Literature context: Research Labs Cat# 111-035-144, RRID:AB_2307391 Mouse Anti-NDUFA9 Monoclonal An
Mitochondria are composed of many small proteins that control protein synthesis, complex assembly, metabolism, and ion and reactive oxygen species (ROS) handling. We show that a skeletal muscle- and heart-enriched long non-coding RNA, LINC00116, encodes a highly conserved 56-amino-acid microprotein that we named mitoregulin (Mtln). Mtln localizes to the inner mitochondrial membrane, where it binds cardiolipin and influences protein complex assembly. In cultured cells, Mtln overexpression increases mitochondrial membrane potential, respiration rates, and Ca2+ retention capacity while decreasing mitochondrial ROS and matrix-free Ca2+. Mtln-knockout mice display perturbations in mitochondrial respiratory (super)complex formation and activity, fatty acid oxidation, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes, and Ca2+ retention capacity. Blue-native gel electrophoresis revealed that Mtln co-migrates alongside several complexes, including the complex I assembly module, complex V, and supercomplexes. Under denaturing conditions, Mtln remains in high-molecular-weight complexes, supporting its role as a sticky molecular tether that enhances respiratory efficiency by bolstering protein complex assembly and/or stability.
Literature context: Cat# 111-035-144 RRID:AB_2307391), for anti-mouse and anti-rabbi
The present work aimed to evaluate molecular, angiogenic and inflammatory changes induced by clotrimazole (CTZ) on endometriosis lesions. For this, thirty female Wistar rats with surgically implanted autologous endometrium were treated with CTZ or vehicle (200 mg/kg) via esophageal gavage for 15 consecutive days. CTZ treatment significantly decreased the growth and the size of the implants, and histological examination indicated regression and atrophy, with no toxicity to the animals. The levels of the angiogenic markers VEGF and VEGFR-2 were significantly decreased in CTZ group. The treatment also promotes a reduction on PGE2 and TNF-α levels. All these effects involve the amelioration of ERK1/2, Akt, AMPK and PERK signaling upon CTZ treatment. In conclusion, CTZ promoted an overall amelioration of endometriosis in a rat model due to the anti-angiogenic properties of the drug. Therefore, our results support the proposal of a clinical trial using CTZ for the treatment of endometriosis.
Literature context: ackson Scientific, 106-035-003, 111-035-144 and 115-035-003, 1:10Â 000). For
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is one of the most prevalent forms of early-onset dementia. However, the pathological mechanisms driving neuronal atrophy in FTD remain poorly understood. Here we identify a conserved role for the novel pro-apoptotic protein plenty of SH3s (POSH)/SH3 domain containing ring finger 1 in mediating neuropathology in Drosophila and mammalian models of charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2BIntron5) associated FTD. Aberrant, AKT dependent, accumulation of POSH was observed throughout the nervous system of both Drosophila and mice expressing CHMP2BIntron5. Knockdown of POSH was shown to be neuroprotective and sufficient to alleviate aberrant neuronal morphology, behavioral deficits and premature-lethality in Drosophila models, as well as dendritic collapse and cell death in CHMP2BIntron5expressing rat primary neurons. POSH knockdown also ameliorated elevated markers of Jun N-terminal kinase and apoptotic cascades in both Drosophila and mammalian models. This study provides the first characterization of POSH as a potential component of an FTD neuropathology, identifying a novel apoptotic pathway with relevance to the FTD spectrum.
Literature context: munoResearch Labs, 111-035-144, RRID:AB_2307391; 1:10,000; incubated for 1â€‰hr a
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are ion channels comprising tetrameric assemblies of GluN1 and GluN2 receptor subunits that mediate excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. Of the four different GluN2 subunits, the GluN2D subunit-containing NMDARs have been suggested as a target for antiparkinsonian therapy because of their expression pattern in some of the basal ganglia nuclei that show abnormal firing patterns in the parkinsonian state, specifically the subthalamic nucleus (STN). In this study, we demonstrate that blockade of NMDARs altered spike firing in the STN in a male nonhuman primate that had been rendered parkinsonian by treatment with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. In accompanying experiments in male rodents, we found that GluN2D-NMDAR expression in the STN was reduced in acutely or chronically dopamine-depleted animals. Taken together, our data suggest that blockade of NMDARs in the STN may be a viable antiparkinsonian strategy, but that the ultimate success of this approach may be complicated by parkinsonism-associated changes in NMDAR expression in the STN.
Literature context: ouse/goat secondary antibodies (RRID:AB_2307391; RRID:AB_2338504; RRID:AB_65696
A permissive chromatin environment coupled to hypertranscription drives the rapid proliferation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and peri-implantation embryos. We carried out a genome-wide screen to systematically dissect the regulation of the euchromatic state of ESCs. The results revealed that cellular growth pathways, most prominently translation, perpetuate the euchromatic state and hypertranscription of ESCs. Acute inhibition of translation rapidly depletes euchromatic marks in mouse ESCs and blastocysts, concurrent with delocalization of RNA polymerase II and reduction in nascent transcription. Translation inhibition promotes rewiring of chromatin accessibility, which decreases at a subset of active developmental enhancers and increases at histone genes and transposable elements. Proteome-scale analyses revealed that several euchromatin regulators are unstable proteins and continuously depend on a high translational output. We propose that this mechanistic interdependence of euchromatin, transcription, and translation sets the pace of proliferation at peri-implantation and may be employed by other stem/progenitor cells.
Literature context: -035-144, RRID:AB_2307391) for 1Â h a
Down syndrome (DS), trisomy 21, is caused by increased dose of genes present on human chromosome 21 (HSA21). The gene-dose hypothesis argues that a change in the dose of individual genes or regulatory sequences on HSA21 is necessary for creating DS-related phenotypes, including cognitive impairment. We focused on a possible role for Kcnj6, the gene encoding Kir3.2 (Girk2) subunits of a G-protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channel. This gene resides on a segment of mouse Chromosome 16 that is present in one extra copy in the genome of the Ts65Dn mouse, a well-studied genetic model of DS. Kir3.2 subunit-containing potassium channels serve as effectors for a number of postsynaptic metabotropic receptors including GABAB receptors. Several studies raise the possibility that increased Kcnj6 dose contributes to synaptic and cognitive abnormalities in DS. To assess directly a role for Kcnj6 gene dose in cognitive deficits in DS, we produced Ts65Dn mice that harbor only 2 copies of Kcnj6 (Ts65Dn:Kcnj6++- mice). The reduction in Kcnj6 gene dose restored to normal the hippocampal level of Kir3.2. Long-term memory, examined in the novel object recognition test with the retention period of 24h, was improved to the level observed in the normosomic littermate control mice (2N:Kcnj6++). Significantly, both short-term and long-term potentiation (STP and LTP) was improved to control levels in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the Ts65Dn:Kcnj6++- mouse. In view of the ability of fluoxetine to suppress Kir3.2 channels, we asked if fluoxetine-treated DG slices of Ts65Dn:Kcnj6+++ mice would rescue synaptic plasticity. Fluoxetine increased STP and LTP to control levels. These results are evidence that increased Kcnj6 gene dose is necessary for synaptic and cognitive dysfunction in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. Strategies aimed at pharmacologically reducing channel function should be explored for enhancing cognition in DS.
Literature context: ImmunoResearch Cat#111-035-144; RRID:AB_2307391 AffiniPure Fab Fragment Donkey
Radial glia (RG) are embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) that produce neuroblasts and provide fibers that act as a scaffold for neuroblast migration during embryonic development. Although they normally disappear soon after birth, here we found that RG fibers can persist in injured neonatal mouse brains and act as a scaffold for postnatal ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ)-derived neuroblasts that migrate to the lesion site. This injury-induced maintenance of RG fibers has a limited time window during post-natal development and promotes directional saltatory movement of neuroblasts via N-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts that promote RhoA activation. Transplanting an N-cadherin-containing scaffold into injured neonatal brains likewise promotes migration and maturation of V-SVZ-derived neuroblasts, leading to functional improvements in impaired gait behaviors. Together these results suggest that RG fibers enable postnatal V-SVZ-derived neuroblasts to migrate toward sites of injury, thereby enhancing neuronal regeneration and functional recovery from neonatal brain injuries.
Literature context: h Laboratories Cat#111-035-144; RRID:AB_2307391 Peroxidase AffiniPure Donkey An
To uncover regulatory mechanisms in Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, we conducted genome-wide screens to identify positive and negative pathway components and validated top hits using multiple signaling and differentiation assays in two different cell types. Most positive regulators identified in our screens, including Rab34, Pdcl, and Tubd1, were involved in ciliary functions, confirming the central role for primary cilia in Hh signaling. Negative regulators identified included Megf8, Mgrn1, and an unannotated gene encoding a tetraspan protein we named Atthog. The function of these negative regulators converged on Smoothened (SMO), an oncoprotein that transduces the Hh signal across the membrane. In the absence of Atthog, SMO was stabilized at the cell surface and concentrated in the ciliary membrane, boosting cell sensitivity to the ligand Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) and consequently altering SHH-guided neural cell-fate decisions. Thus, we uncovered genes that modify the interpretation of morphogen signals by regulating protein-trafficking events in target cells.
Literature context: (anti-rabbit [Cat# 111-035-144, RRID:AB_2307391], anti-goat [Cat# 705-035-003,
There is increasing evidence indicating that aquaporins (AQPs) exert an influence in cell signaling by the interplay with the TRPV4 Ca2+ channel. Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and plasma membrane hyperpolarization due to opening of Ca2+ -activated potassium channels (KCa) are events that have been proposed to take place downstream of TRPV4 activation. A major mechanism for Ca2+ entry, activated after depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores and driven by electrochemical forces, is the store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). The consequences of the interplay between TRPV4 and AQPs on SOCE have not been yet investigated. The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that AQP2 can modulate SOCE by facilitating the interaction of TRPV4 with KCa channels in renal cells. Using fluorescent probe techniques, we studied intracellular Ca2+ concentration and membrane potential in response to activation of TRPV4 in two rat cortical collecting duct cell lines (RCCD1 ), one not expressing AQPs (WT-RCCD1 ) and the other transfected with AQP2 (AQP2-RCCD1 ). We found that AQP2 co-immunoprecipitates with TRPV4 and with the small-conductance potassium channel (SK3). We also showed that AQP2 is crucial for the activation of SK3 by TRPV4, leading to hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane. This seems to be relevant to modulate the magnitude of SOCE and is accompanied by TRPV4 translocation to the plasma membrane only in AQP2 expressing cells. These findings open the perspective to further investigate whether the interplay between different AQPs with TRPV4 and KCa channels can be an important mechanism to modulate SOCE with physiological relevance.
Literature context: 1-035-144 RRID:AB_2307391, for anti-
It is known that interfering with glycolysis leads to profound modification of cancer cell proliferation. However, energy production is not the major reason for this correlation. Here, using HeLa cells as a model for cancer, we demonstrate that phosphofructokinase-P (PFK-P), which is overexpressed in diverse types of cancer including HeLa cells, modulates expression of P44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Silencing of PFK-P did not alter HeLa cell viability or energy production, including the glycolytic rate. On the other hand, silencing of PFK-P induced the downregulation of p44/42 MAPK, augmenting the sensitivity of HeLa cells to different drugs. Conversely, overexpression of PFK-P promotes the upregulation of p44/42 MAPK, making the cells more resistant to the drugs. These results indicate that overexpression of PFK-P by cancer cells is related to activation of survival pathways via upregulation of MAPK and suggest PFK-P as a promising target for cancer therapy. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1216-1226, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Literature context: mmunoResearch Labs 111-035-144, RRID:AB_2307391). Chemiluminescence was detecte
Nodal is considered the key inducer of mesendoderm in vertebrate embryos and embryonic stem cells. Other TGF-beta-related signals, such as Vg1/Dvr1/Gdf3, have also been implicated in this process but their roles have been unclear or controversial. Here we report that zebrafish embryos without maternally provided vg1 fail to form endoderm and head and trunk mesoderm, and closely resemble nodal loss-of-function mutants. Although Nodal is processed and secreted without Vg1, it requires Vg1 for its endogenous activity. Conversely, Vg1 is unprocessed and resides in the endoplasmic reticulum without Nodal, and is only secreted, processed and active in the presence of Nodal. Co-expression of Nodal and Vg1 results in heterodimer formation and mesendoderm induction. Thus, mesendoderm induction relies on the combination of two TGF-beta-related signals: maternal and ubiquitous Vg1, and zygotic and localized Nodal. Modeling reveals that the pool of maternal Vg1 enables rapid signaling at low concentrations of zygotic Nodal.
Literature context: it IgG (Jackson Immunoresearch #111-035-144; 1:10â€‰000). Multiple film expos
The capacity to form long-lasting social memories is critical to our health and survival. cAMP signaling in the ventral hippocampal formation (VHIPP) appears to be required for social memory formation, but the phosphodiesterase (PDE) involved remains unknown. Previously, we showed that PDE11A, which degrades cAMP and cGMP, is preferentially expressed in CA1 and subiculum of the VHIPP. Here, we determine whether PDE11A is expressed in neurons where it could directly influence synaptic plasticity and whether expression is required for the consolidation and/or retrieval of social memories. In CA1, and possibly CA2, PDE11A4 is expressed throughout neuronal cell bodies, dendrites (stratum radiatum), and axons (fimbria), but not astrocytes. Unlike PDE2A, PDE9A, or PDE10A, PDE11A4 expression begins very low at postnatal day 7 (P7) and dramatically increases until P28, at which time it stabilizes to young adult levels. This expression pattern is consistent with the fact that PDE11A is required for social long-term memory (LTM) formation during adolescence and adulthood. Male and female PDE11 knockout (KO) mice show normal short-term memory (STM) for social odor recognition (SOR) and social transmission of food preference (STFP), but no LTM 24 h post training. Importantly, PDE11A KO mice show normal LTM for nonsocial odor recognition. Deletion of PDE11A may impair memory consolidation by impairing requisite protein translation in the VHIPP. Relative to WT littermates, PDE11A KO mice show reduced expression of RSK2 and lowered phosphorylation of S6 (pS6-235/236). Together, these data suggest PDE11A is selectively required for the proper consolidation of recognition and associative social memories.
Literature context: on ImmunoResearch Laboratories (RRID:AB_2307391). Cortisol-BSA was purchased fr
Glucocorticoid has been widely accepted to induce Alzheimer's disease, but the nongenomic effect of glucocorticoid on amyloid β (Aβ) generation has yet to be studied. Here, we investigated the effect of the nongenomic pathway induced by glucocorticoid on amyloid precursor protein processing enzymes as well as Aβ production using male ICR mice and human neuroblastoma SK-N-MC cells. Mice groups exposed to restraint stress or intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ showed impaired cognition, decreased intracellular glucocorticoid receptor (GR) level, but elevated level of membrane GR (mGR). In this respect, we identified the mGR-dependent pathway evoked by glucocorticoid using impermeable cortisol conjugated to BSA (cortisol-BSA) on SK-N-MC cells. Cortisol-BSA augmented the expression of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), the level of C-terminal fragment β of amyloid precursor protein (C99) and Aβ production, which were maintained even after blocking intracellular GR. We also found that cortisol-BSA enhanced the interaction between mGR and Gαs, which colocalized in the lipid raft. The subsequently activated CREB by cortisol-BSA bound to the CRE site of the BACE1 promoter increasing its expression, which was downregulated by inhibiting CBP. Consistently, blocking CBP attenuated cognitive impairment and Aβ production induced by corticosterone treatment or intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ more efficiently than inhibiting intracellular GR in mice. In conclusion, glucocorticoid couples mGR with Gαs and triggers cAMP-PKA-CREB axis dependent on the lipid raft to stimulate BACE1 upregulation and Aβ generation.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been growing sharply and stress is considered as the major environment factor of AD. Glucocorticoid is the primarily responsive factor to stress and is widely known to induce AD. However, most AD patients usually have impaired genomic pathway of glucocorticoid due to intracellular glucocorticoid receptor deficiency. In this respect, the genomic mechanism of glucocorticoid faces difficulties in explaining the consistent amyloid β (Aβ) production. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the novel pathway of glucocorticoid on Aβ generation to find a more selective therapeutic approach to AD patients. In this study, we revealed the importance of nongenomic pathway induced by glucocorticoid where membrane glucocorticoid receptor plays an important role in Aβ formation.
Literature context: anti-rabbit IgG, Jacksonimmuno, RRID:AB_2307391). Immunoreactive bands were vis
The atypical cadherins Fat and Dachsous (Ds) have been found to underlie planar cell polarity (PCP) in many tissues. Theoretical models suggest that polarity can arise from localized feedbacks on Fat-Ds complexes at the cell boundary. However, there is currently no direct evidence for the existence or mechanism of such feedbacks. To directly test the localized feedback model, we developed a synthetic biology platform based on mammalian cells expressing the human Fat4 and Ds1. We show that Fat4-Ds1 complexes accumulate on cell boundaries in a threshold-like manner and exhibit dramatically slower dynamics than unbound Fat4 and Ds1. This suggests a localized feedback mechanism based on enhanced stability of Fat4-Ds1 complexes. We also show that co-expression of Fat4 and Ds1 in the same cells is sufficient to induce polarization of Fat4-Ds1 complexes. Together, these results provide direct evidence that localized feedbacks on Fat4-Ds1 complexes can give rise to PCP.
Literature context: ated goat anti-rabbit antibody (RRID:AB_2307391; Jackson ImmunoResearch, West G
The role of the intestinal insulin receptor (IR) is not well understood. We therefore explored the effect of insulin (300 nmol/kg per day for 12 days) on the intestine in sex-matched C57Bl/6J mice. The intestinal and metabolic profiles were also characterized in male and female intestinal-epithelial IR knockout (IE-irKO) mice compared with all genetic controls on a chow diet or Western diet (WD) for 4 to 12 weeks. Insulin treatment did not affect intestinal size, intestinal resistance, or metabolic genes, but it reduced proximal-colon crypt depth and acutely increased colonic serine/threonine-specific protein kinase B (AKT) activation. Feeding with a WD increased body weight and fasting insulin level and decreased oral glucose tolerance in C57Bl/6J and IE-irKO mice. However, although the overall responses of the IE-irKO mice were not different from those of Villin-Cre (Vil-Cre):IRfl/+ and IRfl/fl controls, profound differences were found for female control Vil-Cre mice, which demonstrated reduced food intake, body weight, jejunal glucose transport, oral glucose tolerance, and fasting insulin and cholesterol levels. Vil-Cre mice also had smaller intestines compared with those of IE-irKO and IRfl/fl mice and greater insulin-mediated activation of jejunal IR and AKT. In summary, gain- and loss-of-function studies, with and without caloric overload, indicate that insulin did not exert remarkable effects on intestinal metabolic or morphologic phenotype except for a small effect on the colon. However, the transgenic control Vil-Cre mice displayed a distinct phenotype compared with other control and knockout animals, emphasizing the importance of thoroughly characterizing genetically modified mouse models.
Literature context: -035-144; RRID:AB_2307391 Acetyl-Lys
Faithful propagation of functionally distinct chromatin states is crucial for maintaining cellular identity, and its breakdown can lead to diseases such as cancer. Whereas mechanisms that sustain repressed states have been intensely studied, regulatory circuits that protect active chromatin from inactivating signals are not well understood. Here we report a positive feedback loop that preserves the transcription-competent state of RNA polymerase II-transcribed genes. We found that Pdp3 recruits the histone acetyltransferase Mst2 to H3K36me3-marked chromatin. Thereby, Mst2 binds to all transcriptionally active regions genome-wide. Besides acetylating histone H3K14, Mst2 also acetylates Brl1, a component of the histone H2B ubiquitin ligase complex. Brl1 acetylation increases histone H2B ubiquitination, which positively feeds back on transcription and prevents ectopic heterochromatin assembly. Our work uncovers a molecular pathway that secures epigenome integrity and highlights the importance of opposing feedback loops for the partitioning of chromatin into transcriptionally active and inactive states.
Literature context: -035-144, RRID:AB_2307391).
Neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) which ensnare pathogens and have pathogenic functions in diverse diseases. We examined the NETosis pathways induced by five stimuli; PMA, the calcium ionophore A23187, nigericin, Candida albicans and Group B Streptococcus. We studied NET production in neutrophils from healthy donors with inhibitors of molecules crucial to PMA-induced NETs including protein kinase C, calcium, reactive oxygen species, the enzymes myeloperoxidase (MPO) and neutrophil elastase. Additionally, neutrophils from chronic granulomatous disease patients, carrying mutations in the NADPH oxidase complex or a MPO-deficient patient were examined. We show that PMA, C. albicans and GBS use a related pathway for NET induction, whereas ionophores require an alternative pathway but that NETs produced by all stimuli are proteolytically active, kill bacteria and composed mainly of chromosomal DNA. Thus, we demonstrate that NETosis occurs through several signalling mechanisms, suggesting that extrusion of NETs is important in host defence.
Literature context: -035-144; RRID:AB_2307391 rabbit Mus
Transposon reactivation is an inherent danger in cells that lose epigenetic silencing during developmental reprogramming. In the mouse, long terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposons, or endogenous retroviruses (ERV), account for most novel insertions and are expressed in the absence of histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation in preimplantation stem cells. We found abundant 18 nt tRNA-derived small RNA (tRF) in these cells and ubiquitously expressed 22 nt tRFs that include the 3' terminal CCA of mature tRNAs and target the tRNA primer binding site (PBS) essential for ERV reverse transcription. We show that the two most active ERV families, IAP and MusD/ETn, are major targets and are strongly inhibited by tRFs in retrotransposition assays. 22 nt tRFs post-transcriptionally silence coding-competent ERVs, while 18 nt tRFs specifically interfere with reverse transcription and retrotransposon mobility. The PBS offers a unique target to specifically inhibit LTR-retrotransposons, and tRF-targeting is a potentially highly conserved mechanism of small RNA-mediated transposon control.
Literature context: -035-144; RRID:AB_2307391 Bacterial
Recognition between sperm and the egg surface marks the beginning of life in all sexually reproducing organisms. This fundamental biological event depends on the species-specific interaction between rapidly evolving counterpart molecules on the gametes. We report biochemical, crystallographic, and mutational studies of domain repeats 1-3 of invertebrate egg coat protein VERL and their interaction with cognate sperm protein lysin. VERL repeats fold like the functionally essential N-terminal repeat of mammalian sperm receptor ZP2, whose structure is also described here. Whereas sequence-divergent repeat 1 does not bind lysin, repeat 3 binds it non-species specifically via a high-affinity, largely hydrophobic interface. Due to its intermediate binding affinity, repeat 2 selectively interacts with lysin from the same species. Exposure of a highly positively charged surface of VERL-bound lysin suggests that complex formation both disrupts the organization of egg coat filaments and triggers their electrostatic repulsion, thereby opening a hole for sperm penetration and fusion.
Literature context: ti-rabbit IgG-HRP (#111-035-144 RRID:AB_2307391); goat anti-guinea pig IgG-HRP
The transcription factor TCF7L1 is an embryonic stem cell signature gene that is upregulated in multiple aggressive cancer types, but its role in skin tumorigenesis has not yet been defined. Here we document TCF7L1 upregulation in skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and demonstrate that TCF7L1 overexpression increases tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and malignant progression in the chemically induced mouse model of skin SCC. Additionally, we show that downregulation of TCF7L1 and its paralogue TCF7L2 reduces tumor growth in a xenograft model of human skin SCC. Using separation-of-function mutants, we show that TCF7L1 promotes tumor growth, enhances cell migration, and overrides oncogenic RAS-induced senescence independently of its interaction with β-catenin. Through transcriptome profiling and combined gain- and loss-of-function studies, we identified LCN2 as a major downstream effector of TCF7L1 that drives tumor growth. Our findings establish a tumor-promoting role for TCF7L1 in skin and elucidate the mechanisms underlying its tumorigenic capacity.
Literature context: esearch - RRID:AB_2307391) and HRP-l
Site-specific histone ubiquitylation plays a central role in orchestrating the response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). DSBs elicit a cascade of events controlled by the ubiquitin ligase RNF168, which promotes the accumulation of repair factors such as 53BP1 and BRCA1 on the chromatin flanking the break site. RNF168 also promotes its own accumulation, and that of its paralog RNF169, but how they recognize ubiquitylated chromatin is unknown. Using methyl-TROSY solution NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations, we present an atomic resolution model of human RNF169 binding to a ubiquitylated nucleosome, and validate it by electron cryomicroscopy. We establish that RNF169 binds to ubiquitylated H2A-Lys13/Lys15 in a manner that involves its canonical ubiquitin-binding helix and a pair of arginine-rich motifs that interact with the nucleosome acidic patch. This three-pronged interaction mechanism is distinct from that by which 53BP1 binds to ubiquitylated H2A-Lys15 highlighting the diversity in site-specific recognition of ubiquitylated nucleosomes.
Literature context: -035-144; RRID:AB_2307391 Peroxidase
AMPA receptors (AMPARs) mediate the majority of fast excitatory transmission in the brain and critically contribute to synaptic plasticity and pathology. AMPAR trafficking and gating are tightly controlled by auxiliary transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins (TARPs). Here, using systematic domain swaps with the TARP-insensitive kainate receptor GluK2, we show that AMPAR interaction with the prototypical TARP stargazin/γ2 primarily involves the AMPAR membrane domains M1 and M4 of neighboring subunits, initiated or stabilized by the AMPAR C-tail, and that these interactions are sufficient to enable full receptor modulation. Moreover, employing TARP chimeras disclosed a key role in this process also for the TARP transmembrane domains TM3 and TM4 and extracellular loop 2. Mechanistically, our data support a two-step action in which binding of TARP to the AMPAR membrane domains destabilizes the channel closed state, thereby enabling an efficient opening upon agonist binding, which then stabilizes the open state via subsequent interactions.
Literature context: Research; RRID:AB_2307391). Chemilum
Diverse cellular signaling events, including B cell receptor (BCR) activation, are hypothesized to be facilitated by domains enriched in specific plasma membrane lipids and proteins that resemble liquid-ordered phase-separated domains in model membranes. This concept remains controversial and lacks direct experimental support in intact cells. Here, we visualize ordered and disordered domains in mouse B lymphoma cell membranes using super-resolution fluorescence localization microscopy, demonstrate that clustered BCR resides within ordered phase-like domains capable of sorting key regulators of BCR activation, and present a minimal, predictive model where clustering receptors leads to their collective activation by stabilizing an extended ordered domain. These results provide evidence for the role of membrane domains in BCR signaling and a plausible mechanism of BCR activation via receptor clustering that could be generalized to other signaling pathways. Overall, these studies demonstrate that lipid mediated forces can bias biochemical networks in ways that broadly impact signal transduction.
Literature context: -035-144; RRID:AB_2307391 Peroxydase
Transcription starts with the assembly of pre-initiation complexes on promoters followed by their opening. Current models suggest that class II gene transcription requires ATP and the TFIIH XPB subunit to open a promoter. Here, we observe that XPB depletion surprisingly leaves transcription virtually intact. In contrast, inhibition of XPB ATPase activity affects transcription, revealing that mRNA expression paradoxically accommodates the absence of XPB while being sensitive to the inhibition of its ATPase activity. The XPB-depleted TFIIH complex is recruited to active promoters and contributes to transcription. We finally demonstrate that the XPB ATPase activity is only used to relieve a transcription initiation block imposed by XPB itself. In the absence of this block, transcription initiation can take place without XPB ATPase activity. These results suggest that a helicase is dispensable for mRNA transcription, thereby unifying the mechanism of promoter DNA opening for the three eukaryotic RNA polymerases.
Literature context: antibody (RRID:AB_2307391; Cat. #111
hIAPP fibrils are associated with Type-II Diabetes, but the link of hIAPP structure to islet cell death remains elusive. Here we observe that hIAPP fibrils are cytotoxic to cultured pancreatic β-cells, leading us to determine the structure and cytotoxicity of protein segments composing the amyloid spine of hIAPP. Using the cryoEM method MicroED, we discover that one segment, 19-29 S20G, forms pairs of β-sheets mated by a dry interface that share structural features with and are similarly cytotoxic to full-length hIAPP fibrils. In contrast, a second segment, 15-25 WT, forms non-toxic labile β-sheets. These segments possess different structures and cytotoxic effects, however, both can seed full-length hIAPP, and cause hIAPP to take on the cytotoxic and structural features of that segment. These results suggest that protein segment structures represent polymorphs of their parent protein and that segment 19-29 S20G may serve as a model for the toxic spine of hIAPP.
Literature context: esearch / RRID:AB_2307391
Filamin is a scaffolding protein that functions in many cells as an actin-crosslinker. FLN90, an isoform of the Drosophila ortholog Filamin/cheerio that lacks the actin-binding domain, is here shown to govern the growth of postsynaptic membrane folds and the composition of glutamate receptor clusters at the larval neuromuscular junction. Genetic and biochemical analyses revealed that FLN90 is present surrounding synaptic boutons. FLN90 is required in the muscle for localization of the kinase dPak and, downstream of dPak, for localization of the GTPase Ral and the exocyst complex to this region. Consequently, Filamin is needed for growth of the subsynaptic reticulum. In addition, in the absence of filamin, type-A glutamate receptor subunits are lacking at the postsynapse, while type-B subunits cluster correctly. Receptor composition is dependent on dPak, but independent of the Ral pathway. Thus two major aspects of synapse formation, morphological plasticity and subtype-specific receptor clustering, require postsynaptic Filamin.
Literature context: bbit HRP (RRID:AB_2307391), 1:30 000
Type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs) are widely expressed in the vertebrate retina, but the role of endocannabinoids in vision is not fully understood. Here, we identified a novel mechanism underlying a CB1R-mediated increase in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) intrinsic excitability acting through AMPK-dependent inhibition of NKCC1 activity. Clomeleon imaging and patch clamp recordings revealed that inhibition of NKCC1 downstream of CB1R activation reduces intracellular Cl(-) levels in RGCs, hyperpolarizing the resting membrane potential. We confirmed that such hyperpolarization enhances RGC action potential firing in response to subsequent depolarization, consistent with the increased intrinsic excitability of RGCs observed with CB1R activation. Using a dot avoidance assay in freely swimming Xenopus tadpoles, we demonstrate that CB1R activation markedly improves visual contrast sensitivity under low-light conditions. These results highlight a role for endocannabinoids in vision and present a novel mechanism for cannabinoid modulation of neuronal activity through Cl(-) regulation.
Literature context: -035-144, RRID:AB_2307391). After si
Forgetting, one part of the brain's memory management system, provides balance to the encoding and consolidation of new information by removing unused or unwanted memories or by suppressing their expression. Recent studies identified the small G protein, Rac1, as a key player in the Drosophila mushroom bodies neurons (MBn) for active forgetting. We subsequently discovered that a few dopaminergic neurons (DAn) that innervate the MBn mediate forgetting. Here we show that Scribble, a scaffolding protein known primarily for its role as a cell polarity determinant, orchestrates the intracellular signaling for normal forgetting. Knocking down scribble expression in either MBn or DAn impairs normal memory loss. Scribble interacts physically and genetically with Rac1, Pak3, and Cofilin within MBn, nucleating a forgetting signalosome that is downstream of dopaminergic inputs that regulate forgetting. These results bind disparate molecular players in active forgetting into a single signaling pathway: Dopamine→ Dopamine Receptor→ Scribble→ Rac→ Cofilin.
Literature context: -035-144, RRID:AB_2307391) or goat a
Genetic alterations or pharmacological treatments affecting endocannabinoid signaling have profound effects on synaptic and neuronal properties and, under certain conditions, may improve higher brain functions. Down syndrome (DS), a developmental disorder caused by triplication of chromosome 21, is characterized by deficient cognition and inevitable development of the Alzheimer disease (AD) type pathology during aging. Here we used JZL184, a selective inhibitor of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), to examine the effects of chronic MAGL inhibition on the behavioral, biochemical, and synaptic properties of aged Ts65Dn mice, a genetic model of DS. In both Ts65Dn mice and their normosomic (2N) controls, JZL184-treatment increased brain levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and decreased levels of its metabolites such as arachidonic acid, prostaglandins PGD2, PGE2, PGFα, and PGJ2. Enhanced spontaneous locomotor activity of Ts65Dn mice was reduced by the JZL184-treatement to the levels observed in 2N animals. Deficient long-term memory was also improved, while short-term and working types of memory were unaffected. Furthermore, reduced hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) was increased in the JZL184-treated Ts65Dn mice to the levels observed in 2N mice. Interestingly, changes in synaptic plasticity and behavior were not observed in the JZL184-treated 2N mice suggesting that the treatment specifically attenuated the defects in the trisomic animals. The JZL184-treatment also reduced the levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42, but had no effect on the levels of full length APP and BACE1 in both Ts65Dn and 2N mice. These data show that chronic MAGL inhibition improves the behavior and brain functions in a DS model suggesting that pharmacological targeting of MAGL may be considered as a perspective new approach for improving cognition in DS.
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has multiple metabolic actions, including the induction of browning in white adipose tissue. Although FGF21 stimulated browning results from a direct interaction between FGF21 and the adipocyte, browning is typically associated with activation of the sympathetic nervous system through cold exposure. We tested the hypothesis that FGF21 can act via the brain, to increase sympathetic activity and induce browning, independent of cell-autonomous actions. We administered FGF21 into the central nervous system via lateral ventricle infusion into male mice and found that the central treatment increased norepinephrine turnover in target tissues that include the inguinal white adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue. Central FGF21 stimulated browning as assessed by histology, expression of uncoupling protein 1, and the induction of gene expression associated with browning. These effects were markedly attenuated when mice were treated with a β-blocker. Additionally, neither centrally nor peripherally administered FGF21 initiated browning in mice lacking β-adrenoceptors, demonstrating that an intact adrenergic system is necessary for FGF21 action. These data indicate that FGF21 can signal in the brain to activate the sympathetic nervous system and induce adipose tissue thermogenesis.
Fetal/neonatal iron (Fe) and iodine/TH deficiencies lead to similar brain developmental abnormalities and often coexist in developing countries. We recently demonstrated that fetal/neonatal Fe deficiency results in a mild neonatal thyroidal impairment, suggesting that TH insufficiency contributes to the neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with Fe deficiency. We hypothesized that combining Fe deficiency with an additional mild thyroidal perturbation (6-propyl-2-thiouracil [PTU]) during development would more severely impair neonatal thyroidal status and brain TH-responsive gene expression than either deficiency alone. Early gestation pregnant rats were assigned to 7 different treatment groups: control, Fe deficient (FeD), mild TH deficient (1 ppm PTU), moderate TH deficient (3 ppm PTU), severe TH deficient (10 ppm PTU), FeD/1 ppm PTU, or FeD/3 ppm PTU. FeD or 1 ppm PTU treatment alone reduced postnatal day 15 serum total T4 concentrations by 64% and 74%, respectively, without significantly altering serum total T3 concentrations. Neither treatment alone significantly altered postnatal day 16 cortical or hippocampal T3 concentrations. FeD combined with 1 ppm PTU treatment produced a more severe effect, reducing serum total T4 by 95%, and lowering hippocampal and cortical T3 concentrations by 24% and 31%, respectively. Combined FeD/PTU had a more severe effect on brain TH-responsive gene expression than either treatment alone, significantly altering Pvalb, Dio2, Mbp, and Hairless hippocampal and/or cortical mRNA levels. FeD/PTU treatment more severely impacted cortical and hippocampal parvalbumin protein expression compared with either individual treatment. These data suggest that combining 2 mild thyroidal insults during development significantly disrupts thyroid function and impairs TH-regulated brain gene expression.
In mammals, lactation is associated with a period of infertility characterized by the loss of pulsatile secretion of GnRH and cessation of ovulatory cycles. Despite the importance of lactational infertility in determining overall fecundity of a species, the mechanisms by which the suckling stimulus suppresses GnRH secretion remain unclear. Because kisspeptin neurons are critical for fertility, the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that reduced kisspeptin expression might mediate the lactation-induced suppression of fertility, using mouse models. In the rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle (RP3V), a progressive decrease in RP3V Kiss1 mRNA levels was observed during pregnancy culminating in a 10-fold reduction during lactation compared with diestrous controls. This was associated with approximately 60% reduction in the numbers of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons in the RP3V detected during lactation. Similarly, in the arcuate nucleus there was also a significant decrease in Kiss1 mRNA levels during late pregnancy and midlactation, and a notable decrease in kisspeptin fiber density during lactation. The functional characteristics of the RP3V kisspeptin input to GnRH neurons were assessed using electrophysiological approaches in an acute brain slice preparation. Although endogenous RP3V kisspeptin neurons were found to activate GnRH neurons in diestrous mice, this was never observed during lactation. This did not result from an absence of kisspeptin receptors because GnRH neurons responded normally to 100 nM exogenous kisspeptin during lactation. The kisspeptin deficit in lactating mice was selective, because GnRH neurons responded normally to RP3V gamma aminobutryic acid inputs during lactation. These data demonstrate that a selective loss of RP3V kisspeptin inputs to GnRH neurons during lactation is the likely mechanism causing lactational anovulation in the mouse.
Dynamic changes of gene expressions occur in human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) during decidualization. CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteinβ (C/EBPβ) regulates the expression of a number of decidualization-related genes. In addition to transcription factors, it is important to know the role of epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone modifications in the regulation of decidualization-related genes. This study investigated the molecular and epigenetic mechanisms by which cAMP up-regulates the expression of IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), prolactin (PRL), and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) in ESC. ESCs isolated from proliferative phase endometrium were incubated with cAMP to induce decidualization. IGFBP-1, PRL, and Mn-SOD mRNA expressions were determined by real-time RT-PCR. The C/EBPβ binding and histone modification status (acetylation of histone-H3 lysine-27 [H3K27ac]) in the promoter were examined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Knockdowns of C/EBPβ were performed using the small interfering RNA method. cAMP induced mRNA expressions of IGFBP-1 and PRL accompanied by the increases in both C/EBPβ binding activities and H3K27ac levels in the promoters. The stimulatory effects of cAMP on mRNA levels and H3K27ac levels were completely abolished by C/EBPβ knockdown. cAMP increased Mn-SOD mRNA levels and C/EBPβ binding activities in the enhancer region. C/EBPβ knockdown inhibited Mn-SOD mRNA levels. The H3K27ac levels in the enhancer were high before cAMP stimulus but were not further increased by cAMP and were not inhibited by C/EBPβ knockdown. These results show that C/EBPβ regulates the expression of IGFBP-1 and PRL by altering the histone acetylation status of their promoters but differently regulates Mn-SOD gene expression in human ESC during decidualization.
A major barrier in reversing diabetic complications is that molecular and pathologic effects of elevated glucose persist despite normalization of glucose, a phenomenon referred to as metabolic memory. In the present studies we have investigated the effects of elevated glucose on Schwann cells, which are implicated in diabetic neuropathy. Using quantitative PCR arrays for glucose and fatty acid metabolism, we have found that chronic (>8 wk) 25 mM high glucose induces a persistent increase in genes that promote glycolysis, while inhibiting those that oppose glycolysis and alternate metabolic pathways such as fatty acid metabolism, the pentose phosphate pathway, and trichloroacetic acid cycle. These sustained effects were associated with decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ binding and persistently increased reactive oxygen species, cellular NADH, and altered DNA methylation. Agonists of PPARγ and PPARα prevented select effects of glucose-induced gene expression. These observations suggest that Schwann cells exhibit features of metabolic memory that may be regulated at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, targeting PPAR may prevent metabolic memory and the development of diabetic complications.
Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric illnesses and are associated with heightened stress responsiveness. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has garnered significant attention for its potential as a treatment for anxiety disorders; however, the mechanism mediating its effects on stress responses and anxiety is not well understood. Here we used acute hypernatremia, a stimulus that elevates brain levels of OT, to discern the central oxytocinergic pathways mediating stress responsiveness and anxiety-like behavior. Rats were rendered hypernatremic by acute administration of 2.0 M NaCl and had increased plasma sodium concentration, plasma osmolality, and Fos induction in OT-containing neurons relative to 0.15 M NaCl-treated controls. Acute hypernatremia decreased restraint-induced elevations in corticosterone and created an inhibitory oxytocinergic tone on parvocellular neurosecretory neurons within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. In contrast, evaluation of Fos immunohistochemistry determined that acute hypernatremia followed by restraint increased neuronal activation in brain regions receiving OT afferents that are also implicated in the expression of anxiety-like behavior. To determine whether these effects were predictive of altered anxiety-like behavior, rats were subjected to acute hypernatremia and then tested in the elevated plus maze. Relative to controls given 0.15 M NaCl, rats given 2.0 M NaCl spent more time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze, suggesting that acute hypernatremia is anxiolytic. Collectively the results suggest that acute elevations in plasma sodium concentration increase central levels of OT, which decreases anxiety by altering neuronal activity in hypothalamic and limbic nuclei.