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Cy5-AffiniPure Goat Anti-Mouse IgG (H+L) (min X Hu,Bov,Hrs,Rb,Sw Sr Prot) antibody

RRID:AB_2338713

Antibody ID

AB_2338713

Target Antigen

Anti-Mouse IgG (H+L)

Proper Citation

(Jackson ImmunoResearch Labs Cat# 115-175-146, RRID:AB_2338713)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

Originating manufacturer of this product; Comment left by author was AB_2307343, reason unknown; Curator reconciled this entry with AB_2307344, which was found to be a duplicate entered by a user.

Host Organism

goat

Vendor

Jackson ImmunoResearch Labs Go To Vendor

Live Observation of Two Parallel Membrane Degradation Pathways at Axon Terminals.

  • Jin EJ
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2018 Apr 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neurons are highly polarized cells that require continuous turnover of membrane proteins at axon terminals to develop, function, and survive. Yet, it is still unclear whether membrane protein degradation requires transport back to the cell body or whether degradation also occurs locally at the axon terminal, where live observation of sorting and degradation has remained a challenge. Here, we report direct observation of two cargo-specific membrane protein degradation mechanisms at axon terminals based on a live-imaging approach in intact Drosophila brains. We show that different acidification-sensing cargo probes are sorted into distinct classes of degradative "hub" compartments for synaptic vesicle proteins and plasma membrane proteins at axon terminals. Sorting and degradation of the two cargoes in the separate hubs are molecularly distinct. Local sorting of synaptic vesicle proteins for degradation at the axon terminal is, surprisingly, Rab7 independent, whereas sorting of plasma membrane proteins is Rab7 dependent. The cathepsin-like protease CP1 is specific to synaptic vesicle hubs, and its delivery requires the vesicle SNARE neuronal synaptobrevin. Cargo separation only occurs at the axon terminal, whereas degradative compartments at the cell body are mixed. These data show that at least two local, molecularly distinct pathways sort membrane cargo for degradation specifically at the axon terminal, whereas degradation can occur both at the terminal and en route to the cell body.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - AI 2047(United States)

Dynamic Control of X Chromosome Conformation and Repression by a Histone H4K20 Demethylase.

  • Brejc K
  • Cell
  • 2017 Sep 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chromatin modification and higher-order chromosome structure play key roles in gene regulation, but their functional interplay in controlling gene expression is elusive. We have discovered the machinery and mechanism underlying the dynamic enrichment of histone modification H4K20me1 on hermaphrodite X chromosomes during C. elegans dosage compensation and demonstrated H4K20me1's pivotal role in regulating higher-order chromosome structure and X-chromosome-wide gene expression. The structure and the activity of the dosage compensation complex (DCC) subunit DPY-21 define a Jumonji demethylase subfamily that converts H4K20me2 to H4K20me1 in worms and mammals. Selective inactivation of demethylase activity eliminates H4K20me1 enrichment in somatic cells, elevates X-linked gene expression, reduces X chromosome compaction, and disrupts X chromosome conformation by diminishing the formation of topologically associating domains (TADs). Unexpectedly, DPY-21 also associates with autosomes of germ cells in a DCC-independent manner to enrich H4K20me1 and trigger chromosome compaction. Our findings demonstrate the direct link between chromatin modification and higher-order chromosome structure in long-range regulation of gene expression.

Anatomy of the lobula complex in the brain of the praying mantis compared to the lobula complexes of the locust and cockroach.

  • Rosner R
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The praying mantis is an insect which relies on vision for capturing prey, avoiding being eaten and for spatial orientation. It is well known for its ability to use stereopsis for estimating the distance of objects. The neuronal substrate mediating visually driven behaviors, however, is not very well investigated. To provide a basis for future functional studies, we analyzed the anatomical organization of visual neuropils in the brain of the praying mantis Hierodula membranacea and provide supporting evidence from a second species, Rhombodera basalis, with particular focus on the lobula complex (LOX). Neuropils were three-dimensionally reconstructed from synapsin-immunostained whole mount brains. The neuropil organization and the pattern of γ-aminobutyric acid immunostaining of the medulla and LOX were compared between the praying mantis and two related polyneopteran species, the Madeira cockroach and the desert locust. The investigated visual neuropils of the praying mantis are highly structured. Unlike in most insects the LOX of the praying mantis consists of five nested neuropils with at least one neuropil not present in the cockroach or locust. Overall, the mantis LOX is more similar to the LOX of the locust than the more closely related cockroach suggesting that the sensory ecology plays a stronger role than the phylogenetic distance of the three species in structuring this center of visual information processing.

Serotonin axons in the neocortex of the adult female mouse regrow after traumatic brain injury.

  • Kajstura TJ
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2017 May 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

It is widely held that injured neurons in the central nervous system do not undergo axonal regrowth. However, there is mounting evidence that serotonin axons are a notable exception. Serotonin axons undergo long-distance regrowth in the neocortex after amphetamine lesion, and, following a penetrating stab injury, they can regrow from cut ends to traverse the stab rift. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is clinically prevalent and can lead to pathologies, such as depression, that are related to serotonergic dysfunction. Thus, whether serotonin axons can regrow after TBI is an important question. We used two models for TBI-a persistent open skull condition and controlled cortical impact-to evoke injury in adult female mouse neocortex, and assessed serotonin axon density 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after injury by serotonin transporter immunohistochemistry. We found that after both forms of TBI, serotonin axon density is decreased posterior but not anterior to the injury site when measured in layer 1 at 1 week post surgery, and that serotonin axons are capable of regrowing into the distal zone to increase density by 1 month post surgery. This pattern is consistent with the anterior-to-posterior course of serotonin axons in the neocortex. TBI in these models is associated with significant reactive astrogliosis both anterior and posterior to the impact, but the degree of reactive astrogliosis is not correlated with serotonin axon density when measured 1 week after TBI. Microglial density remains constant following both types of injuries, but microglial condensation was detected 1 week after controlled cortical impact.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS081467()

Development of Peptidomimetic Inhibitors of the ERG Gene Fusion Product in Prostate Cancer.

  • Wang X
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Apr 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Transcription factors play a key role in the development of diverse cancers, and therapeutically targeting them has remained a challenge. In prostate cancer, the gene encoding the transcription factor ERG is recurrently rearranged and plays a critical role in prostate oncogenesis. Here, we identified a series of peptides that interact specifically with the DNA binding domain of ERG. ERG inhibitory peptides (EIPs) and derived peptidomimetics bound ERG with high affinity and specificity, leading to proteolytic degradation of the ERG protein. The EIPs attenuated ERG-mediated transcription, chromatin recruitment, protein-protein interactions, cell invasion and proliferation, and tumor growth. Thus, peptidomimetic targeting of transcription factor fusion products may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer as well as other malignancies.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - U01 CA113913()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P50 CA069568()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA132874()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA154980()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA157845()
  • NCI NIH HHS - U01 CA214170()

Regrowth of Serotonin Axons in the Adult Mouse Brain Following Injury.

  • Jin Y
  • Neuron
  • 2016 Aug 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

It is widely believed that damaged axons in the adult mammalian brain have little capacity to regrow, thereby impeding functional recovery after injury. Studies using fixed tissue have suggested that serotonin neurons might be a notable exception, but remain inconclusive. We have employed in vivo two-photon microscopy to produce time-lapse images of serotonin axons in the neocortex of the adult mouse. Serotonin axons undergo massive retrograde degeneration following amphetamine treatment and subsequent slow recovery of axonal density, which is dominated by new growth with little contribution from local sprouting. A stab injury that transects serotonin axons running in the neocortex is followed by local regression of cut serotonin axons and followed by regrowth from cut ends into and across the stab rift zone. Regrowing serotonin axons do not follow the pathways left by degenerated axons. The regrown axons release serotonin and their regrowth is correlated with recovery in behavioral tests.

Topographic organization and possible function of the posterior optic tubercles in the brain of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria.

  • Beetz MJ
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Migrating desert locusts, Schistocerca gregaria, are able to use the skylight polarization pattern for navigation. They detect polarized light with a specialized dorsal rim area in their compound eye. After multistage processing, polarization signals are transferred to the central complex, a midline-spanning brain area involved in locomotor control. Polarization-sensitive tangential neurons (TB-neurons) of the protocerebral bridge, a part of the central complex, give rise to a topographic arrangement of preferred polarization angles in the bridge, suggesting that the central complex acts as an internal sky compass. TB-neurons connect the protocerebral bridge with two adjacent brain areas, the posterior optic tubercles. To analyze the polarotopic organization of the central complex further, we investigated the number and morphologies of TB-neurons and the presence and colocalization of three neuroactive substances in these neurons. Triple immunostaining with antisera against Diploptera punctata allatostatin (Dip-AST), Manduca sexta allatotropin (Mas-AT), and serotonin (5HT) raised in the same host species revealed three spatially distinct TB-neuron clusters, each consisting of 10 neurons per hemisphere: cluster 1 and 3 showed Dip-AST/5HT immunostaining, whereas cluster 2 showed Dip-AST/Mas-AT immunostaining. Five subtypes of TB-neuron could be distinguished based on ramification patterns. Corresponding to ramification domains in the protocerebral bridge, the neurons invaded distinct but overlapping layers within the posterior optic tubercle. Similarly, neurons interconnecting the tubercles of the two hemispheres also targeted distinct layers of these neuropils. From these data we propose a neuronal circuit that may be suited to stabilize the internal sky compass in the central complex of the locust.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/L02389X/1(United Kingdom)