Literature context: antibody (RRID:AB_2313973; Table 1)
The circadian pacemaker of the Madeira cockroach, Rhyparobia (Leucophaea) maderae, is located in the accessory medulla (AME). Ipsi- and contralateral histaminergic compound eyes are required for photic entrainment. Light pulses delay locomotor activity rhythm during the early night and advance it during the late night. Thus, different neuronal pathways might relay either light-dependent delays or advances to the clock. Injections of neuroactive substances combined with running-wheel assays suggested that GABA, pigment-dispersing factor, myoinhibitory peptides (MIPs), and orcokinins (ORCs) were part of both entrainment pathways, whereas allatotropin (AT) only delayed locomotor rhythms at the early night. To characterize photic entrainment further, histamine and corazonin were injected. Histamine injections resulted in light-like phase delays and advances, indicating that the neurotransmitter of the compound eyes participates in both entrainment pathways. Because injections of corazonin only advanced during the late subjective night, it was hypothesized that corazonin is only part of the advance pathway. Multiple-label immunocytochemistry in combination with neurobiotin backfills demonstrated that a single cell expressed corazonin in the optic lobes that belonged to the group of medial AME interneurons. It colocalized GABA and MIP but not AT or ORC immunoreactivity. Corazonin-immunoreactive (-ir) terminals overlapped with projections of putatively light-sensitive interneurons from the ipsi- and contralateral compound eye. Thus, we hypothesize that the corazonin-ir medial neuron integrates ipsi- and contralateral light information as part of the phase-advancing light entrainment pathway to the circadian clock. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1250-1272, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Literature context: coupled to bovine serum albuminVeenstra, 2012TachykininRabbit1:2,500APSGFLGVR
Cataglyphis desert ants exhibit an age-related polyethism, with ants performing tasks in the dark nest for the first ∼4 weeks of their adult life before they switch to visually based long-distance navigation to forage. Although behavioral and sensory aspects of this transition have been studied, the internal factors triggering the behavioral changes are largely unknown. We suggest the neuropeptide families allatostatin A (AstA), allatotropin (AT), short neuropeptide F (sNPF), and tachykinin (TK) as potential candidates. Based on a neuropeptidomic analysis in Camponotus floridanus, nano-LC-ESI MS/MS was used to identify these neuropeptides biochemically in Cataglyphis fortis. Furthermore, we show that all identified peptide families are present in the central brain and ventral ganglia of C. fortis whereas in the retrocerebral complex only sNPF could be detected. Immunofluorescence staining against AstA, AT, and TK in the brain revealed arborizations of AstA- and TK-positive neurons in primary sensory processing centers and higher order integration centers, whereas AT immunoreactivity was restricted to the central complex, the antennal mechanosensory and motor center, and the protocerebrum. For artificially dark-kept ants, we found that TK distribution changed markedly in the central complex from days 1 and 7 to day 14 after eclosion. Based on functional studies in Drosophila, this age-related variation of TK is suggestive of a modulatory role in locomotion behavior in C. fortis. We conclude that the general distribution and age-related changes in neuropeptides indicate a modulatory role in sensory input regions and higher order processing centers in the desert ant brain. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:901-918, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Literature context: monoclonalab49675AB_8801381:500AllatotropinAllatotropin coupled to thyroglobulin with glutaraldehydeDr. Jan Veenstra, Rabbit, polyclonalN/AAB_23139731:8âˆ—FMRF-amideSynthetic FMRF cou
Neural circuits projecting information from motor to sensory pathways are common across sensory domains. These circuits typically modify sensory function as a result of motor pattern activation; this is particularly so in cases where the resultant behavior affects the sensory experience or its processing. However, such circuits have not been observed projecting to an olfactory pathway in any species despite well characterized active sampling behaviors that produce reafferent mechanical stimuli, such as sniffing in mammals and wing beating in the moth Manduca sexta. In this study we characterize a circuit that connects a flight sensory-motor center to an olfactory center in Manduca. This circuit consists of a single pair of histamine immunoreactive (HA-ir) neurons that project from the mesothoracic ganglion to innervate a subset of ventral antennal lobe (AL) glomeruli. Furthermore, within the AL we show that the M. sexta histamine B receptor (MsHisClB) is exclusively expressed by a subset of GABAergic and peptidergic LNs, which broadly project to all olfactory glomeruli. Finally, the HA-ir cell pair is present in fifth stage instar larvae; however, the absence of MsHisClB-ir in the larval antennal center indicates that the circuit is incomplete prior to metamorphosis and importantly prior to the expression of flight behavior. Although the functional consequences of this circuit remain unknown, these results provide the first detailed description of a circuit that interconnects an olfactory system with motor centers driving flight behaviors including odor-guided flight.
Migrating desert locusts, Schistocerca gregaria, are able to use the skylight polarization pattern for navigation. They detect polarized light with a specialized dorsal rim area in their compound eye. After multistage processing, polarization signals are transferred to the central complex, a midline-spanning brain area involved in locomotor control. Polarization-sensitive tangential neurons (TB-neurons) of the protocerebral bridge, a part of the central complex, give rise to a topographic arrangement of preferred polarization angles in the bridge, suggesting that the central complex acts as an internal sky compass. TB-neurons connect the protocerebral bridge with two adjacent brain areas, the posterior optic tubercles. To analyze the polarotopic organization of the central complex further, we investigated the number and morphologies of TB-neurons and the presence and colocalization of three neuroactive substances in these neurons. Triple immunostaining with antisera against Diploptera punctata allatostatin (Dip-AST), Manduca sexta allatotropin (Mas-AT), and serotonin (5HT) raised in the same host species revealed three spatially distinct TB-neuron clusters, each consisting of 10 neurons per hemisphere: cluster 1 and 3 showed Dip-AST/5HT immunostaining, whereas cluster 2 showed Dip-AST/Mas-AT immunostaining. Five subtypes of TB-neuron could be distinguished based on ramification patterns. Corresponding to ramification domains in the protocerebral bridge, the neurons invaded distinct but overlapping layers within the posterior optic tubercle. Similarly, neurons interconnecting the tubercles of the two hemispheres also targeted distinct layers of these neuropils. From these data we propose a neuronal circuit that may be suited to stabilize the internal sky compass in the central complex of the locust.
In the insect antennal lobe different types of local interneurons mediate complex excitatory and inhibitory interactions between the glomerular pathways to structure the spatiotemporal representation of odors. Mass spectrometric and immunohistochemical studies have shown that in local interneurons classical neurotransmitters are likely to colocalize with a variety of substances that can potentially act as cotransmitters or neuromodulators. In the antennal lobe of the cockroach Periplaneta americana, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been identified as the potential inhibitory transmitter of spiking type I local interneurons, whereas acetylcholine is most likely the excitatory transmitter of nonspiking type IIa1 local interneurons. This study used whole-cell patch clamp recordings combined with single-cell labeling and immunohistochemistry to test if the GABAergic type I local interneurons and the cholinergic type IIa1 local interneurons express allatotropin and tachykinin-related neuropeptides (TKRPs). These are two of the most abundant types of peptides in the insect antennal lobe. GABA-like and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-like immunoreactivity were used as markers for GABAergic and cholinergic neurons, respectively. About 50% of the GABA-like immunoreactive (-lir) spiking type I local interneurons were allatotropin-lir, and ∼ 40% of these neurons were TKRP-lir. About 20% of nonspiking ChAT-lir type IIa1 local interneurons were TKRP-lir. Our results suggest that in subpopulations of GABAergic and cholinergic local interneurons, allatotropin and TKRPs might act as cotransmitters or neuromodulators. To unequivocally assign neurotransmitters, cotransmitters, and neuromodulators to identified classes of antennal lobe neurons is an important step to deepen our understanding of information processing in the insect olfactory system.
A multitude of potential neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, including peptides, have been detected in the antennal lobe (AL), the first synaptic relay of the central olfactory pathway in the insect brain. However, the functional role of neuropeptides in this system has yet to be revealed. An important prerequisite to understanding the role of neuropeptides is to match the functionally different cell types in the AL with their peptide profiles by using electrophysiological recordings combined with immunocytochemical studies and/or single-cell mass spectrometry. The olfactory system of Periplaneta americana is particularly well suited to accomplish this goal because several physiologically distinct neuron types can be unequivocally identified. With the aim to analyze the neuropeptide inventory of the P. americana AL, this study is an essential step in this direction. First, we systematically analyzed different parts of the AL by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry to obtain the complete set of neuropeptides present. Altogether, 56 ion signals could be assigned to products of 10 neuropeptide genes (allatostatins A, B, C, SIFamide, allatotropin, FMRFamide-related peptides [myosuppressin, short neuropeptides F, extended FMRFamides], crustacean cardioactive peptide, tachykinin-related peptides). In a second step, a combination of immunocytochemistry and mass spectrometric profiling of defined AL compartments was used to reveal the spatial distribution of neuropeptide-containing cells. Finally, we demonstrated the feasibility of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric profiling of single AL neurons, which is an important precondition for combining electrophysiology with peptide profiling at the single-cell level.