Action potential conduction along myelinated axons depends on high densities of voltage-gated Na+ channels at the nodes of Ranvier. Flanking each node, paranodal junctions (paranodes) are formed between axons and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) or oligodendrocytes in the CNS. Paranodal junctions contribute to both node assembly and maintenance. Despite their importance, the molecular mechanisms responsible for paranode assembly and maintenance remain poorly understood. βII spectrin is expressed in diverse cells and is an essential part of the submembranous cytoskeleton. Here, we show that Schwann cell βII spectrin is highly enriched at paranodes. To elucidate the roles of glial βII spectrin, we generated mutant mice lacking βII spectrin in myelinating glial cells by crossing mice with a floxed allele of Sptbn1 with Cnp-Cre mice, and analyzed both male and female mice. Juvenile (4 weeks) and middle-aged (60 weeks) mutant mice showed reduced grip strength and sciatic nerve conduction slowing, whereas no phenotype was observed between 8 and 24 weeks of age. Consistent with these findings, immunofluorescence microscopy revealed disorganized paranodes in the PNS and CNS of both postnatal day 13 and middle-aged mutant mice, but not in young adult mutant mice. Electron microscopy confirmed partial loss of transverse bands at the paranodal axoglial junction in the middle-aged mutant mice in both the PNS and CNS. These findings demonstrate that a spectrin-based cytoskeleton in myelinating glia contributes to formation and maintenance of paranodal junctions.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Myelinating glia form paranodal axoglial junctions that flank both sides of the nodes of Ranvier. These junctions contribute to node formation and maintenance and are essential for proper nervous system function. We found that a submembranous spectrin cytoskeleton is highly enriched at paranodes in Schwann cells. Ablation of βII spectrin in myelinating glial cells disrupted the paranodal cell adhesion complex in both peripheral and CNSs, resulting in muscle weakness and sciatic nerve conduction slowing in juvenile and middle-aged mice. Our data show that a spectrin-based submembranous cytoskeleton in myelinating glia plays important roles in paranode formation and maintenance.
Literature context: Medicine; TX, USA; Cat# Î²IV SD RRID:AB_2315634), Kv1.2 (Zhang et al., 2013), c
Cognitive and mood impairments are common central nervous system complications of type 2 diabetes, although the neuronal mechanism(s) remains elusive. Previous studies focused mainly on neuronal inputs such as altered synaptic plasticity. Axon initial segment (AIS) is a specialized functional domain within neurons that regulates neuronal outputs. Structural changes of AIS have been implicated as a key pathophysiological event in various psychiatric and neurological disorders. Here we evaluated the structural integrity of the AIS in brains of db/db mice, an established animal model of type 2 diabetes associated with cognitive and mood impairments. We assessed the AIS before (5 weeks of age) and after (10 weeks) the development of type 2 diabetes, and after daily exercise treatment of diabetic condition. We found that the development of type 2 diabetes is associated with significant AIS shortening in both medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, as evident by immunostaining of the AIS structural protein βIV spectrin. AIS shortening occurs in the absence of altered neuronal and AIS protein levels. We found no change in nodes of Ranvier, another neuronal functional domain sharing a molecular organization similar to the AIS. This is the first study to identify AIS alteration in type 2 diabetes condition. Since AIS shortening is known to lower neuronal excitability, our results may provide a new avenue for understanding and treating cognitive and mood impairments in type 2 diabetes.
Literature context: nal anti-Î²IV-spectrin antibody (RRID:AB_2315634) was generated against the pept
βIV spectrin links ankyrinG (AnkG) and clustered ion channels at axon initial segments (AISs) and nodes of Ranvier to the axonal cytoskeleton. Here, we report bi-allelic pathogenic SPTBN4 variants (three homozygous and two compound heterozygous) that cause a severe neurological syndrome that includes congenital hypotonia, intellectual disability, and motor axonal and auditory neuropathy. We introduced these variants into βIV spectrin, expressed these in neurons, and found that 5/7 were loss-of-function variants disrupting AIS localization or abolishing phosphoinositide binding. Nerve biopsies from an individual with a loss-of-function variant had reduced nodal Na+ channels and no nodal KCNQ2 K+ channels. Modeling the disease in mice revealed that although ankyrinR (AnkR) and βI spectrin can cluster Na+ channels and partially compensate for the loss of AnkG and βIV spectrin at nodes of Ranvier, AnkR and βI spectrin cannot cluster KCNQ2- and KCNQ3-subunit-containing K+ channels. Our findings define a class of spectrinopathies and reveal the molecular pathologies causing nervous-system dysfunction.
Literature context: edicine; Texas; USA Cat# bIV SD RRID:AB_2315634), gliomedin (kindly provided by
Nodes of Ranvier and associated paranodal and juxtaparanodal domains along myelinated axons are essential for normal function of the peripheral and central nervous systems. Disruption of these domains as well as increases in the reactive carbonyl species methylglyoxal are implicated as a pathophysiology common to a wide variety of neurological diseases. Here, using an ex vivo nerve exposure model, we show that increasing methylglyoxal produces paranodal disruption, evidenced by disorganized immunostaining of axoglial cell-adhesion proteins, in both sciatic and optic nerves from wild-type mice. Consistent with previous studies showing that increase of methylglyoxal can alter intracellular calcium homeostasis, we found upregulated activity of the calcium-activated protease calpain in sciatic nerves after methylglyoxal exposure. Methylglyoxal exposure altered clusters of proteins that are known as calpain substrates: ezrin in Schwann cell microvilli at the perinodal area and zonula occludens 1 in Schwann cell autotypic junctions at paranodes. Finally, treatment with the calpain inhibitor calpeptin ameliorated methylglyoxal-evoked ezrin loss and paranodal disruption in both sciatic and optic nerves. Our findings strongly suggest that elevated methylglyoxal levels and subsequent calpain activation contribute to the disruption of specialized axoglial domains along myelinated nerve fibers in neurological diseases.
Literature context: and, Baylor College of Medicine RRID:AB_2315634 Bacterial and Virus Strains
The axon initial segment (AIS) is the site of action potential generation and a locus of activity-dependent homeostatic plasticity. A multimeric complex of sodium channels, linked via a cytoskeletal scaffold of ankyrin G and beta IV spectrin to submembranous actin rings, mediates these functions. The mechanisms that specify the AIS complex to the proximal axon and underlie its plasticity remain poorly understood. Here we show phosphorylated myosin light chain (pMLC), an activator of contractile myosin II, is highly enriched in the assembling and mature AIS, where it associates with actin rings. MLC phosphorylation and myosin II contractile activity are required for AIS assembly, and they regulate the distribution of AIS components along the axon. pMLC is rapidly lost during depolarization, destabilizing actin and thereby providing a mechanism for activity-dependent structural plasticity of the AIS. Together, these results identify pMLC/myosin II activity as a common link between AIS assembly and plasticity.
Literature context: e C-terminal â€œspecific domainâ€; RRID:AB_2315634). Chicken polyclonal antibody a
Axons must withstand mechanical forces, including tension, torsion, and compression. Spectrins and actin form a periodic cytoskeleton proposed to protect axons against these forces. However, because spectrins also participate in assembly of axon initial segments (AISs) and nodes of Ranvier, it is difficult to uncouple their roles in maintaining axon integrity from their functions at AIS and nodes. To overcome this problem and to determine the importance of spectrin cytoskeletons for axon integrity, we generated mice with αII spectrin-deficient peripheral sensory neurons. The axons of these neurons are very long and exposed to the mechanical forces associated with limb movement; most lack an AIS, and some are unmyelinated and have no nodes. We analyzed αII spectrin-deficient mice of both sexes and found that, in myelinated axons, αII spectrin forms a periodic cytoskeleton with βIV and βII spectrin at nodes of Ranvier and paranodes, respectively, but that loss of αII spectrin disrupts this organization. Avil-cre;Sptan1f/f mice have reduced numbers of nodes, disrupted paranodal junctions, and mislocalized Kv1 K+ channels. We show that the density of nodal βIV spectrin is constant among axons, but the density of nodal αII spectrin increases with axon diameter. Remarkably, Avil-cre;Sptan1f/f mice have intact nociception and small-diameter axons, but severe ataxia due to preferential degeneration of large-diameter myelinated axons. Our results suggest that nodal αII spectrin helps resist the mechanical forces experienced by large-diameter axons, and that αII spectrin-dependent cytoskeletons are also required for assembly of nodes of Ranvier.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A periodic axonal cytoskeleton consisting of actin and spectrin has been proposed to help axons resist the mechanical forces to which they are exposed (e.g., compression, torsion, and stretch). However, until now, no vertebrate animal model has tested the requirement of the spectrin cytoskeleton in maintenance of axon integrity. We demonstrate the role of the periodic spectrin-dependent cytoskeleton in axons and show that loss of αII spectrin from PNS axons causes preferential degeneration of large-diameter myelinated axons. We show that nodal αII spectrin is found at greater densities in large-diameter myelinated axons, suggesting that nodes are particularly vulnerable domains requiring a specialized cytoskeleton to protect against axon degeneration.
Literature context: Î²IV spectrin primary Ab (1:500; RRID:AB_2315634; gift from Dr. M. Rasband, Bayl
Small conductance calcium-activated potassium (KCa2) channels are expressed throughout the CNS and play a critical role in synaptic and neuronal excitability. KCa2 channels have a somatodendritic distribution with their highest expression in distal dendrites. It is unclear whether KCa2 channels are specifically present on the axon initial segment (AIS), the site at which action potentials are initiated in neurons. Through a powerful combination of toxin pharmacology, single-molecule atomic force microscopy, and dual-color fluorescence microscopy, we report here that KCa2 channels-predominantly the KCa2.3 subtype-are indeed present on the AIS. We also report that cAMP-PKA controls the axonal KCa2 channel surface expression. Surprisingly, and in contrast to KCa2 channels that were observed in the soma and dendrites, the inhibition of cAMP-PKA increased the surface expression of KCa2 channels without promoting nanoclustering. Lastly, we found that axonal KCa2 channels seem to undergo endocytosis in a dynamin-independent manner, unlike KCa2 channels in the soma and dendrites. Together, these novel results demonstrate that the distribution and membrane recycling of KCa2 channels differs among various neuronal subcompartments.-Abiraman, K., Tzingounis, A. V., Lykotrafitis, G. KCa2 channel localization and regulation in the axon initial segment.
Literature context: e C-terminal â€œspecific domainâ€; RRID:AB_2315634). Rat monoclonal antibody to Ct
Spectrins form a submembranous cytoskeleton proposed to confer strength and flexibility to neurons and to participate in ion channel clustering at axon initial segments (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier. Neuronal spectrin cytoskeletons consist of diverse β subunits and αII spectrin. Although αII spectrin is found in neurons in both axonal and somatodendritic domains, using proteomics, biochemistry, and superresolution microscopy, we show that αII and βIV spectrin interact and form a periodic AIS cytoskeleton. To determine the role of spectrins in the nervous system, we generated Sptan1f/f mice for deletion of CNS αII spectrin. We analyzed αII spectrin-deficient mice of both sexes and found that loss of αII spectrin causes profound reductions in all β spectrins. αII spectrin-deficient mice die before 1 month of age and have disrupted AIS and many other neurological impairments including seizures, disrupted cortical lamination, and widespread neurodegeneration. These results demonstrate the importance of the spectrin cytoskeleton both at the AIS and throughout the nervous system.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Spectrin cytoskeletons play diverse roles in neurons, including assembly of excitable domains such as the axon initial segment (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier. However, the molecular composition and structure of these cytoskeletons remain poorly understood. Here, we show that αII spectrin partners with βIV spectrin to form a periodic cytoskeleton at the AIS. Using a new αII spectrin conditional knock-out mouse, we show that αII spectrin is required for AIS assembly, neuronal excitability, cortical lamination, and to protect against neurodegeneration. These results demonstrate the broad importance of spectrin cytoskeletons for nervous system function and development and have important implications for nervous system injuries and diseases because disruption of the spectrin cytoskeleton is a common molecular pathology.
Literature context: l., 2004; RRID:AB_2315634), anti-Nav
A high density of Na+ channels at nodes of Ranvier is necessary for rapid and efficient action potential propagation in myelinated axons. Na+ channel clustering is thought to depend on two axonal cell adhesion molecules that mediate interactions between the axon and myelinating glia at the nodal gap (i.e., NF186) and the paranodal junction (i.e., Caspr). Here we show that while Na+ channels cluster at nodes in the absence of NF186, they fail to do so in double conditional knockout mice lacking both NF186 and the paranodal cell adhesion molecule Caspr, demonstrating that a paranodal junction-dependent mechanism can cluster Na+ channels at nodes. Furthermore, we show that paranode-dependent clustering of nodal Na+ channels requires axonal βII spectrin which is concentrated at paranodes. Our results reveal that the paranodal junction-dependent mechanism of Na+channel clustering is mediated by the spectrin-based paranodal axonal cytoskeleton.
We report the identification of betaIV spectrin, a novel spectrin isolated as an interactor of the receptor tyrosine phosphatase-like protein ICA512. The betaIV spectrin gene is located on human and mouse chromosomes 19q13.13 and 7b2, respectively. Alternative splicing of betaIV spectrin generates at least four distinct isoforms, numbered betaIVSigma1-betaIVSigma4 spectrin. The longest isoform (betaIVSigma1 spectrin) includes an actin-binding domain, followed by 17 spectrin repeats, a specific domain in which the amino acid sequence ERQES is repeated four times, several putative SH3-binding sites and a pleckstrin homology domain. betaIVSigma2 and betaIVSigma3 spectrin encompass the NH(2)- and COOH-terminal halves of betaIVSigma1 spectrin, respectively, while betaIVSigma4 spectrin lacks the ERQES and the pleckstrin homology domain. Northern blots revealed an abundant expression of betaIV spectrin transcripts in brain and pancreatic islets. By immunoblotting, betaIVSigma1 spectrin is recognized as a protein of 250 kD. Anti-betaIV spectrin antibodies also react with two additional isoforms of 160 and 140 kD. These isoforms differ from betaIVSigma1 spectrin in terms of their distribution on subcellular fractionation, detergent extractability, and phosphorylation. In islets, the immunoreactivity for betaIV spectrin is more prominent in alpha than in beta cells. In brain, betaIV spectrin is enriched in myelinated neurons, where it colocalizes with ankyrin(G) 480/270-kD at axon initial segments and nodes of Ranvier. Likewise, betaIV spectrin is concentrated at the nodes of Ranvier in the rat sciatic nerve. In the rat hippocampus, betaIVSigma1 spectrin is detectable from embryonic day 19, concomitantly with the appearance of immunoreactivity at the initial segments. Thus, we suggest that betaIVSigma1 spectrin interacts with ankyrin(G) 480/270-kD and participates in the clustering of voltage-gated Na(+) channels and cell-adhesion molecules at initial segments and nodes of Ranvier.