targets for GI motility disorders.
Literature context: 88-conjugated anti-chicken IgG (RRID:AB_2340375), Alexa Fluor 594-conjugated an
Axon degeneration can arise from metabolic stress, potentially a result of mitochondrial dysfunction or lack of appropriate substrate input. In this study, we investigated whether the metabolic vulnerability observed during optic neuropathy in the DBA/2J (D2) model of glaucoma is due to dysfunctional mitochondria or impaired substrate delivery to axons, the latter based on our observation of significantly decreased glucose and monocarboxylate transporters in D2 optic nerve (ON), human ON, and mice subjected to acute glaucoma injury. We placed both sexes of D2 mice destined to develop glaucoma and mice of a control strain, the DBA/2J-Gpnmb+, on a ketogenic diet to encourage mitochondrial function. Eight weeks of the diet generated mitochondria, improved energy availability by reversing monocarboxylate transporter decline, reduced glial hypertrophy, protected retinal ganglion cells and their axons from degeneration, and maintained physiological signaling to the brain. A robust antioxidant response also accompanied the response to the diet. These results suggest that energy compromise and subsequent axon degeneration in the D2 is due to low substrate availability secondary to transporter downregulation.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We show axons in glaucomatous optic nerve are energy depleted and exhibit chronic metabolic stress. Underlying the metabolic stress are low levels of glucose and monocarboxylate transporters that compromise axon metabolism by limiting substrate availability. Axonal metabolic decline was reversed by upregulating monocarboxylate transporters as a result of placing the animals on a ketogenic diet. Optic nerve mitochondria responded capably to the oxidative phosphorylation necessitated by the diet and showed increased number. These findings indicate that the source of metabolic challenge can occur upstream of mitochondrial dysfunction. Importantly, the intervention was successful despite the animals being on the cusp of significant glaucoma progression.
Literature context: ImmunoResearch CAT#703-545-155; RRID:AB_2340375 Donkey anti-Mouse Alexa Fluor 4
Screens for genes that orchestrate neural circuit formation in mammals have been hindered by practical constraints of germline mutagenesis. To overcome these limitations, we combined RNA-seq with somatic CRISPR mutagenesis to study synapse development in the mouse retina. Here synapses occur between cellular layers, forming two multilayered neuropils. The outer neuropil, the outer plexiform layer (OPL), contains synapses made by rod and cone photoreceptor axons on rod and cone bipolar dendrites, respectively. We used RNA-seq to identify selectively expressed genes encoding cell surface and secreted proteins and CRISPR-Cas9 electroporation with cell-specific promoters to assess their roles in OPL development. Among the genes identified in this way are Wnt5a and Wnt5b. They are produced by rod bipolars and activate a non-canonical signaling pathway in rods to regulate early OPL patterning. The approach we use here can be applied to other parts of the brain.
Literature context: muno Research Cat# 703-545-155; RRID:AB_2340375 Anti-mouse F4/80-biotin (BM8) L
Lung epithelial cells (LECs) are strategically positioned in the airway mucosa to provide barrier defense. LECs also express pattern recognition receptors and a myriad of immune genes, but their role in immunity is often concealed by the activities of "professional" immune cells, particularly in the context of fungal infection. Here, we demonstrate that NF-κB signaling in LECs is essential for immunity against the pulmonary fungal pathogen Blastomyces dermatitidis. LECs orchestrate innate antifungal immunity by augmenting the numbers of interleukin-17A (IL-17A)- and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-producing innate lymphocytes, specifically "natural" Th17 (nTh17) cells. Innate lymphocyte-derived IL-17A and GM-CSF in turn enable phagocyte-driven fungal killing. LECs regulate the numbers of nTh17 cells via the production of chemokines such as CCL20, a process dependent on IL-1α-IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling on LECs. Therefore, LECs orchestrate IL-17A- and GM-CSF-mediated immunity in an IL-1R-dependent manner and represent an essential component of innate immunity to pulmonary fungal pathogens.
Literature context: Jackson ImmunoResearch, PA, USA RRID:AB_2340375 1:400
The fruit fly can evaluate its energy state and decide whether to pursue food-related cues. Here, we reveal that the mushroom body (MB) integrates hunger and satiety signals to control food-seeking behavior. We have discovered five pathways in the MB essential for hungry flies to locate and approach food. Blocking the MB-intrinsic Kenyon cells (KCs) and the MB output neurons (MBONs) in these pathways impairs food-seeking behavior. Starvation bi-directionally modulates MBON responses to a food odor, suggesting that hunger and satiety controls occur at the KC-to-MBON synapses. These controls are mediated by six types of dopaminergic neurons (DANs). By manipulating these DANs, we could inhibit food-seeking behavior in hungry flies or promote food seeking in fed flies. Finally, we show that the DANs potentially receive multiple inputs of hunger and satiety signals. This work demonstrates an information-rich central circuit in the fly brain that controls hunger-driven food-seeking behavior.
Literature context: mmunoResearch Cat# 703-545-155, RRID:AB_2340375 Goat anti-Guinea Pig IgG (H+L)
Delamination of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from the ventricular surface is a crucial prerequisite to form the subventricular zone, the germinal layer linked to the expansion of the mammalian neocortex in development and evolution. Here, we dissect the molecular mechanism by which the transcription factor Insm1 promotes the generation of basal progenitors (BPs). Insm1 protein is most highly expressed in newborn BPs in mouse and human developing neocortex. Forced Insm1 expression in embryonic mouse neocortex causes NPC delamination, converting apical to basal radial glia. Insm1 represses the expression of the apical adherens junction belt-specific protein Plekha7. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated disruption of Plekha7 expression suffices to cause NPC delamination. Plekha7 overexpression impedes the intrinsic and counteracts the Insm1-induced, NPC delamination. Our findings uncover a novel molecular mechanism underlying NPC delamination in which a BP-genic transcription factor specifically targets the integrity of the apical adherens junction belt, rather than adherens junction components as such.
Literature context: Fluor 488, Cat# 703-545-155, RRID:AB_2340375; donkey anti-sheep IgG Alexa Fl
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The nociceptin/orphanin FQ opioid peptide (NOP) receptor system plays a significant role in the regulation of pain. This system functions differently in the spinal cord and brain. The mechanism by which the NOP receptor agonists regulate pain transmission in these regions is not clearly understood. Here, we investigate the peripheral and spinal NOP receptor distribution and antinociceptive effects of intrathecal nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) in chronic neuropathic pain. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We used immunohistochemistry to determine changes in NOP receptor distribution triggered by spinal nerve ligation (SNL) using NOP-eGFP knock-in mice. Antinociceptive effects of intrathecal N/OFQ on SNL-mediated allodynia and heat/cold hyperalgesia were assessed in wild-type mice. KEY RESULTS: NOP-eGFP immunoreactivity was decreased by SNL in the spinal laminae I and II outer, regions that mediate noxious heat stimuli. In contrast, immunoreactivity of NOP-eGFP was unchanged in the ventral border of lamina II inner, which is an important region for the development of allodynia. NOP-eGFP expression was also decreased in a large number of primary afferents in the L4 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of SNL mice. However, SNL mice showed increased sensitivity, compared to sham animals to the effects of i.t administered N/OFQ with respect to mechanical as well as thermal stimuli. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our findings suggest that the spinal NOP receptor system attenuates injury-induced hyperalgesia by direct inhibition of the projection neurons in the spinal cord that send nociceptive signals to the brain and not by inhibiting presynaptic terminals of DRG neurons in the superficial lamina.
Literature context: mmunoResearch Cat# 703-545-155; RRID:AB_2340375 goat anti-chicken; Alexa Fluor
Basal cells (BCs) are p63-expressing multipotent progenitors of skin, tracheoesophageal and urinary tracts. p63 is abundant in developing airways; however, it remains largely unclear how embryonic p63+ cells contribute to the developing and postnatal respiratory tract epithelium, and ultimately how they relate to adult BCs. Using lineage-tracing and functional approaches in vivo, we show that p63+ cells arising from the lung primordium are initially multipotent progenitors of airway and alveolar lineages but later become restricted proximally to generate the tracheal adult stem cell pool. In intrapulmonary airways, these cells are maintained immature to adulthood in bronchi, establishing a rare p63+Krt5- progenitor cell population that responds to H1N1 virus-induced severe injury. Intriguingly, this pool includes a CC10 lineage-labeled p63+Krt5- cell subpopulation required for a full H1N1-response. These data elucidate key aspects in the establishment of regionally distinct adult stem cell pools in the respiratory system, potentially with relevance to other organs.
Literature context: mmunoResearch Cat# 703-545-155; RRID:AB_2340375 Donkey anti-rat, Alexa Fluor 48
The differentiation of alveolar epithelial type I (AT1) and type II (AT2) cells is essential for the lung gas exchange function. Disruption of this process results in neonatal death or in severe lung diseases that last into adulthood. We developed live imaging techniques to characterize the mechanisms that control alveolar epithelial cell differentiation. We discovered that mechanical forces generated from the inhalation of amniotic fluid by fetal breathing movements are essential for AT1 cell differentiation. We found that a large subset of alveolar progenitor cells is able to protrude from the airway epithelium toward the mesenchyme in an FGF10/FGFR2 signaling-dependent manner. The cell protrusion process results in enrichment of myosin in the apical region of protruded cells; this myosin prevents these cells from being flattened by mechanical forces, thereby ensuring their AT2 cell fate. Our study demonstrates that mechanical forces and local growth factors synergistically control alveolar epithelial cell differentiation.
Literature context: mmunoResearch Cat# 703-545-155; RRID:AB_2340375 Goat anti-mouse, Alexa Fluor 56
Oriented cell division plays a key role in controlling organogenesis. The mechanisms for regulating division orientation at the whole-organ level are only starting to become understood. By combining 3D time-lapse imaging, mouse genetics, and mathematical modeling, we find that global orientation of cell division is the result of a combination of two types of spindles with distinct spindle dynamic behaviors in the developing airway epithelium. Fixed spindles follow the classic long-axis rule and establish their division orientation before metaphase. In contrast, rotating spindles do not strictly follow the long-axis rule and determine their division orientation during metaphase. By using both a cell-based mechanical model and stretching-lung-explant experiments, we showed that mechanical force can function as a regulatory signal in maintaining the stable ratio between fixed spindles and rotating spindles. Our findings demonstrate that mechanical forces, cell geometry, and oriented cell division function together in a highly coordinated manner to ensure normal airway tube morphogenesis.
Literature context: log #703-545-155 RRID:AB_2340375). Brains were analyzed using an
Neurotensin (Nts) promotes activation of dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) via incompletely understood mechanisms. Nts can signal via the G protein-coupled Nts receptors 1 and 2 (NtsR1 and NtsR2), but the lack of methods to detect NtsR1- and NtsR2-expressing cells has limited mechanistic understanding of Nts action. To overcome this challenge, we generated dual recombinase mice that express FlpO-dependent Cre recombinase in NtsR1 or NtsR2 cells. This strategy permitted temporal control over recombination, such that we could identify NtsR1- or NtsR2-expressing cells and determine whether their distributions differed between the developing and adult brain. Using this system, we found that NtsR1 is transiently expressed in nearly all DA neurons and in many non-DA neurons in the VTA during development. However, NtsR1 expression is more restricted within the adult brain, where only two thirds of VTA DA neurons expressed NtsR1. By contrast, NtsR2 expression remains constant throughout lifespan, but it is predominantly expressed within glia. Anterograde tract tracing revealed that NtsR1 is expressed by mesolimbic, not mesocortical DA neurons, suggesting that VTA NtsR1 neurons may represent a functionally unique subset of VTA DA neurons. Collectively, this work reveals a cellular mechanism by which Nts can directly engage NtsR1-expressing DA neurons to modify DA signaling. Going forward, the dual recombinase strategy developed here will be useful to selectively modulate NtsR1- and NtsR2-expressing cells and to parse their contributions to Nts-mediated behaviors.
Literature context: oResearch Labs Cat#703-545-155; RRID:AB_2340375 Alexa Fluor 488 goat anti-Rabbi
Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) is a cellular process often initiated by the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family of ligands. Although required for normal heart valve development, deregulated EndoMT is linked to a wide range of pathological conditions. Here, we demonstrate that endothelial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is a critical in vitro and in vivo regulator of EndoMT. We further show that this FAO-dependent metabolic regulation of EndoMT occurs through alterations in intracellular acetyl-CoA levels. Disruption of FAO via conditional deletion of endothelial carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (Cpt2E-KO) augments the magnitude of embryonic EndoMT, resulting in thickening of cardiac valves. Consistent with the known pathological effects of EndoMT, adult Cpt2E-KO mice demonstrate increased permeability in multiple vascular beds. Taken together, these results demonstrate that endothelial FAO is required to maintain endothelial cell fate and that therapeutic manipulation of endothelial metabolism could provide the basis for treating a growing number of EndoMT-linked pathological conditions.
Literature context: Research Labs Cat# 703-545-155, RRID:AB_2340375 Donkey anti-mouse Alexa FluorÂ®
The leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) p.G2019S mutation is the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). An induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line CSC-41 was generated from a 75-year old patient diagnosed with PD caused by a p.G2019S mutation in LRRK2. Skin fibroblasts were reprogrammed using a non-integrating Sendai virus-based technology to deliver OCT3/4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4 transcription factors. The generated iPSC line exhibits expression of common pluripotency markers, differentiates into the three germ layers and has a normal karyotype. The iPSC line can be used to explore the association between LRRK2 mutation and PD.
Literature context: 0, 1 h; Jackson ImmunoResearch; RRID:AB_2340375) and Alexa FluorÂ® 594 affiniPur
We have proposed that cortical nNOS/NK1R interneurons have a role in sleep homeostasis. The hypocretins (orexins) are wake-promoting neuropeptides and hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) neurons project to the cortex. Hcrt peptides affect deep layer cortical neurons, and Hcrt receptor 1 (Hcrtr1; Ox1r) mRNA is expressed in cortical nNOS/NK1R cells. Therefore, we investigated whether Hcrt neuron stimulation affects cingulate cortex nNOS/NK1R neurons. Bath application of HCRT1/orexin-A evoked an inward current and membrane depolarization in most nNOS/NK1R cells which persisted in tetrodotoxin; optogenetic stimulation of Hcrt terminals expressing channelrhodopsin-2 confirmed these results, and pharmacological studies determined that HCRTR1 mediated these responses. Single-cell RT-PCR found Hcrtr1 mRNA in 31% of nNOS/NK1R cells without any Hcrtr2 mRNA expression; immunohistochemical studies of Hcrtr1-EGFP mice confirmed that a minority of nNOS/NK1R cells express HCRTR1. When Hcrt neurons degenerated in orexin-tTA;TetO DTA mice, the increased EEG delta power during NREM sleep produced in response to 4 h sleep deprivation and c-FOS expression in cortical nNOS/NK1R cells during recovery sleep were indistinguishable from that of controls. We conclude that Hcrt excitatory input to these deep layer cells is mediated through HCRTR1 but is unlikely to be involved in the putative role of cortical nNOS/NK1R neurons in sleep homeostasis.
Literature context: Pennsylvania, USA)Â 703-545-155, RRID:Â AB_23403751: 750Antibodyanti-mouse Alexa F
Regeneration responses in animals are widespread across phyla. To identify molecular players that confer regenerative capacities to non-regenerative species is of key relevance for basic research and translational approaches. Here, we report a differential response in retinal regeneration between medaka (Oryzias latipes) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). In contrast to zebrafish, medaka Müller glia (olMG) cells behave like progenitors and exhibit a restricted capacity to regenerate the retina. After injury, olMG cells proliferate but fail to self-renew and ultimately only restore photoreceptors. In our injury paradigm, we observed that in contrast to zebrafish, proliferating olMG cells do not maintain sox2 expression. Sustained sox2 expression in olMG cells confers regenerative responses similar to those of zebrafish MG (drMG) cells. We show that a single, cell-autonomous factor reprograms olMG cells and establishes a regeneration-like mode. Our results position medaka as an attractive model to delineate key regeneration factors with translational potential.
Literature context: on ImmunoResearch Laboratories, RRID:AB_2340375); donkey anti-goat conjugated w
The intercalated cells (ITCs) of the amygdala have been shown to be critical regulatory components of amygdalar circuits, which control appropriate fear responses. Despite this, the molecular processes guiding ITC development remain poorly understood. Here we establish the zinc finger transcription factor Tshz1 as a marker of ITCs during their migration from the dorsal lateral ganglionic eminence through maturity. Using germline and conditional knock-out (cKO) mouse models, we show that Tshz1 is required for the proper migration and differentiation of ITCs. In the absence of Tshz1, migrating ITC precursors fail to settle in their stereotypical locations encapsulating the lateral amygdala and BLA. Furthermore, they display reductions in the ITC marker Foxp2 and ectopic persistence of the dorsal lateral ganglionic eminence marker Sp8. Tshz1 mutant ITCs show increased cell death at postnatal time points, leading to a dramatic reduction by 3 weeks of age. In line with this, Foxp2-null mutants also show a loss of ITCs at postnatal time points, suggesting that Foxp2 may function downstream of Tshz1 in the maintenance of ITCs. Behavioral analysis of male Tshz1 cKOs revealed defects in fear extinction as well as an increase in floating during the forced swim test, indicative of a depression-like phenotype. Moreover, Tshz1 cKOs display significantly impaired social interaction (i.e., increased passivity) regardless of partner genetics. Together, these results suggest that Tshz1 plays a critical role in the development of ITCs and that fear, depression-like and social behavioral deficits arise in their absence.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We show here that the zinc finger transcription factor Tshz1 is expressed during development of the intercalated cells (ITCs) within the mouse amygdala. These neurons have previously been shown to play a crucial role in fear extinction. Tshz1 mouse mutants exhibit severely reduced numbers of ITCs as a result of abnormal migration, differentiation, and survival of these neurons. Furthermore, the loss of ITCs in mouse Tshz1 mutants correlates well with defects in fear extinction as well as the appearance of depression-like and abnormal social interaction behaviors reminiscent of depressive disorders observed in human patients with distal 18q deletions, including the Tshz1 locus.
Literature context: Research Labs Cat# 703-545-155, RRID:AB_2340375 Donkey anti-mouse Alexa FluorÂ®
An induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line was generated from a 36-year-old patient with sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). Skin fibroblasts were reprogrammed using the non-integrating Sendai virus technology to deliver OCT3/4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4 factors. The generated cell line (CSC-43) exhibits expression of common pluripotency markers, in vitro differentiation into three germ layers and normal karyotype. This iPSC line can be used to study the mechanisms underlying the development of PD.
Literature context: Research Labs Cat# 703-545-155, RRID:AB_2340375 Donkey anti-mouse Alexa FluorÂ®
Mutations in the PARK2 gene, which encodes PARKIN, are the most frequent cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). We report the generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line from a 78-year-old patient carrying a compound heterozygous mutation (c.823C>T and EX6del) in the PARK2 gene. Skin fibroblasts were reprogrammed using the non-integrating Sendai virus technology to deliver OCT3/4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4 factors. The generated cell line CSC-44 exhibits expression of common pluripotency markers, in vitro differentiation into the three germ layers and normal karyotype. This iPSC line can be used to explore the association between PARK2 mutations and PD.
Literature context: Research Labs Cat# 703-545-155, RRID:AB_2340375 Donkey anti-mouse Alexa FluorÂ®
Skin fibroblasts were collected from a 44-year-old patient with sporadic case of Parkinson's disease (PD). The non-integrating Sendai virus vector encoding OCT3/4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4 was used to reprogram fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Generated iPSCs had normal karyotypes, expressed common stem cell markers, and were capable of differentiating into all three germ layers. Generated line could be used for PD modeling to understand the mechanisms that influence the disorder.
Literature context: Research Labs Cat# 703-545-155; RRID:AB_2340375 AlexaFluor 488-conjugated Donke
Microglia are embryonically seeded macrophages that contribute to brain development, homeostasis, and pathologies. It is thus essential to decipher how microglial properties are temporally regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as sexual identity and the microbiome. Here, we found that microglia undergo differentiation phases, discernable by transcriptomic signatures and chromatin accessibility landscapes, which can diverge in adult males and females. Remarkably, the absence of microbiome in germ-free mice had a time and sexually dimorphic impact both prenatally and postnatally: microglia were more profoundly perturbed in male embryos and female adults. Antibiotic treatment of adult mice triggered sexually biased microglial responses revealing both acute and long-term effects of microbiota depletion. Finally, human fetal microglia exhibited significant overlap with the murine transcriptomic signature. Our study shows that microglia respond to environmental challenges in a sex- and time-dependent manner from prenatal stages, with major implications for our understanding of microglial contributions to health and disease.
Literature context: Research Labs Cat# 703-545-155, RRID:AB_2340375 Donkey anti-mouse Alexa FluorÂ®
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with unknown etiology. Here we show the generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line, named CSC-40, from dermal fibroblasts obtained from a 59-year-old male patient with a homozygous p.Q456X mutation in the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK/PARK6) gene and a confirmed diagnosis of PD, which could be used to model familial PD. A non-integrating Sendai virus-based delivery of the reprogramming factors OCT3/4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4 was employed. The CSC-40 cell line showed normal karyotyping and fingerprinting following transduction as well as sustained expression of several pluripotency markers and the ability to differentiate into all three germ layers.
Literature context: Fluor 488 donkey anti-chicken (RRID:AB_2340375, Jackson Laboratories, catalog
Repeated exposure to cocaine induces lasting epigenetic changes in neurons that promote the development and persistence of addiction. One epigenetic alteration involves reductions in levels of the histone dimethyltransferase G9a in nucleus accumbens (NAc) after chronic cocaine administration. This reduction in G9a may enhance cocaine reward because overexpressing G9a in the NAc decreases cocaine-conditioned place preference. Therefore, we hypothesized that HSV-mediated G9a overexpression in the NAc shell (NAcSh) would attenuate cocaine self-administration (SA) and cocaine-seeking behavior. Instead, we found that G9a overexpression, and the resulting increase in histone 3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2), increases sensitivity to cocaine reinforcement and enhances motivation for cocaine in self-administering male rats. Moreover, when G9a overexpression is limited to the initial 15 d of cocaine SA training, it produces an enduring postexpression enhancement in cocaine SA and prolonged (over 5 weeks) increases in reinstatement of cocaine seeking induced by foot-shock stress, but in the absence of continued global elevations in H3K9me2. The increase in stress-induced reinstatement is paralleled by heightened anxiety measures, suggesting that countering the cocaine-induced decreases in endogenous G9a with ectopic G9a overexpression leads to lasting anxiogenic effects. Finally, we found an enduring reduction in phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein levels in the NAcSh that could account for the increased anxiety. These data demonstrate a novel role for G9a in promoting comorbid cocaine addiction and anxiety and suggest that increased epigenetic repression of transcription through H3K9 during cocaine use can have long-lasting and unexpected negative consequences on behavior.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cocaine addiction is a neuropsychiatric disorder that is detrimental to society and currently has no effective treatments. The difficulty in treating drug addiction is compounded by the high comorbidity with other psychiatric illnesses, including anxiety disorders. Here, we demonstrate that G9a, an epigenetic repressor of gene expression, acting in the nucleus accumbens, a brain reward region, is capable of increasing both addiction- and anxiety-like behaviors in rats. These findings are intriguing because repeated cocaine exposure decreases G9a in this region and thereby enhances expression of certain addiction-promoting genes. However, our results suggest that countering this cocaine-induced decrease in G9a activity actually exacerbates addiction and sensitivity to relapse under stressful situations.
Literature context: ratories, catalog #703-545-155, RRID:AB_2340375), and CY3 goat anti-rabbit for
Cocaine self-administration increases expression of GluA1 subunits in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons, which subsequently enhance the motivation for cocaine. This increase in GluA1 may be dependent on concomitant NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation during self-administration, similar to cocaine-induced long-term potentiation in the VTA. In this study, we used viral-mediated expression of a dominant-negative GluN1 subunit (HSV-dnGluN1) in VTA neurons to study the effect of transient NMDAR inactivation on the GluA1 increases induced by chronic cocaine self-administration in male rats. We found that dnGluN1 expression in the VTA limited to the 3 weeks of cocaine self-administration prevents the subsequent increase in tissue GluA1 levels when compared with control infusions of HSV-LacZ. Surprisingly, dnGluN1 expression led to an enhancement in the motivation to self-administer cocaine as measured using a progressive ratio reinforcement schedule and to enhanced cocaine seeking measured in extinction/reinstatement tests following an extended 3 week withdrawal period. Despite blocking tissue GluA1 increases in cocaine self-administering animals, the HSV-dnGluN1 treatment resulted in increased membrane levels of GluA1 and GluN2B, along with markedly higher locomotor responses to intra-VTA infusions of AMPA, suggesting a paradoxical increase in VTA AMPA receptor responsiveness. Together, these data suggest that NMDARs mediate cocaine-induced increases in VTA GluA1 expression, but such transient NMDAR inactivation also leads to compensatory scaling of synaptic AMPA receptors that enhance the motivational for cocaine.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are critical substrates of drug rewards. Animal models indicate that chronic cocaine use enhances excitatory glutamatergic input to these neurons, making them more susceptible to environmental stimuli that trigger drug craving and relapse. We previously found that self-administration of cocaine increases AMPA glutamate receptors in the VTA, and this effect enhances motivation for cocaine. Here we report that the mechanism for this upregulation involves NMDA receptor activity during cocaine use. While interference with NMDA receptor function blocks AMPA receptor upregulation, it also produces a paradoxical enhancement in membrane AMPA receptor subunits, AMPA responsiveness, and the motivation for cocaine. Thus, pharmacotherapy targeting NMDA receptors may inadvertently produce substantial adverse consequences for cocaine addiction.
Literature context: uno 703-545-155/ RRID:AB_2340375 Cy3-DonkeyÎ±Rb Jackson Immuno 71
Adult neurogenesis in the olfactory epithelium is often depicted as a unidirectional pathway during homeostasis and repair. We challenge the unidirectionality of this model by showing that epithelial injury unlocks the potential for Ascl1+ progenitors and Neurog1+ specified neuronal precursors to dedifferentiate into multipotent stem/progenitor cells that contribute significantly to tissue regeneration in the murine olfactory epithelium (OE). We characterize these dedifferentiating cells using several lineage-tracing strains and single-cell mRNA-seq, and we show that Sox2 is required for initiating dedifferentiation and that inhibition of Ezh2 promotes multipotent progenitor expansion. These results suggest that the apparent hierarchy of neuronal differentiation is not irreversible and that lineage commitment can be overridden following severe tissue injury. We elucidate a previously unappreciated pathway for endogenous tissue repair by a highly regenerative neuroepithelium and introduce a system to study the mechanisms underlying plasticity in the OE that can be adapted for other tissues.
Literature context: Chicken 519 703-545-155: RRID:AB_2340375 Goat 570 705-165-147: AB_230735
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediate the pupillary light reflex, circadian entrainment, and may contribute to luminance and color perception. The diversity of ipRGCs varies from rodents to primates, suggesting differences in their contributions to retinal output. To further understand the variability in their organization and diversity across species, we used immunohistochemical methods to examine ipRGCs in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri). Tree shrews share membership in the same clade, or evolutionary branch, as rodents and primates. They are highly visual, diurnal animals with a cone-dominated retina and a geniculo-cortical organization resembling that of primates. We identified cells with morphological similarities to M1 and M2 cells described previously in rodents and primates. M1-like cells typically had somas in the ganglion cell layer, with 23% displaced to the inner nuclear layer (INL). However, unlike M1 cells, they had bistratified dendritic fields ramifying in S1 and S5 that collectively tiled space. M2-like cells had dendritic fields restricted to S5 that were smaller and more densely branching. A novel third type of melanopsin immunopositive cell was identified. These cells had somata exclusively in the INL and monostratified dendritic fields restricted to S1 that tiled space. Surprisingly, these cells immunolabeled for tyrosine hydroxylase, a key component in dopamine synthesis. These cells immunolabeled for an RGC marker, not amacrine cell markers, suggesting that they are dopaminergic ipRGCs. We found no evidence for M4 or M5 ipRGCs, described previously in rodents. These results identify some organizational features of the ipRGC system that are canonical versus species-specific.
Literature context: Life Technologies, 703-545-155; RRID:AB_2340375), RhodoRed anti-mouse (1:400; L
Pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and reactive gliosis. Glial cells offer protection against AD by engulfing extracellular Aβ peptides, but the repertoire of molecules required for glial recognition and destruction of Aβ are still unclear. Here, we show that the highly conserved glial engulfment receptor Draper/MEGF10 provides neuroprotection in an AD model of Drosophila (both sexes). Neuronal expression of human Aβ42arc in adult flies results in robust Aβ accumulation, neurodegeneration, locomotor dysfunction, and reduced lifespan. Notably, all of these phenotypes are more severe in draper mutant animals, whereas enhanced expression of glial Draper reverses Aβ accumulation, as well as behavioral phenotypes. We also show that the signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat92E), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/AP-1 signaling, and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (Mmp1) are activated downstream of Draper in glia in response to Aβ42arc exposure. Furthermore, Aβ42-induced upregulation of the phagolysosomal markers Atg8 and p62 was notably reduced in draper mutant flies. Based on our findings, we propose that glia clear neurotoxic Aβ peptides in the AD model Drosophila brain through a Draper/STAT92E/JNK cascade that may be coupled to protein degradation pathways such as autophagy or more traditional phagolysosomal destruction methods.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alzheimer's disease (AD) and similar dementias are common incurable neurodegenerative disorders in the aging population. As the primary immune responders in the brain, glial cells are implicated as key players in the onset and progression of AD and related disorders. Here we show that the glial engulfment receptor Draper is protective in a Drosophila model of AD, reducing levels of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides, reversing locomotor defects, and extending lifespan. We further show that protein degradation pathways are induced downstream of Draper in AD model flies, supporting a model in which glia engulf and destroy Aβ peptides to reduce amyloid-associated toxicity.
Literature context: mmuno Research Cat#703-545-155; RRID:AB_2340375 Goat anti rabbit Alexa Fluor Cy
Altered brain energy homeostasis is a key adaptation occurring in the cocaine-addicted brain, but the effect of cocaine on the fundamental source of energy, mitochondria, is unknown. We demonstrate an increase of dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1), the mitochondrial fission mediator, in nucleus accumbens (NAc) after repeated cocaine exposure and in cocaine-dependent individuals. Mdivi-1, a demonstrated fission inhibitor, blunts cocaine seeking and locomotor sensitization, while blocking c-Fos induction and excitatory input onto dopamine receptor-1 (D1) containing NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Drp1 and fission promoting Drp1 are increased in D1-MSNs, consistent with increased smaller mitochondria in D1-MSN dendrites after repeated cocaine. Knockdown of Drp1 in D1-MSNs blocks drug seeking after cocaine self-administration, while enhancing the fission promoting Drp1 enhances seeking after long-term abstinence from cocaine. We demonstrate a role for altered mitochondrial fission in the NAc, during early cocaine abstinence, suggesting potential therapeutic treatment of disrupting mitochondrial fission in cocaine addiction.
Literature context: search Labs; Cat#: 703-545-155, RRID:AB_2340375). Slices were washed 4â€¯Ã—â€¯3min i
Studies show that spinal (intrathecal; i.t.) interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene therapy reverses neuropathic pain in animal models, and co-administration with the mannose receptor (MR; CD206) ligand d-mannose (DM) greatly improves therapeutic efficacy. However, the actions of endogenous IL-10 may be required for enduring pain control observed following i.t. IL-10 gene therapy, potentially narrowing the application of this non-viral transgene delivery approach. Here, we show that i.t. application of naked plasmid DNA expressing the IL-10 transgene co-injected with DM (DM/pDNA-IL-10) for the treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain in IL-10 deficient (IL-10 KO) mice results in a profound and prolonged bilateral pain suppression. Neuropathic pain is induced by unilateral sciatic chronic constriction injury (CCI), and while enduring relief of light touch sensitivity (mechanical allodynia) in both wild type (WT) and IL-10 KO mice was observed following DM/pDNA-IL-10 co-therapy, transient reversal from allodynia was observed following i.t. DM alone. In stably pain-relieved IL-10 KO mice given DM/pDNA-IL-10, mRNA for the IL-10 transgene is detected in the cauda equina and ipsilateral dorsal root ganglia (DRG), but not the lumbar spinal cord. Further, DM/pDNA-IL-10 application increases anti-inflammatory TGF-β1 and decreases pro-inflammatory TNF mRNA in the ipsilateral DRG compared to allodynic controls. Additionally, DM/pDNA-IL-10 treated mice exhibit decreased spinal pro-inflammatory mRNA expression for TNF, CCL2 (MCP-1), and for the microglial-specific marker TMEM119. Similarly, DM/pDNA-IL-10 treatment decreases immunoreactivity for the astrocyte activation marker GFAP in lumbar spinal cord dorsal horn. Despite transient reversal and early return to allodynia in DM-treated mice, lumbar spinal cord revealed elevated TNF, CCL2 and TMEM119 mRNA levels. Both MR (CD206) and IL-10 receptor mRNAs are increased in the DRG following CCI manipulation independent of injection treatment, suggesting that pathological conditions stimulate upregulation and availability of relevant receptors in critical anatomical regions required for the therapeutic actions of the DM/pDNA-IL-10 co-therapy. Taken together, the current report demonstrates that non-viral DM/pDNA-IL-10 gene therapy does not require endogenous IL-10 for enduring relief of peripheral neuropathic pain and does not require direct contact with the spinal cord dorsal horn for robust and enduring relief of neuropathic pain. Spinal non-viral DM/pDNA-IL-10 co-therapy may offer a framework for the development of non-viral gene therapeutic approaches for other diseases of the central nervous system.
Literature context: on Immuno Research 703-545-155; RRID:AB_2340375 Alexa Fluor 568 goat anti-mouse
Action potentials clustered into high-frequency bursts play distinct roles in neural computations. However, little is known about ionic currents that control the duration and probability of these bursts. We found that, in cartwheel inhibitory interneurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, the likelihood of bursts and the interval between their spikelets were controlled by Ca2+ acting across two nanodomains, one between plasma membrane P/Q Ca2+ channels and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ryanodine receptors and another between ryanodine receptors and large-conductance, voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels. Each spike triggered Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) from the ER immediately beneath somatic, but not axonal or dendritic, plasma membrane. Moreover, immunolabeling demonstrated close apposition of ryanodine receptors and BK channels. Double-nanodomain coupling between somatic plasma membrane and hypolemmal ER cisterns provides a unique mechanism for rapid control of action potentials on the millisecond timescale.
Literature context: Research Labs Cat# 703-545-155, RRID:AB_2340375) for 60 min at room temperature
Neurons expressing nitric oxide (NO) synthase (nNOS) and thus capable of synthesizing NO play major roles in many aspects of brain function. While the heterogeneity of nNOS-expressing neurons has been studied in various brain regions, their phenotype in the hypothalamus remains largely unknown. Here we examined the distribution of cells expressing nNOS in the postnatal and adult female mouse hypothalamus using immunohistochemistry. In both adults and neonates, nNOS was largely restricted to regions of the hypothalamus involved in the control of bodily functions, such as energy balance and reproduction. Labeled cells were found in the paraventricular, ventromedial, and dorsomedial nuclei as well as in the lateral area of the hypothalamus. Intriguingly, nNOS was seen only after the second week of life in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH). The most dense and heavily labeled population of cells was found in the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OV) and the median preoptic nucleus (MEPO), where most of the somata of the neuroendocrine neurons releasing GnRH and controlling reproduction are located. A great proportion of nNOS-immunoreactive neurons in the OV/MEPO and ARH were seen to express estrogen receptor (ER) α. Notably, almost all ERα-immunoreactive cells of the OV/MEPO also expressed nNOS. Moreover, the use of EYFPVglut2 , EYFPVgat , and GFPGad67 transgenic mouse lines revealed that, like GnRH neurons, most hypothalamic nNOS neurons have a glutamatergic phenotype, except for nNOS neurons of the ARH, which are GABAergic. Altogether, these observations are consistent with the proposed role of nNOS neurons in physiological processes.
Literature context: Research (RRID:AB_2340375)] and Alex
The glomerular map in the olfactory bulb (OB) is the basis for odor recognition. Once established during development, the glomerular map is stably maintained throughout the life of an animal despite the continuous turnover of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). However, traumatic damage to OSN axons in the adult often leads to dysosmia, a qualitative and quantitative change in olfaction in humans. A mouse model of dysosmia has previously indicated that there is an altered glomerular map in the OB after the OSN axon injury; however, the underlying mechanisms that cause the map distortion remain unknown. In this study, we examined how the glomerular map is disturbed and how the odor information processing in the OB is affected in the dysosmia model mice. We found that the anterior-posterior coarse targeting of OSN axons is disrupted after OSN axon injury, while the local axon sorting mechanisms remained. We also found that the connectivity of mitral/tufted cell dendrites is reduced after injury, leading to attenuated odor responses in mitral/tufted cells. These results suggest that existing OSN axons are an essential scaffold for maintaining the integrity of the olfactory circuit, both OSN axons and mitral/tufted cell dendrites, in the adult.
Literature context: on Immunoresearch 703-545-155 RRID:AB_2340375 488
Activation of Type III cells in mammalian taste buds is implicated in the transduction of acids (sour) and salty stimuli. Several lines of evidence suggest that function of Type III cells in the anterior taste fields may differ from that of Type III cells in posterior taste fields. Underlying anatomy to support this observation is, however, scant. Most existing immunohistochemical data characterizing this cell type focus on circumvallate taste buds in the posterior tongue. Equivalent data from anterior taste fields-fungiform papillae and soft palate-are lacking. Here, we compare Type III cells in four taste fields: fungiform, soft palate, circumvallate, and foliate in terms of reactivity to four canonical markers of Type III cells: polycystic kidney disease 2-like 1 (PKD2L1), synaptosomal associated protein 25 (SNAP25), serotonin (5-HT), and glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67). Our findings indicate that while PKD2L1, 5-HT, and SNAP25 are highly coincident in posterior taste fields, they diverge in anterior taste fields. In particular, a subset of taste cells expresses PKD2L1 without the synaptic markers, and a subset of SNAP25 cells lacks expression of PKD2L1. In posterior taste fields, GAD67-positive cells are a subset of PKD2L1 expressing taste cells, but anterior taste fields also contain a significant population of GAD67-only expressing cells. These differences in expression patterns may underlie the observed functional differences between anterior and posterior taste fields.
Literature context: cken IgY Jackson ImmunoResearch RRID:AB_2340375 Alexa Fluor 568 donkey anti - r
The cortex is organized as a hierarchical processing structure. Feedback from higher levels of the hierarchy, known as top-down signals, have been shown to be involved in attentional and contextual modulation of sensory responses. Here we argue that top-down input to the primary visual cortex (V1) from A24b and the adjacent secondary motor cortex (M2) signals a prediction of visual flow based on motor output. A24b/M2 sends a dense and topographically organized projection to V1 that targets most neurons in layer 2/3. By imaging the activity of A24b/M2 axons in V1 of mice learning to navigate a 2D virtual environment, we found that their activity was strongly correlated with locomotion and resulting visual flow feedback in an experience-dependent manner. When mice were trained to navigate a left-right inverted virtual environment, correlations of neural activity with behavior reversed to match visual flow. These findings are consistent with a predictive coding interpretation of visual processing.
Literature context: RRID:AB_2340375 Chemicals, Peptides, and Recomb
AMPARs mediate the briefest synaptic currents in the brain by virtue of their rapid gating kinetics. However, at the mossy fiber-to-unipolar brush cell synapse in the cerebellum, AMPAR-mediated EPSCs last for hundreds of milliseconds, and it has been proposed that this time course reflects slow diffusion from a complex synaptic space. We show that upon release of glutamate, synaptic AMPARs were desensitized by transmitter by >90%. As glutamate levels subsequently fell, recovery of transmission occurred due to the presence of the AMPAR accessory protein stargazin that enhances the AMPAR response to low levels of transmitter. This gradual increase in receptor activity following desensitization accounted for the majority of synaptic transmission at this synapse. Moreover, the amplitude, duration, and shape of the synaptic response was tightly controlled by plasma membrane glutamate transporters, indicating that clearance of synaptic glutamate during the slow EPSC is dictated by an uptake process.
Literature context: ratories 703-545-155, RRID:AB_2340375), RtÎ±M IgG2Î² 647 (1:350, Abcam
Although the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an essential regulator of developmental oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination, oligodendrocyte-specific deletion of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a major upstream inhibitor of mTOR, surprisingly also leads to hypomyelination during CNS development. However, the function of TSC has not been studied in the context of remyelination. Here, we used the inducible Cre-lox system to study the function of TSC in the remyelination of a focal, lysolecithin-demyelinated lesion in adult male mice. Using two different mouse models in which Tsc1 is deleted by Cre expression in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) or in premyelinating oligodendrocytes, we reveal that deletion of Tsc1 affects oligodendroglia differently depending on the stage of the oligodendrocyte lineage. Tsc1 deletion from NG2+ OPCs accelerated remyelination. Conversely, Tsc1 deletion from proteolipid protein (PLP)-positive oligodendrocytes slowed remyelination. Contrary to developmental myelination, there were no changes in OPC or oligodendrocyte numbers in either model. Our findings reveal a complex role for TSC in oligodendrocytes during remyelination in which the timing of Tsc1 deletion is a critical determinant of its effect on remyelination. Moreover, our findings suggest that TSC has different functions in developmental myelination and remyelination.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Myelin loss in demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis results in disability due to loss of axon conductance and axon damage. Encouragingly, the nervous system is capable of spontaneous remyelination, but this regenerative process often fails. Many chronically demyelinated lesions have oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) within their borders. It is thus of great interest to elucidate mechanisms by which we might enhance endogenous remyelination. Here, we provide evidence that deletion of Tsc1 from OPCs, but not differentiating oligodendrocytes, is beneficial to remyelination. This finding contrasts with the loss of oligodendroglia and hypomyelination seen with Tsc1 or Tsc2 deletion in the oligodendrocyte lineage during CNS development and points to important differences in the regulation of developmental myelination and remyelination.
Literature context: tibody (Jackson ImmunoResearch; RRID:AB_2340375; 1:400). Tissue was washed once
Hypothalamic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons potently stimulate food intake, whereas proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons inhibit feeding. Whether AgRP neurons exert their orexigenic actions, at least in part, by inhibiting anorexigenic POMC neurons remains unclear. Here, the connectivity between GABA-releasing AgRP neurons and POMC neurons was examined in brain slices from male and female mice. GABA-mediated spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) in POMC neurons were unaffected by disturbing GABA release from AgRP neurons either by cell type-specific deletion of the vesicular GABA transporter or by expression of botulinum toxin in AgRP neurons to prevent vesicle-associated membrane protein 2-dependent vesicle fusion. Additionally, there was no difference in the ability of μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists to inhibit sIPSCs in POMC neurons when MORs were deleted from AgRP neurons, and activation of the inhibitory designer receptor hM4Di on AgRP neurons did not affect sIPSCs recorded from POMC neurons. These approaches collectively indicate that AgRP neurons do not significantly contribute to the strong spontaneous GABA input to POMC neurons. Despite these observations, optogenetic stimulation of AgRP neurons reliably produced evoked IPSCs in POMC neurons, leading to the inhibition of POMC neuron firing. Thus, AgRP neurons can potently affect POMC neuron function without contributing a significant source of spontaneous GABA input to POMC neurons. Together, these results indicate that the relevance of GABAergic inputs from AgRP to POMC neurons is state dependent and highlight the need to consider different types of transmitter release in circuit mapping and physiologic regulation.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons play an important role in driving food intake, while proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons inhibit feeding. Despite the importance of these two well characterized neuron types in maintaining metabolic homeostasis, communication between these cells remains poorly understood. To provide clarity to this circuit, we made electrophysiological recordings from mouse brain slices and found that AgRP neurons do not contribute spontaneously released GABA onto POMC neurons, although when activated with channelrhodopsin AgRP neurons inhibit POMC neurons through GABA-mediated transmission. These findings indicate that the relevance of AgRP to POMC neuron GABA connectivity depends on the state of AgRP neuron activity and suggest that different types of transmitter release should be considered when circuit mapping.
Literature context: -545-155, RRID:AB_2340375 Alexa Fluo
How experiences during development cause long-lasting changes in sensory circuits and affect behavior in mature animals are poorly understood. Here we establish a novel system for mechanistic analysis of the plasticity of developing neural circuits by showing that sensory experience during development alters nociceptive behavior and circuit physiology in Drosophila larvae. Despite the convergence of nociceptive and mechanosensory inputs on common second-order neurons (SONs), developmental noxious input modifies transmission from nociceptors to their SONs, but not from mechanosensors to the same SONs, which suggests striking sensory pathway specificity. These SONs activate serotonergic neurons to inhibit nociceptor-to-SON transmission; stimulation of nociceptors during development sensitizes nociceptor presynapses to this feedback inhibition. Our results demonstrate that, unlike associative learning, which involves inputs from two sensory pathways, sensory pathway-specific plasticity in the Drosophila nociceptive circuit is in part established through feedback modulation. This study elucidates a novel mechanism that enables pathway-specific plasticity in sensory systems. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
Literature context: munoResearch Cat # 703-545-155; RRID:AB_2340375 Bacterial and Virus Strains
How environmental and physiological signals interact to influence neural circuits underlying developmentally programmed social interactions such as male territorial aggression is poorly understood. We have tested the influence of sensory cues, social context, and sex hormones on progesterone receptor (PR)-expressing neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) that are critical for male territorial aggression. We find that these neurons can drive aggressive displays in solitary males independent of pheromonal input, gonadal hormones, opponents, or social context. By contrast, these neurons cannot elicit aggression in socially housed males that intrude in another male's territory unless their pheromone-sensing is disabled. This modulation of aggression cannot be accounted for by linear integration of environmental and physiological signals. Together, our studies suggest that fundamentally non-linear computations enable social context to exert a dominant influence on developmentally hard-wired hypothalamus-mediated male territorial aggression.
Literature context: -545-155; RRID:AB_2340375 Goat polyc
Neural networks are emerging as the fundamental computational unit of the brain and it is becoming progressively clearer that network dysfunction is at the core of a number of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Yet, our ability to target specific networks for functional or genetic manipulations remains limited. Monosynaptically restricted rabies virus facilitates the anatomical investigation of neural circuits. However, the inherent cytotoxicity of the rabies largely prevents its implementation in long-term functional studies and the genetic manipulation of neural networks. To overcome this limitation, we developed a self-inactivating ΔG-rabies virus (SiR) that transcriptionally disappears from the infected neurons while leaving permanent genetic access to the traced network. SiR provides a virtually unlimited temporal window for the study of network dynamics and for the genetic and functional manipulation of neural circuits in vivo without adverse effects on neuronal physiology and circuit function.
Literature context: 3-545-155 RRID:AB_2340375 Anti-rabbi
Ventral midbrain dopamine (DA) is unambiguously involved in motivation and behavioral arousal, yet the contributions of other DA populations to these processes are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the dorsal raphe nucleus DA neurons are critical modulators of behavioral arousal and sleep-wake patterning. Using simultaneous fiber photometry and polysomnography, we observed time-delineated dorsal raphe nucleus dopaminergic (DRNDA) activity upon exposure to arousal-evoking salient cues, irrespective of their hedonic valence. We also observed broader fluctuations of DRNDA activity across sleep-wake cycles with highest activity during wakefulness. Both endogenous DRNDA activity and optogenetically driven DRNDA activity were associated with waking from sleep, with DA signal strength predictive of wake duration. Conversely, chemogenetic inhibition opposed wakefulness and promoted NREM sleep, even in the face of salient stimuli. Therefore, the DRNDA population is a critical contributor to wake-promoting pathways and is capable of modulating sleep-wake states according to the outside environment, wherein the perception of salient stimuli prompts vigilance and arousal.
Literature context: -545-155; RRID:AB_2340375 Donkey ant
The successful planning and execution of adaptive behaviors in mammals may require long-range coordination of neural networks throughout cerebral cortex. The neuronal implementation of signals that could orchestrate cortex-wide activity remains unclear. Here, we develop and apply methods for cortex-wide Ca2+ imaging in mice performing decision-making behavior and identify a global cortical representation of task engagement encoded in the activity dynamics of both single cells and superficial neuropil distributed across the majority of dorsal cortex. The activity of multiple molecularly defined cell types was found to reflect this representation with type-specific dynamics. Focal optogenetic inhibition tiled across cortex revealed a crucial role for frontal cortex in triggering this cortex-wide phenomenon; local inhibition of this region blocked both the cortex-wide response to task-initiating cues and the voluntary behavior. These findings reveal cell-type-specific processes in cortex for globally representing goal-directed behavior and identify a major cortical node that gates the global broadcast of task-related information.
Literature context: -545-155; RRID:AB_2340375 Bacterial
Convergent input from different presynaptic partners shapes the responses of postsynaptic neurons. Whether developing postsynaptic neurons establish connections with each presynaptic partner independently or balance inputs to attain specific responses is unclear. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) receive convergent input from bipolar cell types with different contrast responses and temporal tuning. Here, using optogenetic activation and pharmacogenetic silencing, we found that type 6 bipolar (B6) cells dominate excitatory input to ONα-RGCs. We generated mice in which B6 cells were selectively removed from developing circuits (B6-DTA). In B6-DTA mice, ONα-RGCs adjusted connectivity with other bipolar cells in a cell-type-specific manner. They recruited new partners, increased synapses with some existing partners, and maintained constant input from others. Patch-clamp recordings revealed that anatomical rewiring precisely preserved contrast and temporal frequency response functions of ONα-RGCs, indicating that homeostatic plasticity shapes cell-type-specific wiring in the developing retina to stabilize visual information sent to the brain.
Literature context: -545-155; RRID:AB_2340375 Cy3 Anti-G
The concerted production of neurons and glia by neural stem cells (NSCs) is essential for neural circuit assembly. In the developing cerebral cortex, radial glia progenitors (RGPs) generate nearly all neocortical neurons and certain glia lineages. RGP proliferation behavior shows a high degree of non-stochasticity, thus a deterministic characteristic of neuron and glia production. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling RGP behavior and proliferation dynamics in neurogenesis and glia generation remain unknown. By using mosaic analysis with double markers (MADM)-based genetic paradigms enabling the sparse and global knockout with unprecedented single-cell resolution, we identified Lgl1 as a critical regulatory component. We uncover Lgl1-dependent tissue-wide community effects required for embryonic cortical neurogenesis and novel cell-autonomous Lgl1 functions controlling RGP-mediated glia genesis and postnatal NSC behavior. These results suggest that NSC-mediated neuron and glia production is tightly regulated through the concerted interplay of sequential Lgl1-dependent global and cell intrinsic mechanisms.
Literature context: -545-155; RRID:AB_2340375 Alexa 488
In many vertebrates, postnatally generated neurons often migrate long distances to reach their final destination, where they help shape local circuit activity. Concerted action of extrinsic stimuli is required to regulate long-distance migration. Some migratory principles are evolutionarily conserved, whereas others are species and cell type specific. Here we identified a serotonergic mechanism that governs migration of postnatally generated neurons in the mouse brain. Serotonergic axons originating from the raphe nuclei exhibit a conspicuous alignment with subventricular zone-derived neuroblasts. Optogenetic axonal activation provides functional evidence for serotonergic modulation of neuroblast migration. Furthermore, we show that the underlying mechanism involves serotonin receptor 3A (5HT3A)-mediated calcium influx. Thus, 5HT3A receptor deletion in neuroblasts impaired speed and directionality of migration and abolished calcium spikes. We speculate that serotonergic modulation of postnatally generated neuroblast migration is evolutionarily conserved as indicated by the presence of serotonergic axons in migratory paths in other vertebrates.
Literature context: h, 1:200; RRID:AB_2340375) or Alexa-
The hormones ghrelin and leptin act via the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) to modify energy balance, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated how leptin and ghrelin engage LHA neurons to modify energy balance behaviors and whether there is any crosstalk between leptin and ghrelin-responsive circuits. We demonstrate that ghrelin activates LHA neurons expressing hypocretin/orexin (OX) to increase food intake. Leptin mediates anorectic actions via separate neurons expressing the long form of the leptin receptor (LepRb), many of which coexpress the neuropeptide neurotensin (Nts); we refer to these as NtsLepRb neurons. Because NtsLepRb neurons inhibit OX neurons, we hypothesized that disruption of the NtsLepRb neuronal circuit would impair both NtsLepRb and OX neurons from responding to their respective hormonal cues, thus compromising adaptive energy balance. Indeed, mice with developmental deletion of LepRb specifically from NtsLepRb neurons exhibit blunted adaptive responses to leptin and ghrelin that discoordinate the mesolimbic dopamine system and ingestive and locomotor behaviors, leading to weight gain. Collectively, these data reveal a crucial role for LepRb in the proper formation of LHA circuits, and that NtsLepRb neurons are important neuronal hubs within the LHA for hormone-mediated control of ingestive and locomotor behaviors.
Literature context: 52, RRID:AB_2340375; 715-605-1
Neuronal stem cell lineages are the fundamental developmental units of the brain, and neuronal circuits are the fundamental functional units of the brain. Determining lineage-circuitry relationships is essential for deciphering the developmental logic of circuit assembly. While the spatial distribution of lineage-related neurons has been investigated in a few brain regions [1-9], an important, but unaddressed question is whether temporal information that diversifies neuronal progeny within a single lineage also impacts circuit assembly. Circuits in the sensorimotor system (e.g., spinal cord) are thought to be assembled sequentially [10-14], making this an ideal brain region for investigating the circuit-level impact of temporal patterning within a lineage. Here, we use intersectional genetics, optogenetics, high-throughput behavioral analysis, single-neuron labeling, connectomics, and calcium imaging to determine how a set of bona fide lineage-related interneurons contribute to sensorimotor circuitry in the Drosophila larva. We show that Even-skipped lateral interneurons (ELs) are sensory processing interneurons. Late-born ELs contribute to a proprioceptive body posture circuit, whereas early-born ELs contribute to a mechanosensitive escape circuit. These data support a model in which a single neuronal stem cell can produce a large number of interneurons with similar functional capacity that are distributed into different circuits based on birth timing. In summary, these data establish a link between temporal specification of neuronal identity and circuit assembly at the single-cell level.
Literature context: -545-155; RRID:AB_2340375 Biological
Plasticity of adult neurogenesis supports adaptation to environmental changes. The identification of molecular mediators that signal these changes to neural progenitors in the niche has remained elusive. Here we report that diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) is crucial in supporting an adaptive mechanism in response to changes in the environment. We provide evidence that DBI is expressed in stem cells in all neurogenic niches of the postnatal brain. Focusing on the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) and employing multiple genetic manipulations in vivo, we demonstrate that DBI regulates the balance between preserving the stem cell pool and neurogenesis. Specifically, DBI dampens GABA activity in stem cells, thereby sustaining the proproliferative effect of physical exercise and enriched environment. Our data lend credence to the notion that the modulatory effect of DBI constitutes a general mechanism that regulates postnatal neurogenesis.
Literature context: -545-155; RRID:AB_2340375 Goat anti-
Generating a precise cellular and molecular cartography of the human embryo is essential to our understanding of the mechanisms of organogenesis in normal and pathological conditions. Here, we have combined whole-mount immunostaining, 3DISCO clearing, and light-sheet imaging to start building a 3D cellular map of the human development during the first trimester of gestation. We provide high-resolution 3D images of the developing peripheral nervous, muscular, vascular, cardiopulmonary, and urogenital systems. We found that the adult-like pattern of skin innervation is established before the end of the first trimester, showing important intra- and inter-individual variations in nerve branches. We also present evidence for a differential vascularization of the male and female genital tracts concomitant with sex determination. This work paves the way for a cellular and molecular reference atlas of human cells, which will be of paramount importance to understanding human development in health and disease. PAPERCLIP.
Literature context: -545-155; RRID:AB_2340375 Goat Anti-
The prevailing view is that striatal parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons primarily function to downregulate medium spiny projection neuron (MSN) activity via monosynaptic inhibitory signaling. Here, by combining in vivo neural recordings and optogenetics, we unexpectedly find that both suppressing and over-activating PV cells attenuates spontaneous MSN activity. To account for this, we find that, in addition to monosynaptic coupling, PV-MSN interactions are mediated by a competing disynaptic inhibitory circuit involving a variety of neuropeptide Y-expressing interneurons. Next we use optogenetic and chemogenetic approaches to show that dorsolateral striatal PV interneurons influence the initial expression of reward-conditioned responses but that their contribution to performance declines with experience. Consistent with this, we observe with large-scale recordings in behaving animals that the relative contribution of PV cells on MSN activity diminishes with training. Together, this work provides a possible mechanism by which PV interneurons modulate striatal output and selectively enhance performance early in learning.
Literature context: -545-155, RRID:AB_2340375 Dylight 64
Mossy cells in the hilus of the dentate gyrus constitute a major excitatory principal cell type in the mammalian hippocampus; however, it remains unknown how these cells behave in vivo. Here, we have used two-photon Ca2+ imaging to monitor the activity of mossy cells in awake, behaving mice. We find that mossy cells are significantly more active than dentate granule cells in vivo, exhibit spatial tuning during head-fixed spatial navigation, and undergo robust remapping of their spatial representations in response to contextual manipulation. Our results provide a functional characterization of mossy cells in the behaving animal and demonstrate their active participation in spatial coding and contextual representation.
Literature context: 3-545-155 RRID:AB_2340375 Jackson Im
Bidirectional manipulations - activation and inactivation - are widely used to identify the functions supported by specific cortical interneuron types. Implicit in much of this work is the notion that tonic activation and inactivation will both produce valid, internally consistent insights into interneurons' computational roles. Here, using single-unit recordings in auditory cortex of awake mice, we show that this may not generally hold true. Optogenetically manipulating somatostatin-positive (Sst+) or parvalbumin-positive (Pvalb+) interneurons while recording tone-responses showed that Sst+ inactivation increased response gain, while Pvalb+ inactivation weakened tuning and decreased information transfer, implying that these neurons support delineable computational functions. But activating Sst+ and Pvalb+ interneurons revealed no such differences. We used a simple network model to understand this asymmetry, and showed how relatively small changes in key parameters, such as spontaneous activity or strength of the light manipulation, determined whether activation and inactivation would produce consistent or paradoxical conclusions regarding interneurons' computational functions.
Episodic release of GnRH is essential for reproductive function. In vitro studies have established that this episodic release is an endogenous property of GnRH neurons and that GnRH secretory pulses are associated with synchronization of GnRH neuron activity. The cellular mechanisms by which GnRH neurons synchronize remain largely unknown. There is no clear evidence of physical coupling of GnRH neurons through gap junctions to explain episodic synchronization. However, coupling of glial cells through gap junctions has been shown to regulate neuron activity in their microenvironment. The present study investigated whether glial cell communication through gap junctions plays a role in GnRH neuron activity and secretion in the mouse. Our findings show that Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein-expressing glial cells located in the median eminence in close vicinity to GnRH fibers expressed Gja1 encoding connexin-43. To study the impact of glial-gap junction coupling on GnRH neuron activity, an in vitro model of primary cultures from mouse embryo nasal placodes was used. In this model, GnRH neurons possess a glial microenvironment and were able to release GnRH in an episodic manner. Our findings show that in vitro glial cells forming the microenvironment of GnRH neurons expressed connexin-43 and displayed functional gap junctions. Pharmacological blockade of the gap junctions with 50 μM 18-α-glycyrrhetinic acid decreased GnRH secretion by reducing pulse frequency and amplitude, suppressed neuronal synchronization and drastically reduced spontaneous electrical activity, all these effects were reversed upon 18-α-glycyrrhetinic acid washout.