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VECTASHIELD HardSet Mounting Medium with DAPI antibody

RRID:AB_2336788

Antibody ID

AB_2336788

Target Antigen

Proper Citation

(Vector Laboratories Cat# H-1500, RRID:AB_2336788)

Clonality

unknown

Dopamine D2 Receptors in the Paraventricular Thalamus Attenuate Cocaine Locomotor Sensitization.

  • Clark AM
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 Jun 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Alterations in thalamic dopamine (DA) or DA D2 receptors (D2Rs) have been measured in drug addiction and schizophrenia, but the relevance of thalamic D2Rs for behavior is largely unknown. Using in situ hybridization and mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the Drd2 promoter, we found that D2R expression within the thalamus is enriched in the paraventricular nucleus (PVT) as well as in more ventral midline thalamic nuclei. Within the PVT, D2Rs are inhibitory as their activation inhibits neuronal action potentials in brain slices. Using Cre-dependent anterograde and retrograde viral tracers, we further determined that PVT neurons are reciprocally interconnected with multiple areas of the limbic system including the amygdala and the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Based on these anatomical findings, we analyzed the role of D2Rs in the PVT in behaviors that are supported by these areas and that also have relevance for schizophrenia and drug addiction. Male and female mice with selective overexpression of D2Rs in the PVT showed attenuated cocaine locomotor sensitization, whereas anxiety levels, fear conditioning, sensorimotor gating, and food-motivated behaviors were not affected. These findings suggest the importance of PVT inhibition by D2Rs in modulating the sensitivity to cocaine, a finding that may have novel implications for human drug use.

Neurochemical Heterogeneity Among Lateral Hypothalamic Hypocretin/Orexin and Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Neurons Identified Through Single-Cell Gene Expression Analysis.

  • Mickelsen LE
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 May 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) lies at the intersection of multiple neural and humoral systems and orchestrates fundamental aspects of behavior. Two neuronal cell types found in the LHA are defined by their expression of hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt/Ox) and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and are both important regulators of arousal, feeding, and metabolism. Conflicting evidence suggests that these cell populations have a more complex signaling repertoire than previously appreciated, particularly in regard to their coexpression of other neuropeptides and the machinery for the synthesis and release of GABA and glutamate. Here, we undertook a single-cell expression profiling approach to decipher the neurochemical phenotype, and heterogeneity therein, of Hcrt/Ox and MCH neurons. In transgenic mouse lines, we used single-cell quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to quantify the expression of 48 key genes, which include neuropeptides, fast neurotransmitter components, and other key markers, which revealed unexpected neurochemical diversity. We found that single MCH and Hcrt/Ox neurons express transcripts for multiple neuropeptides and markers of both excitatory and inhibitory fast neurotransmission. Virtually all MCH and approximately half of the Hcrt/Ox neurons sampled express both the machinery for glutamate release and GABA synthesis in the absence of a vesicular GABA release pathway. Furthermore, we found that this profile is characteristic of a subpopulation of LHA glutamatergic neurons but contrasts with a broad population of LHA GABAergic neurons. Identifying the neurochemical diversity of Hcrt/Ox and MCH neurons will further our understanding of how these populations modulate postsynaptic excitability through multiple signaling mechanisms and coordinate diverse behavioral outputs.

27-Hydroxycholesterol increases α-synuclein protein levels through proteasomal inhibition in human dopaminergic neurons.

  • Schommer J
  • BMC Neurosci
  • 2018 Apr 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Accumulation of the α-synuclein (α-syn) protein is a hallmark of a group of brain disorders collectively known as synucleinopathies. The mechanisms responsible for α-syn accumulation are not well understood. Several studies suggest a link between synucleinopathies and the cholesterol metabolite 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC). 27-OHC is the major cholesterol metabolite in the blood that crosses the blood brain barrier, and its levels can increase following hypercholesterolemia, aging, and oxidative stress, which are all factors for increased synucleinopathy risk. In this study, we determined the extent to which 27-OHC regulates α-syn levels in human dopaminergic neurons, the cell type in which α-syn accumulates in PD, a major synucleinopathy disorder. RESULTS: Our results show that 27-OHC significantly increases the protein levels, not the mRNA expression of α-syn. The effects of 27-OHC appear to be independent of an action through liver X receptors (LXR), its cognate receptors, as the LXR agonist, GW3965, or the LXR antagonist ECHS did not affect α-syn protein or mRNA levels. Furthermore, our data strongly suggest that the 27-OHC-induced increase in α-syn protein levels emanates from inhibition of the proteasomal degradation of this protein and a decrease in the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). CONCLUSIONS: Identifying 27-OHC as a factor that can increase α-syn levels and the inhibition of the proteasomal function and reduction in HSP70 levels as potential cellular mechanisms involved in regulation of α-syn. This may help in targeting the correct degradation of α-syn as a potential avenue to preclude α-syn accumulation.

Funding information:
  • National Institute on Aging - R01AG045264()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG045264()
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - P41-EB013598(United States)

Dynamic mislocalizations of nuclear pore complex proteins after focal cerebral ischemia in rat.

  • Li Q
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2018 Apr 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) play an important role in coordinating the transport of proteins and nucleic acids between the nucleus and cytoplasm, and are therefore essential for maintaining normal cellular function and liability. In the present study, we investigated the temporal immunohistochemical distribution of five representative components of NPCs-Ran GTPase-activating protein 1 (RanGap1), glycoprotein-210 (Gp210), nucleoporin 205 (Nup205), nucleoporin 107 (Nup107), and nucleoporin 50 (Nup50)-after 90 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) up to 28 days after the reperfusion in rat brains. Single immunohistochemical analyses showed ring-like stainings along the periphery of the nucleus in sham control brains. After tMCAO, Gp210 and Nup107 immunoreactivity continuously increased from 1 day, and RanGap1, Nup205, and Nup50 increased from 2 days until 28 days, which also displayed progressive precipitations within the nucleus in the peri-ischemic area, while the ischemic core showed scarce expression with collapsed structure. Double immunofluorescent analyses revealed nuclear retention and apparent colocalization of RanGap1 with Nup205, Gp210 with Nup205, and partial colocalization of Nup205 with Nup107; most of the ischemic changes above were similar to those observed in patients with C9orf72-genetic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Taken together, these observations suggest that the mislocalization of these nucleoporins may be a common pathogenesis of both ischemic and neurodegenerative disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Abnormal Microglia and Enhanced Inflammation-Related Gene Transcription in Mice with Conditional Deletion of Ctcf in Camk2a-Cre-Expressing Neurons.

  • McGill BE
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jan 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is an 11 zinc finger DNA-binding domain protein that regulates gene expression by modifying 3D chromatin structure. Human mutations in CTCF cause intellectual disability and autistic features. Knocking out Ctcf in mouse embryonic neurons is lethal by neonatal age, but the effects of CTCF deficiency in postnatal neurons are less well studied. We knocked out Ctcf postnatally in glutamatergic forebrain neurons under the control of Camk2a-Cre. CtcfloxP/loxP;Camk2a-Cre+ (Ctcf CKO) mice of both sexes were viable and exhibited profound deficits in spatial learning/memory, impaired motor coordination, and decreased sociability by 4 months of age. Ctcf CKO mice also had reduced dendritic spine density in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Microarray analysis of mRNA from Ctcf CKO mouse hippocampus identified increased transcription of inflammation-related genes linked to microglia. Separate microarray analysis of mRNA isolated specifically from Ctcf CKO mouse hippocampal neurons by ribosomal affinity purification identified upregulation of chemokine signaling genes, suggesting crosstalk between neurons and microglia in Ctcf CKO hippocampus. Finally, we found that microglia in Ctcf CKO mouse hippocampus had abnormal morphology by Sholl analysis and increased immunostaining for CD68, a marker of microglial activation. Our findings confirm that Ctcf KO in postnatal neurons causes a neurobehavioral phenotype in mice and provide novel evidence that CTCF depletion leads to overexpression of inflammation-related genes and microglial dysfunction.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a DNA-binding protein that organizes nuclear chromatin topology. Mutations in CTCF cause intellectual disability and autistic features in humans. CTCF deficiency in embryonic neurons is lethal in mice, but mice with postnatal CTCF depletion are less well studied. We find that mice lacking Ctcf in Camk2a-expressing neurons (Ctcf CKO mice) have spatial learning/memory deficits, impaired fine motor skills, subtly altered social interactions, and decreased dendritic spine density. We demonstrate that Ctcf CKO mice overexpress inflammation-related genes in the brain and have microglia with abnormal morphology that label positive for CD68, a marker of microglial activation. Our findings suggest that inflammation and dysfunctional neuron-microglia interactions are factors in the pathology of CTCF deficiency.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD087011()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM007240(United States)

Functional Convergence at the Retinogeniculate Synapse.

  • Litvina EY
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Oct 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Precise connectivity between retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and thalamocortical (TC) relay neurons is thought to be essential for the transmission of visual information. Consistent with this view, electrophysiological measurements have previously estimated that 1-3 RGCs converge onto a mouse geniculate TC neuron. Recent advances in connectomics and rabies tracing have yielded much higher estimates of retinogeniculate convergence, although not all identified contacts may be functional. Here we use optogenetics and a computational simulation to determine the number of functionally relevant retinogeniculate inputs onto TC neurons in mice. We find an average of ten RGCs converging onto a mature TC neuron, in contrast to >30 inputs before developmental refinement. However, only 30% of retinogeniculate inputs exceed the threshold for dominating postsynaptic activity. These results signify a greater role for the thalamus in visual processing and provide a functional perspective of anatomical connectivity data.

Memory Erasure Experiments Indicate a Critical Role of CaMKII in Memory Storage.

  • Rossetti T
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Sep 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

The abundant synaptic protein CaMKII is necessary for long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory. However, whether CaMKII is required only during initial processes or whether it also mediates memory storage remains unclear. The most direct test of a storage role is the erasure test. In this test, a putative memory molecule is inhibited after learning. The key prediction is that this should produce persistent memory erasure even after the inhibitory agent is removed. We conducted this test using transient viral (HSV) expression of dominant-negative CaMKII-alpha (K42M) in the hippocampus. This produced persistent erasure of conditioned place avoidance. As an additional test, we found that expression of activated CaMKII (T286D/T305A/T306A) impaired place avoidance, a result not expected if a process other than CaMKII stores memory. Our behavioral results, taken together with prior experiments on LTP, strongly support a critical role of CaMKII in LTP maintenance and memory storage.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA043195()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS103168()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R56 NS096710()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - U01 NS090583()

Hypothalamic Tuberomammillary Nucleus Neurons: Electrophysiological Diversity and Essential Role in Arousal Stability.

  • Fujita A
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Sep 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Histaminergic (HA) neurons, found in the posterior hypothalamic tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN), extend fibers throughout the brain and exert modulatory influence over numerous physiological systems. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the activity of HA neurons is important in the regulation of vigilance despite the lack of direct, causal evidence demonstrating its requirement for the maintenance of arousal during wakefulness. Given the strong correlation between HA neuron excitability and behavioral arousal, we investigated both the electrophysiological diversity of HA neurons in brain slices and the effect of their acute silencing in vivo in male mice. For this purpose, we first validated a transgenic mouse line expressing cre recombinase in histidine decarboxylase-expressing neurons (Hdc-Cre) followed by a systematic census of the membrane properties of both HA and non-HA neurons in the ventral TMN (TMNv) region. Through unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis, we found electrophysiological diversity both between TMNv HA and non-HA neurons, and among HA neurons. To directly determine the impact of acute cessation of HA neuron activity on sleep-wake states in awake and behaving mice, we examined the effects of optogenetic silencing of TMNv HA neurons in vivo We found that acute silencing of HA neurons during wakefulness promotes slow-wave sleep, but not rapid eye movement sleep, during a period of low sleep pressure. Together, these data suggest that the tonic firing of HA neurons is necessary for the maintenance of wakefulness, and their silencing not only impairs arousal but is sufficient to rapidly and selectively induce slow-wave sleep.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The function of monoaminergic systems and circuits that regulate sleep and wakefulness is often disrupted as part of the pathophysiology of many neuropsychiatric disorders. One such circuit is the posterior hypothalamic histamine (HA) system, implicated in supporting wakefulness and higher brain function, but has been difficult to selectively manipulate owing to cellular heterogeneity in this region. Here we use a transgenic mouse to interrogate both the characteristic firing properties of HA neurons and their specific role in maintaining wakefulness. Our results demonstrate that the acute, cell type-specific silencing of HA neurons during wakefulness is sufficient to not only impair arousal but to rapidly and selectively induce slow-wave sleep. This work furthers our understanding of HA-mediated mechanisms that regulate behavioral arousal.

Thalamic Spindles Promote Memory Formation during Sleep through Triple Phase-Locking of Cortical, Thalamic, and Hippocampal Rhythms.

  • Latchoumane CV
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Jul 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

While the interaction of the cardinal rhythms of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep-the thalamo-cortical spindles, hippocampal ripples, and the cortical slow oscillations-is thought to be critical for memory consolidation during sleep, the role spindles play in this interaction is elusive. Combining optogenetics with a closed-loop stimulation approach in mice, we show here that only thalamic spindles induced in-phase with cortical slow oscillation up-states, but not out-of-phase-induced spindles, improve consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory during sleep. Whereas optogenetically stimulated spindles were as efficient as spontaneous spindles in nesting hippocampal ripples within their excitable troughs, stimulation in-phase with the slow oscillation up-state increased spindle co-occurrence and frontal spindle-ripple co-occurrence, eventually resulting in increased triple coupling of slow oscillation-spindle-ripple events. In-phase optogenetic suppression of thalamic spindles impaired hippocampus-dependent memory. Our results suggest a causal role for thalamic sleep spindles in hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation, conveyed through triple coupling of slow oscillations, spindles, and ripples.

Transient acidosis while retrieving a fear-related memory enhances its lability.

  • Du J
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Attenuating the strength of fearful memories could benefit people disabled by memories of past trauma. Pavlovian conditioning experiments indicate that a retrieval cue can return a conditioned aversive memory to a labile state. However, means to enhance retrieval and render a memory more labile are unknown. We hypothesized that augmenting synaptic signaling during retrieval would increase memory lability. To enhance synaptic transmission, mice inhaled CO2 to induce an acidosis and activate acid sensing ion channels. Transient acidification increased the retrieval-induced lability of an aversive memory. The labile memory could then be weakened by an extinction protocol or strengthened by reconditioning. Coupling CO2 inhalation to retrieval increased activation of amygdala neurons bearing the memory trace and increased the synaptic exchange from Ca2+-impermeable to Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors. The results suggest that transient acidosis during retrieval renders the memory of an aversive event more labile and suggest a strategy to modify debilitating memories.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH085724()

Chronic Loss of CA2 Transmission Leads to Hippocampal Hyperexcitability.

  • Boehringer R
  • Neuron
  • 2017 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hippocampal CA2 pyramidal cells project into both the neighboring CA1 and CA3 subfields, leaving them well positioned to influence network physiology and information processing for memory and space. While recent work has suggested unique roles for CA2, including encoding position during immobility and generating ripple oscillations, an interventional examination of the integrative functions of these connections has yet to be reported. Here we demonstrate that CA2 recruits feedforward inhibition in CA3 and that chronic genetically engineered shutdown of CA2-pyramidal-cell synaptic transmission consequently results in increased excitability of the recurrent CA3 network. In behaving mice, this led to spatially triggered episodes of network-wide hyperexcitability during exploration accompanied by the emergence of high-frequency discharges during rest. These findings reveal CA2 as a regulator of network processing in hippocampus and suggest that CA2-mediated inhibition in CA3 plays a key role in establishing the dynamic excitatory and inhibitory balance required for proper network function.

Eradication of Tumors through Simultaneous Ablation of CD276/B7-H3-Positive Tumor Cells and Tumor Vasculature.

  • Seaman S
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Apr 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Targeting the tumor vasculature with antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) is a promising anti-cancer strategy that in order to be realized must overcome several obstacles, including identification of suitable targets and optimal warheads. Here, we demonstrate that the cell-surface protein CD276/B7-H3 is broadly overexpressed by multiple tumor types on both cancer cells and tumor-infiltrating blood vessels, making it a potentially ideal dual-compartment therapeutic target. In preclinical studies CD276 ADCs armed with a conventional MMAE warhead destroyed CD276-positive cancer cells, but were ineffective against tumor vasculature. In contrast, pyrrolobenzodiazepine-conjugated CD276 ADCs killed both cancer cells and tumor vasculature, eradicating large established tumors and metastases, and improving long-term overall survival. CD276-targeted dual-compartment ablation could aid in the development of highly selective broad-acting anti-cancer therapies.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA BC010578-13()
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA BC010736-11()

Amyloid Precursor Protein in Drosophila Glia Regulates Sleep and Genes Involved in Glutamate Recycling.

  • Farca Luna AJ
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Apr 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Amyloid precursor protein (App) plays a crucial role in Alzheimer's disease via the production and deposition of toxic β-amyloid peptides. App is heavily expressed in neurons, the focus of the vast majority of studies investigating its function. Meanwhile, almost nothing is known about App's function in glia, where it is also expressed, and can potentially participate in the regulation of neuronal physiology. In this report, we investigated whether Appl, the Drosophila homolog of App, could influence sleep-wake regulation when its function is manipulated in glial cells. Appl inhibition in astrocyte-like and cortex glia resulted in higher sleep amounts and longer sleep bout duration during the night, while overexpression had the opposite effect. These sleep phenotypes were not the result of developmental defects, and were correlated with changes in expression in glutamine synthetase (GS) in astrocyte-like glia and in changes in the gap-junction component innexin2 in cortex glia. Downregulating both GS and innexin2, but not either one individually, resulted in higher sleep amounts, similarly to Appl inhibition. Consistent with these results, the expression of GS and innexin2 are increased following sleep deprivation, indicating that GS and innexin2 genes are dynamically linked to vigilance states. Interestingly, the reduction of GS expression and the sleep phenotype observed upon Appl inhibition could be rescued by increasing the expression of the glutamate transporter dEaat1. In contrast, reducing dEaat1 expression severely disrupted sleep. These results associate glutamate recycling, sleep, and a glial function for the App family proteins.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The amyloid precursor protein (App) has been intensively studied for its implication in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The attributed functions of App are linked to the physiology and cellular biology of neurons where the protein is predominantly expressed. Consequences on glia in AD are generally thought to be secondary effects of the pathology in neurons. Researchers still do not know whether App plays a role in glia in nonpathological conditions. We report here that glial App plays a role in physiology and in the regulation of sleep/wake, which has been shown recently to be involved in AD pathology. These results also associate glutamate recycling and sleep regulation, adding further complexity to the physiological role of App and to its implication in AD.

Spatial Representations of Granule Cells and Mossy Cells of the Dentate Gyrus.

  • GoodSmith D
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Feb 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus are thought to be essential to memory function by decorrelating overlapping input patterns (pattern separation). A second excitatory cell type in the dentate gyrus, the mossy cell, forms an intricate circuit with granule cells, CA3c pyramidal cells, and local interneurons, but the influence of mossy cells on dentate function is often overlooked. Multiple tetrode recordings, supported by juxtacellular recording techniques, showed that granule cells fired very sparsely, whereas mossy cells in the hilus fired promiscuously in multiple locations and in multiple environments. The activity patterns of these cell types thus represent different environments through distinct computational mechanisms: sparse coding in granule cells and changes in firing field locations in mossy cells.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH094146()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS039456()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - T32 NS091018()