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Kv1.2 potassium channel antibody

RRID:AB_2296313

Glial βII Spectrin Contributes to Paranode Formation and Maintenance.

  • Susuki K
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jul 4

Literature context: :AB_2296313), pan-Nav channel (K58/35; RRID


Abstract:

Action potential conduction along myelinated axons depends on high densities of voltage-gated Na+ channels at the nodes of Ranvier. Flanking each node, paranodal junctions (paranodes) are formed between axons and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) or oligodendrocytes in the CNS. Paranodal junctions contribute to both node assembly and maintenance. Despite their importance, the molecular mechanisms responsible for paranode assembly and maintenance remain poorly understood. βII spectrin is expressed in diverse cells and is an essential part of the submembranous cytoskeleton. Here, we show that Schwann cell βII spectrin is highly enriched at paranodes. To elucidate the roles of glial βII spectrin, we generated mutant mice lacking βII spectrin in myelinating glial cells by crossing mice with a floxed allele of Sptbn1 with Cnp-Cre mice, and analyzed both male and female mice. Juvenile (4 weeks) and middle-aged (60 weeks) mutant mice showed reduced grip strength and sciatic nerve conduction slowing, whereas no phenotype was observed between 8 and 24 weeks of age. Consistent with these findings, immunofluorescence microscopy revealed disorganized paranodes in the PNS and CNS of both postnatal day 13 and middle-aged mutant mice, but not in young adult mutant mice. Electron microscopy confirmed partial loss of transverse bands at the paranodal axoglial junction in the middle-aged mutant mice in both the PNS and CNS. These findings demonstrate that a spectrin-based cytoskeleton in myelinating glia contributes to formation and maintenance of paranodal junctions.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Myelinating glia form paranodal axoglial junctions that flank both sides of the nodes of Ranvier. These junctions contribute to node formation and maintenance and are essential for proper nervous system function. We found that a submembranous spectrin cytoskeleton is highly enriched at paranodes in Schwann cells. Ablation of βII spectrin in myelinating glial cells disrupted the paranodal cell adhesion complex in both peripheral and CNSs, resulting in muscle weakness and sciatic nerve conduction slowing in juvenile and middle-aged mice. Our data show that a spectrin-based submembranous cytoskeleton in myelinating glia plays important roles in paranode formation and maintenance.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01-CA34085(United States)

Simultaneous Ablation of Neuronal Neurofascin and Ankyrin G in Young and Adult Mice Reveals Age-Dependent Increase in Nodal Stability in Myelinated Axons and Differential Effects on the Lifespan.

  • Taylor AM
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 Jul 3

Literature context: v1.2 (RRID:AB_2296313, #75-008, NeuroMab). Fluorescen


Abstract:

Nodes of Ranvier are unique regions where voltage-gated sodium channels are highly enriched to drive saltatory conduction. Genetic ablations in adult mice with loss of specific nodal proteins causes slow but progressive nodal deterioration associated with decreased nerve conduction and axonopathy. What has remained unaddressed is whether loss of nodal proteins at different time points in postnatal life follows similar timelines of nodal disorganization. Here we utilized simultaneous ablation of Neurofascin (NF186) and Ankyrin G (AnkG) in mice of both sexes at three specific time points. We report that concurrent ablation of these core nodal components at postnatal day 13 (P13) leads to accelerated nodal destabilization in comparison with P23, and this disorganization is even slower when ablated at P93. Ablation of NF186 with AnkG at P13 reduced the half-life of NF186 to 15 days compared to 1 month at P23, which increased to 2 months at P93, indicating increasing nodal stability. The half-life of AnkG at the nodes also increased with age but showed enhanced disappearance from the node in the absence of NF186, with a half-life of 3 days at P13 ablation. The nodal disorganization occurred in a sequential manner, with AnkG disappearing first from the nodal areas irrespective of the timing of ablation, and led to decreased nerve conduction and affected axonal health. Together, our studies reveal that nodes of Ranvier in myelinated axons continue to become more stable with age and suggest that nodal disorganization in adult human demyelinating disorders occurs slowly until neurological symptoms become evident.

Funding information:
  • Cancer Research UK - C4909/A5942(United Kingdom)

Methylglyoxal Disrupts Paranodal Axoglial Junctions via Calpain Activation.

  • Griggs RB
  • ASN Neuro
  • 2018 Apr 21

Literature context: euroMab Facility Cat# 75-008 RRID:AB_2296313), pan-Nav (K58/35, Sigma-Aldric


Abstract:

Nodes of Ranvier and associated paranodal and juxtaparanodal domains along myelinated axons are essential for normal function of the peripheral and central nervous systems. Disruption of these domains as well as increases in the reactive carbonyl species methylglyoxal are implicated as a pathophysiology common to a wide variety of neurological diseases. Here, using an ex vivo nerve exposure model, we show that increasing methylglyoxal produces paranodal disruption, evidenced by disorganized immunostaining of axoglial cell-adhesion proteins, in both sciatic and optic nerves from wild-type mice. Consistent with previous studies showing that increase of methylglyoxal can alter intracellular calcium homeostasis, we found upregulated activity of the calcium-activated protease calpain in sciatic nerves after methylglyoxal exposure. Methylglyoxal exposure altered clusters of proteins that are known as calpain substrates: ezrin in Schwann cell microvilli at the perinodal area and zonula occludens 1 in Schwann cell autotypic junctions at paranodes. Finally, treatment with the calpain inhibitor calpeptin ameliorated methylglyoxal-evoked ezrin loss and paranodal disruption in both sciatic and optic nerves. Our findings strongly suggest that elevated methylglyoxal levels and subsequent calpain activation contribute to the disruption of specialized axoglial domains along myelinated nerve fibers in neurological diseases.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R21AI105607(United States)

Axonal domain disorganization in Caspr1 and Caspr2 mutant myelinated axons affects neuromuscular junction integrity, leading to muscle atrophy.

  • Saifetiarova J
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2018 Mar 12

Literature context: t# 75-008 RRID:AB_2296313), mouse an


Abstract:

Bidirectional interactions between neurons and myelinating glial cells result in formation of axonal domains along myelinated fibers. Loss of axonal domains leads to detrimental consequences on nerve structure and function, resulting in reduced conductive properties and the diminished ability to reliably transmit signals to the targets they innervate. Thus, impairment of peripheral myelinated axons that project to the surface of muscle fibers and form neuromuscular junction (NMJ) synapses leads to muscle dysfunction. The goal of our studies was to determine how altered electrophysiological properties due to axonal domain disorganization lead to muscle pathology, which is relevant to a variety of peripheral neuropathies, demyelinating diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders. Using conventional Contactin-Associated Protein 1 (Caspr1) and Caspr2 single or double mutants with disrupted paranodal, juxtaparanodal, or both regions, respectively, in peripheral myelinated axons, we correlated defects in NMJ integrity and muscle pathology. Our data show that loss of axonal domains in Caspr1 and Caspr2 single and double mutants primarily alters distal myelinated fibers together with presynaptic terminals, eventually leading to NMJ denervation and reduction in postsynaptic endplate areas. Moreover, reduction in conductive properties of peripheral myelinated fibers together with NMJ disintegration leads to muscle atrophy in Caspr1 mutants or muscle fiber degeneration accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction in Caspr1/Caspr2 double mutants. Together, our data indicate that proper organization of axonal domains in myelinated fibers is critical for optimal propagation of electrical signals, NMJ integrity, and muscle health, and provide insights into a wide range of pathologies that result in reduced nerve conduction leading to muscle atrophy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM063074()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F32 NS092448()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS050356()

Immune or Genetic-Mediated Disruption of CASPR2 Causes Pain Hypersensitivity Due to Enhanced Primary Afferent Excitability.

  • Dawes JM
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Feb 21

Literature context: H NeuroMab Facility Cat#75-008, RRID:AB_2296313 Mouse anti-Tubulin III, beta Si


Abstract:

Human autoantibodies to contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) are often associated with neuropathic pain, and CASPR2 mutations have been linked to autism spectrum disorders, in which sensory dysfunction is increasingly recognized. Human CASPR2 autoantibodies, when injected into mice, were peripherally restricted and resulted in mechanical pain-related hypersensitivity in the absence of neural injury. We therefore investigated the mechanism by which CASPR2 modulates nociceptive function. Mice lacking CASPR2 (Cntnap2-/-) demonstrated enhanced pain-related hypersensitivity to noxious mechanical stimuli, heat, and algogens. Both primary afferent excitability and subsequent nociceptive transmission within the dorsal horn were increased in Cntnap2-/- mice. Either immune or genetic-mediated ablation of CASPR2 enhanced the excitability of DRG neurons in a cell-autonomous fashion through regulation of Kv1 channel expression at the soma membrane. This is the first example of passive transfer of an autoimmune peripheral neuropathic pain disorder and demonstrates that CASPR2 has a key role in regulating cell-intrinsic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron excitability.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS18400(United States)

mTOR-dependent alterations of Kv1.1 subunit expression in the neuronal subset-specific Pten knockout mouse model of cortical dysplasia with epilepsy.

  • Nguyen LH
  • Sci Rep
  • 2018 Feb 23

Literature context: euromab #75-007, clone K20/78), mouse anti-Kv1.2 (1:1000, Neuromab #75-008, clone K14/16), mouse anti-Kv1.4 (1:1000, Neur


Abstract:

Cortical dysplasia (CD) is a common cause for intractable epilepsy. Hyperactivation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been implicated in CD; however, the mechanisms by which mTOR hyperactivation contribute to the epilepsy phenotype remain elusive. Here, we investigated whether constitutive mTOR hyperactivation in the hippocampus is associated with altered voltage-gated ion channel expression in the neuronal subset-specific Pten knockout (NS-Pten KO) mouse model of CD with epilepsy. We found that the protein levels of Kv1.1, but not Kv1.2, Kv1.4, or Kvβ2, potassium channel subunits were increased, along with altered Kv1.1 distribution, within the hippocampus of NS-Pten KO mice. The aberrant Kv1.1 protein levels were present in young adult (≥postnatal week 6) but not juvenile (≤postnatal week 4) NS-Pten KO mice. No changes in hippocampal Kv1.1 mRNA levels were found between NS-Pten KO and WT mice. Interestingly, mTOR inhibition with rapamycin treatment at early and late stages of the pathology normalized Kv1.1 protein levels in NS-Pten KO mice to WT levels. Together, these studies demonstrate altered Kv1.1 protein expression in association with mTOR hyperactivation in NS-Pten KO mice and suggest a role for mTOR signaling in the modulation of voltage-gated ion channel expression in this model.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01AI067979(United States)
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD083092()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS081053()

αII Spectrin Forms a Periodic Cytoskeleton at the Axon Initial Segment and Is Required for Nervous System Function.

  • Huang CY
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Nov 22

Literature context: neurofascin. The Kv1.2 (K14/16; RRID:AB_2296313) antibodies were purchased from


Abstract:

Spectrins form a submembranous cytoskeleton proposed to confer strength and flexibility to neurons and to participate in ion channel clustering at axon initial segments (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier. Neuronal spectrin cytoskeletons consist of diverse β subunits and αII spectrin. Although αII spectrin is found in neurons in both axonal and somatodendritic domains, using proteomics, biochemistry, and superresolution microscopy, we show that αII and βIV spectrin interact and form a periodic AIS cytoskeleton. To determine the role of spectrins in the nervous system, we generated Sptan1f/f mice for deletion of CNS αII spectrin. We analyzed αII spectrin-deficient mice of both sexes and found that loss of αII spectrin causes profound reductions in all β spectrins. αII spectrin-deficient mice die before 1 month of age and have disrupted AIS and many other neurological impairments including seizures, disrupted cortical lamination, and widespread neurodegeneration. These results demonstrate the importance of the spectrin cytoskeleton both at the AIS and throughout the nervous system.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Spectrin cytoskeletons play diverse roles in neurons, including assembly of excitable domains such as the axon initial segment (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier. However, the molecular composition and structure of these cytoskeletons remain poorly understood. Here, we show that αII spectrin partners with βIV spectrin to form a periodic cytoskeleton at the AIS. Using a new αII spectrin conditional knock-out mouse, we show that αII spectrin is required for AIS assembly, neuronal excitability, cortical lamination, and to protect against neurodegeneration. These results demonstrate the broad importance of spectrin cytoskeletons for nervous system function and development and have important implications for nervous system injuries and diseases because disruption of the spectrin cytoskeleton is a common molecular pathology.

An αII Spectrin-Based Cytoskeleton Protects Large-Diameter Myelinated Axons from Degeneration.

  • Huang CY
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Nov 22

Literature context: ), and Kv1.2 (K14/16; RRID:AB_2296313) antibodies were purchased from


Abstract:

Axons must withstand mechanical forces, including tension, torsion, and compression. Spectrins and actin form a periodic cytoskeleton proposed to protect axons against these forces. However, because spectrins also participate in assembly of axon initial segments (AISs) and nodes of Ranvier, it is difficult to uncouple their roles in maintaining axon integrity from their functions at AIS and nodes. To overcome this problem and to determine the importance of spectrin cytoskeletons for axon integrity, we generated mice with αII spectrin-deficient peripheral sensory neurons. The axons of these neurons are very long and exposed to the mechanical forces associated with limb movement; most lack an AIS, and some are unmyelinated and have no nodes. We analyzed αII spectrin-deficient mice of both sexes and found that, in myelinated axons, αII spectrin forms a periodic cytoskeleton with βIV and βII spectrin at nodes of Ranvier and paranodes, respectively, but that loss of αII spectrin disrupts this organization. Avil-cre;Sptan1f/f mice have reduced numbers of nodes, disrupted paranodal junctions, and mislocalized Kv1 K+ channels. We show that the density of nodal βIV spectrin is constant among axons, but the density of nodal αII spectrin increases with axon diameter. Remarkably, Avil-cre;Sptan1f/f mice have intact nociception and small-diameter axons, but severe ataxia due to preferential degeneration of large-diameter myelinated axons. Our results suggest that nodal αII spectrin helps resist the mechanical forces experienced by large-diameter axons, and that αII spectrin-dependent cytoskeletons are also required for assembly of nodes of Ranvier.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A periodic axonal cytoskeleton consisting of actin and spectrin has been proposed to help axons resist the mechanical forces to which they are exposed (e.g., compression, torsion, and stretch). However, until now, no vertebrate animal model has tested the requirement of the spectrin cytoskeleton in maintenance of axon integrity. We demonstrate the role of the periodic spectrin-dependent cytoskeleton in axons and show that loss of αII spectrin from PNS axons causes preferential degeneration of large-diameter myelinated axons. We show that nodal αII spectrin is found at greater densities in large-diameter myelinated axons, suggesting that nodes are particularly vulnerable domains requiring a specialized cytoskeleton to protect against axon degeneration.

LGI1 tunes intrinsic excitability by regulating the density of axonal Kv1 channels.

  • Seagar M
  • Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • 2017 Jul 18

Literature context: y 75-008, RRID:AB_2296313), anti-ADA


Abstract:

Autosomal dominant epilepsy with auditory features results from mutations in leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1), a soluble glycoprotein secreted by neurons. Animal models of LGI1 depletion display spontaneous seizures, however, the function of LGI1 and the mechanisms by which deficiency leads to epilepsy are unknown. We investigated the effects of pure recombinant LGI1 and genetic depletion on intrinsic excitability, in the absence of synaptic input, in hippocampal CA3 neurons, a classical focus for epileptogenesis. Our data indicate that LGI1 is expressed at the axonal initial segment and regulates action potential firing by setting the density of the axonal Kv1.1 channels that underlie dendrotoxin-sensitive D-type potassium current. LGI1 deficiency incurs a >50% down-regulation of the expression of Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 via a posttranscriptional mechanism, resulting in a reduction in the capacity of axonal D-type current to limit glutamate release, thus contributing to epileptogenesis.

Early and Late Loss of the Cytoskeletal Scaffolding Protein, Ankyrin G Reveals Its Role in Maturation and Maintenance of Nodes of Ranvier in Myelinated Axons.

  • Saifetiarova J
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Mar 8

Literature context: Facility; RRID:AB_2296313), mouse an


Abstract:

The mechanisms that govern node of Ranvier organization, stability, and long-term maintenance remain to be fully elucidated. One of the molecular components of the node is the cytoskeletal scaffolding protein, ankyrin G (AnkG), which interacts with multiple members of the nodal complex. The role of AnkG in nodal organization and maintenance is still not clearly defined as to whether AnkG functions as an initial nodal organizer or whether it functions as a nodal stabilizer after the nodal complex has been assembled. Using a mouse model system, we report here that perinatal and juvenile neuronal ablation of AnkG has differential consequences on nodal stability. Early loss of AnkG creates immature nodes with abnormal morphology, which undergo accelerated destabilization within a month, resulting in rapid voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channel and βIV spectrin loss with reduced effects on neurofascin 186. On the other hand, late ablation of AnkG from established nodal complexes leads to slow but progressive nodal destabilization over 10 months, primarily affecting βIV spectrin, followed by NaV channels, with modest impact on neurofascin 186. We also show that ankyrin R and βI spectrin are not sufficient to prevent nodal disorganization after AnkG ablation. Additionally, nodal disorganization in both early and late AnkG mutants is accompanied by axonal pathology and neurological dysfunction. Together, our results suggest that AnkG plays an indispensable role in the maturation and long-term stabilization of the newly assembled nodal complex, and that loss of AnkG after nodal stabilization does not lead to rapid nodal disassembly but to loss of specific nodal components in a time-dependent manner.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Nodes of Ranvier are the myelin-free gaps along myelinated axons that allow fast communication between neurons and their target cells by propagating action potentials in a saltatory manner. The cytoskeletal scaffolding protein ankyrin G (AnkG) has been thought to play an important role in node formation; however, its precise role in nodal assembly, stability, and maintenance is still not clear. By using spatiotemporal ablation of AnkG, we report its differential role in nodal maturation and stabilization. We show that early AnkG-deficient nodes fail to mature and undergo rapid destabilization. In contrast, nodes that assemble with AnkG are much more stable and undergo gradual disintegration with sequential loss of nodal components in the absence of AnkG.

Erratum to: Rectocutaneous fistula with transmigration of the suture: a rare delayed complication of vault fixation with the sacrospinous ligament.

  • Kadam PD
  • Int Urogynecol J
  • 2016 Mar 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

There was an oversight in the Authorship of a recent Images in Urogynecology article titled: Rectocutaneous fistula with transmigration of the suture: a rare delayed complication of vault fixation with the sacrospinous ligament (DOI 10.1007/ s00192-015-2823-5). We would like to include Adj A/P Han How Chuan’s name in the list of authors. Adj A/P Han is a Senior Consultant and Department Head of Urogynaecology at the KK Hospital for Women and Children, Singapore.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01HG005855(United States)

Somatodendritic ion channel expression in substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons across postnatal development.

  • Dufour MA
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2014 Aug 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) are involved in the control of movement, sleep, reward, learning, and nervous system disorders and disease. To date, a thorough characterization of the ion channel phenotype of this important neuronal population is lacking. Using immunohistochemistry, we analyzed the somatodendritic expression of voltage-gated ion channel subunits that are involved in pacemaking activity in SNc dopaminergic neurons in 6-, 21-, and 40-day-old rats. Our results demonstrate that the same complement of somatodendritic ion channels is present in SNc dopaminergic neurons from P6 to P40. The major developmental changes were an increase in the dendritic range of the immunolabeling for the HCN, T-type calcium, Kv4.3, delayed rectifier, and SK channels. Our study sheds light on the ion channel subunits that contribute to the somatodendritic delayed rectifier (Kv1.3, Kv2.1, Kv3.2, Kv3.3), A-type (Kv4.3) and calcium-activated SK (SK1, SK2, SK3) potassium currents, IH (mainly HCN2, HCN4), and the L- (Cav1.2, Cav1.3) and T-type (mainly Cav3.1, Cav3.3) calcium currents in SNc dopaminergic neurons. Finally, no robust differences in voltage-gated ion channel immunolabeling were observed across the population of SNc dopaminergic neurons for each age examined, suggesting that differing levels of individual ion channels are unlikely to distinguish between specific subpopulations of SNc dopaminergic neurons. This is significant in light of previous studies suggesting that age- or region-associated variations in the expression profile of voltage-gated ion channels in SNc dopaminergic neurons may underlie their vulnerability to dysfunction and disease.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM37432(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01MH61469(United States)

A unique ion channel clustering domain on the axon initial segment of mammalian neurons.

  • King AN
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2014 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The axon initial segment (AIS) plays a key role in initiation of action potentials and neuronal output. The plasma membrane of the AIS contains high densities of voltage-gated ion channels required for these electrical events, and much recent work has focused on defining the mechanisms for generating and maintaining this unique neuronal plasma membrane domain. The Kv2.1 voltage-gated potassium channel is abundantly present in large clusters on the soma and proximal dendrites of mammalian brain neurons. Kv2.1 is also a component of the ion channel repertoire at the AIS. Here we show that Kv2.1 clusters on the AIS of brain neurons across diverse mammalian species including humans define a noncanonical ion channel clustering domain deficient in Ankyrin-G. The sites of Kv2.1 clustering on the AIS are sites where cisternal organelles, specialized intracellular calcium release membranes, come into close apposition with the plasma membrane, and are also sites of clustering of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic synapses. Using an antibody specific for a single Kv2.1 phosphorylation site, we find that the phosphorylation state differs between Kv2.1 clusters on the proximal and distal portions of the AIS. Together, these studies show that the sites of Kv2.1 clustering on the AIS represent specialized domains containing components of diverse neuronal signaling pathways that may contribute to local regulation of Kv2.1 function and AIS membrane excitability.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM115545(United States)

Deletion of the Kv2.1 delayed rectifier potassium channel leads to neuronal and behavioral hyperexcitability.

  • Speca DJ
  • Genes Brain Behav.
  • 2014 Apr 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Kv2.1 delayed rectifier potassium channel exhibits high-level expression in both principal and inhibitory neurons throughout the central nervous system, including prominent expression in hippocampal neurons. Studies of in vitro preparations suggest that Kv2.1 is a key yet conditional regulator of intrinsic neuronal excitability, mediated by changes in Kv2.1 expression, localization and function via activity-dependent regulation of Kv2.1 phosphorylation. Here we identify neurological and behavioral deficits in mutant (Kv2.1(-/-) ) mice lacking this channel. Kv2.1(-/-) mice have grossly normal characteristics. No impairment in vision or motor coordination was apparent, although Kv2.1(-/-) mice exhibit reduced body weight. The anatomic structure and expression of related Kv channels in the brains of Kv2.1(-/-) mice appear unchanged. Delayed rectifier potassium current is diminished in hippocampal neurons cultured from Kv2.1(-/-) animals. Field recordings from hippocampal slices of Kv2.1(-/-) mice reveal hyperexcitability in response to the convulsant bicuculline, and epileptiform activity in response to stimulation. In Kv2.1(-/-) mice, long-term potentiation at the Schaffer collateral - CA1 synapse is decreased. Kv2.1(-/-) mice are strikingly hyperactive, and exhibit defects in spatial learning, failing to improve performance in a Morris Water Maze task. Kv2.1(-/-) mice are hypersensitive to the effects of the convulsants flurothyl and pilocarpine, consistent with a role for Kv2.1 as a conditional suppressor of neuronal activity. Although not prone to spontaneous seizures, Kv2.1(-/-) mice exhibit accelerated seizure progression. Together, these findings suggest homeostatic suppression of elevated neuronal activity by Kv2.1 plays a central role in regulating neuronal network function.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA177558(United States)

Action potential generation in an anatomically constrained model of medial superior olive axons.

  • Lehnert S
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Apr 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neurons in the medial superior olive (MSO) encode interaural time differences (ITDs) with sustained firing rates of >100 Hz. They are able to generate such high firing rates for several hundred milliseconds despite their extremely low-input resistances of only few megaohms and high synaptic conductances in vivo. The biophysical mechanisms by which these leaky neurons maintain their excitability are not understood. Since action potentials (APs) are usually assumed to be generated in the axon initial segment (AIS), we analyzed anatomical data of proximal MSO axons in Mongolian gerbils and found that the axon diameter is <1 μm and the internode length is ∼100 μm. Using a morphologically constrained computational model of the MSO axon, we show that these thin axons facilitate the excitability of the AIS. However, for ongoing high rates of synaptic inputs the model generates a substantial fraction of APs in its nodes of Ranvier. These distally initiated APs are mediated by a spatial gradient of sodium channel inactivation and a strong somatic current sink. The model also predicts that distal AP initiation increases the dynamic range of the rate code for ITDs.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - MOP-38854(Canada)
  • NIA NIH HHS - F30 AG044964(United States)

Disruption of myelin leads to ectopic expression of K(V)1.1 channels with abnormal conductivity of optic nerve axons in a cuprizone-induced model of demyelination.

  • Bagchi B
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2014 Feb 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

The molecular determinants of abnormal propagation of action potentials along axons and ectopic conductance in demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system, like multiple sclerosis (MS), are poorly defined. Widespread interruption of myelin occurs in several mouse models of demyelination, rendering them useful for research. Herein, considerable myelin loss is shown in the optic nerves of cuprizone-treated demyelinating mice. Immuno-fluorescence confocal analysis of the expression and distribution of voltage-activated K⁺ channels (K(V)1.1 and 1.2 α subunits) revealed their spread from typical juxta-paranodal (JXP) sites to nodes in demyelinated axons, albeit with a disproportionate increase in the level of K(V)1.1 subunit. Functionally, in contrast to monophasic compound action potentials (CAPs) recorded in controls, responses derived from optic nerves of cuprizone-treated mice displayed initial synchronous waveform followed by a dispersed component. Partial restoration of CAPs by broad spectrum (4-aminopyridine) or K(V)1.1-subunit selective (dendrotoxin K) blockers of K⁺ currents suggest enhanced K(V)1.1-mediated conductance in the demyelinated optic nerve. Biophysical profiling of K⁺ currents mediated by recombinant channels comprised of different K(V)1.1 and 1.2 stoichiometries revealed that the enrichment of K(V)1 channels K(V)1.1 subunit endows a decrease in the voltage threshold and accelerates the activation kinetics. Together with the morphometric data, these findings provide important clues to a molecular basis for temporal dispersion of CAPs and reduced excitability of demyelinated optic nerves, which could be of potential relevance to the patho-physiology of MS and related disorders.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK027627(United States)

Heterogeneous intrinsic excitability of murine spiral ganglion neurons is determined by Kv1 and HCN channels.

  • Liu Q
  • Neuroscience
  • 2014 Jan 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

The spiral ganglion conveys afferent auditory information predominantly through a single class of type I neurons that receive signals from inner hair cell sensory receptors. These auditory primary afferents, like in other systems (Puopolo and Belluzzi, 1998; Gascon and Moqrich, 2010; Leao et al., 2012) possess a marked diversity in their electrophysiological features (Taberner and Liberman, 2005). Consistent with these observations, when the auditory primary afferents were assessed in neuronal explants separated from their peripheral and central targets it was found that individual neurons were markedly heterogeneous in their endogenous electrophysiological features. One aspect of this heterogeneity, obvious throughout the ganglion, was their wide range of excitability as assessed by voltage threshold measurements (Liu and Davis, 2007). Thus, while neurons in the base differed significantly from apical and middle neurons in their voltage thresholds, each region showed distinctly wide ranges of values. To determine whether the resting membrane potentials (RMPs) of these neurons correlate with the threshold distribution and to identify the ion channel regulatory elements underlying heterogeneous neuronal excitability in the ganglion, patch-clamp recordings were made from postnatal day (P5-8) murine spiral ganglion neurons in vitro. We found that RMP mirrored the tonotopic threshold distribution, and contributed an additional level of heterogeneity in each cochlear location. Pharmacological experiments further indicated that threshold and RMP was coupled through the Kv1 current, which had a dual impact on both electrophysiological parameters. Whereas, hyperpolarization-activated cationic channels decoupled these two processes by primarily affecting RMP without altering threshold level. Thus, beyond mechanical and synaptic specializations, ion channel regulation of intrinsic membrane properties imbues spiral ganglion neurons with different excitability levels, a feature that contributes to primary auditory afferent diversity.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - WT077192/Z/05/Z(United Kingdom)

Association of the Kv1 family of K+ channels and their functional blueprint in the properties of auditory neurons as revealed by genetic and functional analyses.

  • Wang W
  • J. Neurophysiol.
  • 2013 Oct 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Developmental plasticity in spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) ensues from profound alterations in the functional properties of the developing hair cell (HC). For example, prehearing HCs are spontaneously active. However, at the posthearing stage, HC membrane properties transition to graded receptor potentials. The dendrotoxin (DTX)-sensitive Kv1 channel subunits (Kv1.1, 1.2, and 1.6) shape the firing properties and membrane potential of SGNs, and the expression of the channel undergoes developmental changes. Because of the stochastic nature of Kv subunit heteromultimerization, it has been difficult to determine physiologically relevant subunit-specific interactions and their functions in the underlying mechanisms of Kv1 channel plasticity in SGNs. Using Kcna2 null mutant mice, we demonstrate a surprising paradox in changes in the membrane properties of SGNs. The resting membrane potential of Kcna2(-/-) SGNs was significantly hyperpolarized compared with that of age-matched wild-type (WT) SGNs. Analyses of outward currents in the mutant SGNs suggest an apparent approximately twofold increase in outward K(+) currents. We show that in vivo and in vitro heteromultimerization of Kv1.2 and Kv1.4 α-subunits underlies the striking and unexpected alterations in the properties of SGNs. The results suggest that heteromeric interactions of Kv1.2 and Kv1.4 dominate the defining features of Kv1 channels in SGNs.

Funding information:
  • PHS HHS - HHSN272200900018C(United States)

A long noncoding RNA contributes to neuropathic pain by silencing Kcna2 in primary afferent neurons.

  • Zhao X
  • Nat. Neurosci.
  • 2013 Aug 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuropathic pain is a refractory disease characterized by maladaptive changes in gene transcription and translation in the sensory pathway. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as new players in gene regulation, but how lncRNAs operate in the development of neuropathic pain is unclear. Here we identify a conserved lncRNA, named Kcna2 antisense RNA, for a voltage-dependent potassium channel mRNA, Kcna2, in first-order sensory neurons of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Peripheral nerve injury increased Kcna2 antisense RNA expression in injured DRG through activation of myeloid zinc finger protein 1, a transcription factor that binds to the Kcna2 antisense RNA gene promoter. Mimicking this increase downregulated Kcna2, reduced total voltage-gated potassium current, increased excitability in DRG neurons and produced neuropathic pain symptoms. Blocking this increase reversed nerve injury-induced downregulation of DRG Kcna2 and attenuated development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. These findings suggest endogenous Kcna2 antisense RNA as a therapeutic target for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG003985(United States)

Genetic deletion of Cadm4 results in myelin abnormalities resembling Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy.

  • Golan N
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2013 Jul 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

The interaction between myelinating Schwann cells and the axons they ensheath is mediated by cell adhesion molecules of the Cadm/Necl/SynCAM family. This family consists of four members: Cadm4/Necl4 and Cadm1/Necl2 are found in both glia and axons, whereas Cadm2/Necl3 and Cadm3/Necl1 are expressed by sensory and motor neurons. By generating mice lacking each of the Cadm genes, we now demonstrate that Cadm4 plays a role in the establishment of the myelin unit in the peripheral nervous system. Mice lacking Cadm4 (PGK-Cre/Cadm4(fl/fl)), but not Cadm1, Cadm2, or Cadm3, develop focal hypermyelination characterized by tomacula and myelin outfoldings, which are the hallmark of several Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies. The absence of Cadm4 also resulted in abnormal axon-glial contact and redistribution of ion channels along the axon. These neuropathological features were also found in transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative mutant of Cadm4 lacking its cytoplasmic domain in myelinating glia Tg(mbp-Cadm4dCT), as well as in mice lacking Cadm4 specifically in Schwann cells (DHH-Cre/Cadm4(fl/fl)). Consistent with these abnormalities, both PGK-Cre/Cadm4(fl/fl) and Tg(mbp-Cadm4dCT) mice exhibit impaired motor function and slower nerve conduction velocity. These findings indicate that Cadm4 regulates the growth of the myelin unit and the organization of the underlying axonal membrane.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG037376-01(United States)

Effects of adult neural precursor-derived myelination on axonal function in the perinatal congenitally dysmyelinated brain: optimizing time of intervention, developing accurate prediction models, and enhancing performance.

  • Ruff CA
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2013 Jul 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Stem cell repair shows substantial translational potential for neurological injury, but the mechanisms of action remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether transplanted stem cells could induce comprehensive functional remyelination. Subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived adult neural precursor cells (aNPCs) were injected bilaterally into major cerebral white matter tracts of myelin-deficient shiverer mice on postnatal day (P) 0, P7, and P21. Tripotential NPCs, when transplanted in vivo, integrated anatomically and functionally into local white matter and preferentially became Olig2+, Myelin Associated Glycoprotein-positive, Myelin Basic Protein-positive oligodendrocytes, rather than Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein-positive astrocytes or Neurofiliment 200-positive neurons. Processes interacted with axons and transmission electron microscopy showed multilamellar axonal ensheathment. Nodal architecture was restored and by quantifying these anatomical parameters a computer model was generated that accurately predicted action potential velocity, determined by ex vivo slice recordings. Although there was no obvious phenotypic improvement in transplanted shi/shis, myelinated axons exhibited faster conduction, lower activation threshold, less refractoriness, and improved response to high-frequency stimulation than dysmyelinated counterparts. Furthermore, they showed improved resilience to ischemic insult, a promising finding in the context of perinatal brain injury. This study describes, for the first time mechanistically, the functional characteristics and anatomical integration of nonimmortalized donor SVZ-derived murine aNPCs in the dysmyelinated brain at key developmental time points.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIC NS003008-09(United States)

Motor and sensory neuropathy due to myelin infolding and paranodal damage in a transgenic mouse model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1C.

  • Lee SM
  • Hum. Mol. Genet.
  • 2013 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1C (CMT1C) is a dominantly inherited motor and sensory neuropathy. Despite human genetic evidence linking missense mutations in SIMPLE to CMT1C, the in vivo role of CMT1C-linked SIMPLE mutations remains undetermined. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying CMT1C pathogenesis, we generated transgenic mice expressing either wild-type or CMT1C-linked W116G human SIMPLE. Mice expressing mutant, but not wild type, SIMPLE develop a late-onset motor and sensory neuropathy that recapitulates key clinical features of CMT1C disease. SIMPLE mutant mice exhibit motor and sensory behavioral impairments accompanied by decreased motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity and reduced compound muscle action potential amplitude. This neuropathy phenotype is associated with focally infolded myelin loops that protrude into the axons at paranodal regions and near Schmidt-Lanterman incisures of peripheral nerves. We find that myelin infolding is often linked to constricted axons with signs of impaired axonal transport and to paranodal defects and abnormal organization of the node of Ranvier. Our findings support that SIMPLE mutation disrupts myelin homeostasis and causes peripheral neuropathy via a combination of toxic gain-of-function and dominant-negative mechanisms. The results from this study suggest that myelin infolding and paranodal damage may represent pathogenic precursors preceding demyelination and axonal degeneration in CMT1C patients.

Rapamycin reverses status epilepticus-induced memory deficits and dendritic damage.

  • Brewster AL
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2013 Mar 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cognitive impairments are prominent sequelae of prolonged continuous seizures (status epilepticus; SE) in humans and animal models. While often associated with dendritic injury, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway is hyperactivated following SE. This pathway modulates learning and memory and is associated with regulation of neuronal, dendritic, and glial properties. Thus, in the present study we tested the hypothesis that SE-induced mTORC1 hyperactivation is a candidate mechanism underlying cognitive deficits and dendritic pathology seen following SE. We examined the effects of rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor, on the early hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory deficits associated with an episode of pilocarpine-induced SE. Rapamycin-treated SE rats performed significantly better than the vehicle-treated rats in two spatial memory tasks, the Morris water maze and the novel object recognition test. At the molecular level, we found that the SE-induced increase in mTORC1 signaling was localized in neurons and microglia. Rapamycin decreased the SE-induced mTOR activation and attenuated microgliosis which was mostly localized within the CA1 area. These findings paralleled a reversal of the SE-induced decreases in dendritic Map2 and ion channels levels as well as improved dendritic branching and spine density in area CA1 following rapamycin treatment. Taken together, these findings suggest that mTORC1 hyperactivity contributes to early hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory deficits and dendritic dysregulation associated with SE.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01-DC005982(United States)

Enhanced intrinsic excitability in basket cells maintains excitatory-inhibitory balance in hippocampal circuits.

  • Campanac E
  • Neuron
  • 2013 Feb 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

The dynamics of inhibitory circuits in the cortex is thought to rely mainly on synaptic modifications. We challenge this view by showing that hippocampal parvalbumin-positive basket cells (PV-BCs) of the CA1 region express long-term (>30 min) potentiation of intrinsic neuronal excitability (LTP-IE(PV-BC)) upon brief repetitive stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals. LTP-IE(PV-BC) is induced by synaptic activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) and mediated by the downregulation of Kv1 channel activity. LTP-IE(PV-BC) promotes spiking activity at the gamma frequency (∼35 Hz) and facilitates recruitment of PV-BCs to balance synaptic and intrinsic excitation in pyramidal neurons. In conclusion, activity-dependent modulation of intrinsic neuronal excitability in PV-BCs maintains excitatory-inhibitory balance and thus plays a major role in the dynamics of hippocampal circuits.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - U54 HG004028-01(United States)

Developmental expression of Kv potassium channels at the axon initial segment of cultured hippocampal neurons.

  • Sánchez-Ponce D
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2012 Nov 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Axonal outgrowth and the formation of the axon initial segment (AIS) are early events in the acquisition of neuronal polarity. The AIS is characterized by a high concentration of voltage-dependent sodium and potassium channels. However, the specific ion channel subunits present and their precise localization in this axonal subdomain vary both during development and among the types of neurons, probably determining their firing characteristics in response to stimulation. Here, we characterize the developmental expression of different subfamilies of voltage-gated potassium channels in the AISs of cultured mouse hippocampal neurons, including subunits Kv1.2, Kv2.2 and Kv7.2. In contrast to the early appearance of voltage-gated sodium channels and the Kv7.2 subunit at the AIS, Kv1.2 and Kv2.2 subunits were tethered at the AIS only after 10 days in vitro. Interestingly, we observed different patterns of Kv1.2 and Kv2.2 subunit expression, with each confined to distinct neuronal populations. The accumulation of Kv1.2 and Kv2.2 subunits at the AIS was dependent on ankyrin G tethering, it was not affected by disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and it was resistant to detergent extraction, as described previously for other AIS proteins. This distribution of potassium channels in the AIS further emphasizes the heterogeneity of this structure in different neuronal populations, as proposed previously, and suggests corresponding differences in action potential regulation.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G0600329(United Kingdom)

Human neural stem cells induce functional myelination in mice with severe dysmyelination.

  • Uchida N
  • Sci Transl Med
  • 2012 Oct 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Shiverer-immunodeficient (Shi-id) mice demonstrate defective myelination in the central nervous system (CNS) and significant ataxia by 2 to 3 weeks of life. Expanded, banked human neural stem cells (HuCNS-SCs) were transplanted into three sites in the brains of neonatal or juvenile Shi-id mice, which were asymptomatic or showed advanced hypomyelination, respectively. In both groups of mice, HuCNS-SCs engrafted and underwent preferential differentiation into oligodendrocytes. These oligodendrocytes generated compact myelin with normalized nodal organization, ultrastructure, and axon conduction velocities. Myelination was equivalent in neonatal and juvenile mice by quantitative histopathology and high-field ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging, which, through fractional anisotropy, revealed CNS myelination 5 to 7 weeks after HuCNS-SC transplantation. Transplanted HuCNS-SCs generated functional myelin in the CNS, even in animals with severe symptomatic hypomyelination, suggesting that this strategy may be useful for treating dysmyelinating diseases.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P01 GM057672(United States)

Transcompartmental reversal of single fibre hyperexcitability in juxtaparanodal Kv1.1-deficient vagus nerve axons by activation of nodal KCNQ channels.

  • Glasscock E
  • J. Physiol. (Lond.)
  • 2012 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Kv1.1 channels cluster at juxtaparanodes of myelinated axons in the vagus nerve, the primary conduit for parasympathetic innervation of the heart. Kcna1-null mice lacking these channels exhibit neurocardiac dysfunction manifested by atropine-sensitive atrioventricular conduction blocks and bradycardia that may culminate in sudden death. To evaluate whether loss of Kv1.1 channels alters electrogenic properties within the nerve, we compared the intrinsic excitability of single myelinated A- and Aδ-axons from excised cervical vagus nerves of young adult Kcna1-null mice and age-matched, wild-type littermate controls. Although action potential shapes and relative refractory periods varied little between genotypes, Kv1.1-deficient large myelinated A-axons showed a fivefold increase in susceptibility to 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-induced spontaneous ectopic firing. Since the repolarizing currents of juxtaparanodal Kv1 channels and nodal KCNQ potassium channels both act to dampen repetitive activity, we examined whether augmenting nodal KCNQ activation could compensate for Kv1.1 loss and reverse the spontaneous hyperexcitability in Kv1.1-deficient A-axons. Application of the selective KCNQ opener flupirtine raised A-axon firing threshold while profoundly suppressing 4-AP-induced spontaneous firing, demonstrating a functional synergy between the two compartments. We conclude that juxtaparanodal Kv1.1-deficiency causes intrinsic hyperexcitability in large myelinated axons in vagus nerve which could contribute to autonomic dysfunction in Kcna1-null mice, and that KCNQ openers reveal a transcompartmental synergy between Kv1 and KCNQ channels in regulating axonal excitability.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F31-NS066721(United States)

Cellular mechanisms and behavioral consequences of Kv1.2 regulation in the rat cerebellum.

  • Williams MR
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2012 Jul 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

The potassium channel Kv1.2 α-subunit is expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) dendrites where its pharmacological inhibition increases excitability (Khavandgar et al., 2005). Kv1.2 is also expressed in cerebellar basket cell (BC) axon terminals (Sheng et al., 1994), where its blockade increases BC inhibition of PCs (Southan and Robertson, 1998a). Secretin receptors are also expressed both in PC dendrites and BC axon terminals (for review, see (Yuan et al., 2011). The effect of secretin on PC excitability is not yet known, but, like Kv1.2 inhibitors, secretin potently increases inhibitory input to PCs (Yung et al., 2001). This suggests secretin may act in part by suppressing Kv1.2. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is a mechanism of Kv1.2 suppression (Nesti et al., 2004). This process can be regulated by protein kinase A (PKA) (Connors et al., 2008). Since secretin receptors activate PKA (Wessels-Reiker et al., 1993), we tested the hypothesis that secretin regulates Kv1.2 trafficking in the cerebellum. Using cell-surface protein biotinylation of rat cerebellar slices, we found secretin decreased cell-surface Kv1.2 levels by modulating Kv1.2 endocytic trafficking. This effect was mimicked by activating adenylate cyclase (AC) with forskolin, and was blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of AC or PKA. Imaging studies identified the BC axon terminal and PC dendrites as loci of AC-dependent Kv1.2 trafficking. The physiological significance of secretin-regulated Kv1.2 endocytosis is supported by our finding that infusion into the cerebellar cortex of either the Kv1.2 inhibitor tityustoxin-Kα, or of the Kv1.2 regulator secretin, significantly enhances acquisition of eyeblink conditioning in rats.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS015547(United States)

Targeted ablation of oligodendrocytes induces axonal pathology independent of overt demyelination.

  • Oluich LJ
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2012 Jun 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

The critical role of oligodendrocytes in producing and maintaining myelin that supports rapid axonal conduction in CNS neurons is well established. More recently, additional roles for oligodendrocytes have been posited, including provision of trophic factors and metabolic support for neurons. To investigate the functional consequences of oligodendrocyte loss, we have generated a transgenic mouse model of conditional oligodendrocyte ablation. In this model, oligodendrocytes are rendered selectively sensitive to exogenously administered diphtheria toxin (DT) by targeted expression of the diphtheria toxin receptor in oligodendrocytes. Administration of DT resulted in severe clinical dysfunction with an ascending spastic paralysis ultimately resulting in fatal respiratory impairment within 22 d of DT challenge. Pathologically, at this time point, mice exhibited a loss of ∼26% of oligodendrocyte cell bodies throughout the CNS. Oligodendrocyte cell-body loss was associated with moderate microglial activation, but no widespread myelin degradation. These changes were accompanied with acute axonal injury as characterized by structural and biochemical alterations at nodes of Ranvier and reduced somatosensory-evoked potentials. In summary, we have shown that a death signal initiated within oligodendrocytes results in subcellular changes and loss of key symbiotic interactions between the oligodendrocyte and the axons it ensheaths. This produces profound functional consequences that occur before the removal of the myelin membrane, i.e., in the absence of demyelination. These findings have clear implications for the understanding of the pathogenesis of diseases of the CNS such as multiple sclerosis in which the oligodendrocyte is potentially targeted.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - T32 HD007491(United States)

Benefits and pitfalls of secondary antibodies: why choosing the right secondary is of primary importance.

  • Manning CF
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2012 Jun 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Simultaneous labeling of multiple targets in a single sample, or multiplexing, is a powerful approach to directly compare the amount, localization and/or molecular properties of different targets in the same sample. Here we highlight the robust reliability of the simultaneous use of multiple mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) of different immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses in a wide variety of multiplexing applications employing anti-mouse IgG subclass-specific secondary antibodies (2°Abs). We also describe the unexpected finding that IgG subclass-specific 2°Abs are superior to general anti-mouse IgG 2 °Abs in every tested application in which mouse mAbs were used. This was due to a detection bias of general anti-mouse IgG-specific 2°Abs against mAbs of the most common mouse IgG subclass, IgG1, and to a lesser extent IgG2b mAbs. Thus, when using any of numerous mouse mAbs available through commercial and non-profit sources, for cleaner and more robust results each mAb should be detected with its respective IgG subclass-specific 2°Ab and not a general anti-mouse IgG-specific 2°Ab.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P40-RR17072(United States)

Altered distribution of juxtaparanodal kv1.2 subunits mediates peripheral nerve hyperexcitability in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  • Zenker J
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2012 May 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Peripheral nerve hyperexcitability (PNH) is one of the distal peripheral neuropathy phenotypes often present in patients affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Through in vivo and ex vivo electrophysiological recordings in db/db mice, a model of T2DM, we observed that, in addition to reduced nerve conduction velocity, db/db mice also develop PNH. By using pharmacological inhibitors, we demonstrated that the PNH is mediated by the decreased activity of K(v)1-channels. In agreement with these data, we observed that the diabetic condition led to a reduced presence of the K(v)1.2-subunits in juxtaparanodal regions of peripheral nerves in db/db mice and in nerve biopsies from T2DM patients. Together, these observations indicate that the T2DM condition leads to potassium channel-mediated PNH, thus identifying them as a potential drug target to treat some of the DPN related symptoms.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - F32 DC012718(United States)

Implication of perturbed axoglial apparatus in early pediatric multiple sclerosis.

  • Dhaunchak AS
  • Ann. Neurol.
  • 2012 May 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cerebrospinal fluid samples collected from children during initial presentation of central nervous system inflammation, who may or may not subsequently be diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis (MS), were subjected to large-scale proteomics screening. Unexpectedly, major compact myelin membrane proteins typically implicated in MS were not detected. However, multiple molecules that localize to the node of Ranvier and the surrounding axoglial apparatus membrane were implicated, indicating perturbed axon-glial interactions in those children destined for diagnosis of MS.

Funding information:
  • CIHR - 232519(Canada)
  • Medical Research Council - G0501898(United Kingdom)

Increased Kv1 channel expression may contribute to decreased sIPSC frequency following chronic inhibition of NR2B-containing NMDAR.

  • He S
  • Neuropsychopharmacology
  • 2012 May 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Numerous studies have documented the effects of chronic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) blockade on excitatory circuits, but the effects on inhibitory circuitry are not well studied. NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDARs play differential roles in physiological processes, but the consequences of chronic NR2A- or NR2B-containing NMDAR inhibition on glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission are unknown. We investigated altered GABAergic neurotransmission in dentate granule cells and interneurons following chronic treatment with the NR2B-selective antagonist, Ro25,6981, the NR2A-prefering antagonist, NVP-AAM077, or the non-subunit-selective NMDAR antagonist, D-APV, in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Electrophysiological recordings revealed large reductions in spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current (sIPSC) frequency in both granule cells and interneurons following chronic Ro25,6981 treatment, which was associated with minimally altered sIPSC amplitude, miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current (mIPSC) frequency, and mIPSC amplitude, suggesting diminished action potential-dependent GABA release. Chronic NVP-AAM077 or D-APV treatment had little effect on these measures. Reduced sIPSC frequency did not arise from downregulated GABA(A)R, altered excitatory or inhibitory drive to interneurons, altered interneuron membrane properties, increased failure rate, decreased action potential-dependent release probability, or mGluR/GABA(B) receptor modulation of GABA release. However, chronic Ro25,6981-mediated reductions in sIPSC frequency were occluded by the K+ channel blockers, dendrotoxin, margatoxin, and agitoxin, but not dendrotoxin-K or XE991. Immunohistochemistry also showed increased Kv1.2, Kv1.3, and Kv1.6 in the dentate molecular layer following chronic Ro25,6981 treatment. Our findings suggest that increased Kv1 channel expression/function contributed to diminished action potential-dependent GABA release following chronic NR2B-containing NMDAR inhibition and that these Kv1 channels may be heteromeric complexes containing Kv1.2, Kv1.3, and Kv1.6.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY006069(United States)

Axonal thinning and extensive remyelination without chronic demyelination in spinal injured rats.

  • Powers BE
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2012 Apr 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Remyelination following spinal cord injury (SCI) is thought to be incomplete; demyelination is reported to persist chronically and is proposed as a compelling therapeutic target. Yet most reports do not distinguish between the myelin status of intact axons and injury-severed axons whose proximal stumps persist but provide no meaningful function. We previously found full remyelination of spared, intact rubrospinal axons caudal to the lesion in chronic mouse SCI. However, the clinical concept of chronically demyelinated spared axons remains controversial. Since mouse models may have limitations in clinical translation, we asked whether the capacity for full remyelination is conserved in clinically relevant chronic rat SCI. We determined myelin status by examining paranodal protein distribution on anterogradely labeled, intact corticospinal and rubrospinal axons throughout the extent of the lesion. Demyelination was evident on proximal stumps of severed axons, but not on intact axons. For the first time, we demonstrate that a majority of intact axons exhibit remyelination (at least one abnormally short internode, <100 μm). Remarkably, shortened internodes were significantly concentrated at the lesion epicenter and individual axons were thinned by 23% compared with their rostral and caudal zones. Mathematical modeling predicted a 25% decrease in conduction velocity at the lesion epicenter due to short internodes and axonal thinning. In conclusion, we do not find a large chronically demyelinated population to target with remyelination therapies. Interventions may be better focused on correcting structural or molecular abnormalities of regenerated myelin.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH096274(United States)

A-kinase anchoring protein 150 expression in a specific subset of TRPV1- and CaV 1.2-positive nociceptive rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

  • Brandao KE
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Modulation of phosphorylation states of ion channels is a critical step in the development of hyperalgesia during inflammation. Modulatory enhancement of channel activity may increase neuronal excitability and affect downstream targets such as gene transcription. The specificity required for such regulation of ion channels quickly occurs via targeting of protein kinases and phosphatases by the scaffolding A-kinase anchoring protein 79/150 (AKAP79/150). AKAP79/150 has been implicated in inflammatory pain by targeting protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) to the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel in peripheral sensory neurons, thus lowering threshold for activation of the channel by multiple inflammatory reagents. However, the expression pattern of AKAP150 in peripheral sensory neurons is unknown. Here we identify the peripheral neuron subtypes that express AKAP150, the subcellular distribution of AKAP150, and the potential target ion channels in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) slices. We found that AKAP150 is expressed predominantly in a subset of small DRG sensory neurons, where it is localized at the plasma membrane of the soma, axon initial segment, and small fibers. Most of these neurons are peripherin positive and produce C fibers, although a small portion produce Aδ fibers. Furthermore, we demonstrate that AKAP79/150 colocalizes with TRPV1 and Ca(V) 1.2 in the soma and axon initial segment. Thus AKAP150 is expressed in small, nociceptive DRG neurons, where it is targeted to membrane regions and where it may play a role in the modulation of ion channel phosphorylation states required for hyperalgesia.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - HG006464(United States)

Paranodal reorganization results in the depletion of transverse bands in the aged central nervous system.

  • Shepherd MN
  • Neurobiol. Aging
  • 2012 Jan 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Paranodal axo-glial junctional complexes anchor the myelin sheath to the axon and breakdown of these complexes presumably facilitates demyelination. Myelin deterioration is also prominent in the aging central nervous system (CNS); however, the stability of the paranodal complexes in the aged CNS has not been examined. Here, we show that transverse bands, prominent components of paranodal junctions, are significantly reduced in the aged CNS; however, the number of paired clusters of both myelin and axonal paranodal proteins is not altered. Ultrastructural analyses also reveal that thicker myelin sheaths display a "piling" of paranodal loops, the cytoplasm-containing sacs that demarcate the paranode. Loops involved in piling are observed throughout the paranode and are not limited to loops positioned in either the nodal- or juxtanodal-most regions. Here, we propose that as myelination continues, previously anchored loops lose their transverse bands and recede away from the axolemma. Newly juxtaposed loops then lose their transverse bands, move laterally to fill in the gap left by the receded loops and finally reform their transverse bands. This paranodal reorganization results in conservation of paranodal length, which may be important in maintaining ion channel spacing and axonal function. Furthermore, we propose that transverse band reformation is less efficient in the aged CNS, resulting in the significant reduction of these junctional components. Although demyelination was not observed, we propose that loss of transverse bands facilitates myelin degeneration and may predispose the aged CNS to a poorer prognosis following a secondary insult.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - HHSN268201000035C(United Kingdom)

Postsynaptic density-95 scaffolding of Shaker-type K⁺ channels in smooth muscle cells regulates the diameter of cerebral arteries.

  • Joseph BK
  • J. Physiol. (Lond.)
  • 2011 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Postsynaptic density-95 (PSD95) is a 95 kDa scaffolding molecule in the brain that clusters postsynaptic proteins including ion channels, receptors, enzymes and other signalling partners required for normal cognition. The voltage-gated, Shaker-type K(+) (K(V)1) channel is one key binding partner of PSD95 scaffolds in neurons. However, K(V)1 channels composed of α1.2 and α1.5 pore-forming subunits also are expressed in the vascular smooth muscle cells (cVSMCs) of the cerebral circulation, although the identity of their molecular scaffolds is unknown. Since α1.2 contains a binding motif for PSD95, we explored the possibility that cVSMCs express PSD95 as a scaffold to promote K(V)1 channel expression and cerebral vasodilatation. Cerebral arteries from Sprague-Dawley rats were isolated for analysis of PSD95 and K(V)1 channel proteins. PSD95 was detected in cVSMCs and it co-immunoprecipitated and co-localized with the pore-forming α1.2 subunit of the K(V)1 channel. Antisense-mediated knockdown of PSD95 profoundly reduced K(V)1 channel expression and suppressed K(V)1 current in patch-clamped cVSMCs. Loss of PSD95 also depolarized cVSMCs in pressurized cerebral arteries and induced a strong constriction associated with a loss of functional K(V)1 channels. Our findings provide initial evidence that PSD95 is expressed in cVSMCs, and the K(V)1 channel is one of its important binding partners. PSD95 appears to function as a critical 'dilator' scaffold in cerebral arteries by increasing the number of functional K(V)1 channels at the plasma membrane.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY015128(United States)

Early changes in cerebellar physiology accompany motor dysfunction in the polyglutamine disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 3.

  • Shakkottai VG
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2011 Sep 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

The relationship between cerebellar dysfunction, motor symptoms, and neuronal loss in the inherited ataxias, including the polyglutamine disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), remains poorly understood. We demonstrate that before neurodegeneration, Purkinje neurons in a mouse model of SCA3 exhibit increased intrinsic excitability resulting in depolarization block and the loss of the ability to sustain spontaneous repetitive firing. These alterations in intrinsic firing are associated with increased inactivation of voltage-activated potassium currents. Administration of an activator of calcium-activated potassium channels, SKA-31, partially corrects abnormal Purkinje cell firing and improves motor function in SCA3 mice. Finally, expression of the disease protein, ataxin-3, in transfected cells increases the inactivation of Kv3.1 channels and shifts the activation of Kv1.2 channels to more depolarized potentials. Our results suggest that in SCA3, early Purkinje neuron dysfunction is associated with altered physiology of voltage-activated potassium channels. We further suggest that the observed changes in Purkinje neuron physiology contribute to disease pathogenesis, underlie at least some motor symptoms, and represent a promising therapeutic target in SCA3.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01 CA190174(United States)

Clustering and activity tuning of Kv1 channels in myelinated hippocampal axons.

  • Gu C
  • J. Biol. Chem.
  • 2011 Jul 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Precise localization of axonal ion channels is crucial for proper electrical and chemical functions of axons. In myelinated axons, Kv1 (Shaker) voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are clustered in the juxtaparanodal regions flanking the node of Ranvier. The clustering can be disrupted by deletion of various proteins in mice, including contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2) and transient axonal glycoprotein-1 (TAG-1), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cell adhesion molecule. However, the mechanism and function of Kv1 juxtaparanodal clustering remain unclear. Here, using a new myelin coculture of hippocampal neurons and oligodendrocytes, we report that tyrosine phosphorylation plays a critical role in TAG-1-mediated clustering of axonal Kv1.2 channels. In the coculture, myelin specifically ensheathed axons but not dendrites of hippocampal neurons and clustered endogenous axonal Kv1.2 into internodes. The trans-homophilic interaction of TAG-1 was sufficient to position Kv1.2 clusters on axonal membranes in a neuron/HEK293 coculture. Mutating a tyrosine residue (Tyr⁴⁵⁸) in the Kv1.2 C terminus or blocking tyrosine phosphorylation disrupted myelin- and TAG-1-mediated clustering of axonal Kv1.2. Furthermore, Kv1.2 voltage dependence and activation threshold were reduced by TAG-1 coexpression. This effect was eliminated by the Tyr⁴⁵⁸ mutation or by cholesterol depletion. Taken together, our studies suggest that myelin regulates both trafficking and activity of Kv1 channels along hippocampal axons through TAG-1.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01HG004517(United States)

Molecular microdomains in a sensory terminal, the vestibular calyx ending.

  • Lysakowski A
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2011 Jul 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Many primary vestibular afferents form large cup-shaped postsynaptic terminals (calyces) that envelope the basolateral surfaces of type I hair cells. The calyceal terminals both respond to glutamate released from ribbon synapses in the type I cells and initiate spikes that propagate to the afferent's central terminals in the brainstem. The combination of synaptic and spike initiation functions in these unique sensory endings distinguishes them from the axonal nodes of central neurons and peripheral nerves, such as the sciatic nerve, which have provided most of our information about nodal specializations. We show that rat vestibular calyces express an unusual mix of voltage-gated Na and K channels and scaffolding, cell adhesion, and extracellular matrix proteins, which may hold the ion channels in place. Protein expression patterns form several microdomains within the calyx membrane: a synaptic domain facing the hair cell, the heminode abutting the first myelinated internode, and one or two intermediate domains. Differences in the expression and localization of proteins between afferent types and zones may contribute to known variations in afferent physiology.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 085775/Z/08/Z(United Kingdom)

Low-voltage activated Kv1.1 subunits are crucial for the processing of sound source location in the lateral superior olive in mice.

  • Karcz A
  • J. Physiol. (Lond.)
  • 2011 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels containing Kv1.1 subunits are strongly expressed in neurons that fire temporally precise action potentials (APs). In the auditory system, AP timing is used to localize sound sources by integrating interaural differences in time (ITD) and intensity (IID) using sound arriving at both cochleae. In mammals, the first nucleus to encode IIDs is the lateral superior olive (LSO), which integrates excitation from the ipsilateral ventral cochlear nucleus and contralateral inhibition mediated via the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body. Previously we reported that neurons in this pathway show reduced firing rates, longer latencies and increased jitter in Kv1.1 knockout (Kcna1−/−) mice. Here, we investigate whether these differences have direct impact on IID processing by LSO neurons. Single-unit recordings were made from LSO neurons of wild-type (Kcna1+/+) and from Kcna1−/− mice. IID functions were measured to evaluate genotype-specific changes in integrating excitatory and inhibitory inputs. In Kcna1+/+ mice, IID sensitivity ranged from +27 dB (excitatory ear more intense) to −20 dB (inhibitory ear more intense), thus covering the physiologically relevant range of IIDs. However, the distribution of IID functions in Kcna1−/− mice was skewed towards positive IIDs, favouring ipsilateral sound positions. Our computational model revealed that the reduced performance of IID encoding in the LSO of Kcna1−/− mice is mainly caused by a decrease in temporal fidelity along the inhibitory pathway. These results imply a fundamental role for Kv1.1 in temporal integration of excitation and inhibition during sound source localization.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MC_U127527203(United Kingdom)

The C-terminal domain of ßIV-spectrin is crucial for KCNQ2 aggregation and excitability at nodes of Ranvier.

  • Devaux JJ
  • J. Physiol. (Lond.)
  • 2010 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The spectrin cytoskeleton has an important function in the targeting of proteins to excitable membrane domains. In axons, βIV-spectrin stabilizes voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channel clusters at nodes of Ranvier and axon initial segments, two regions crucial for the generation and conduction of action potentials. Here, I investigated the physiology of the neuromuscular junction and peripheral nerves in quivering-3J mice, which show a frame-shift base insertion in the Spnb4 gene and lack the C-terminus of βIV-spectrin. The quivering-3J mice show prominent spontaneous and evoked hyperactivities at diaphragm neuromuscular junctions. These neuromyotonic and myokymic discharges were more prominent in adult animals when tremors and ataxia were pronounced. Recordings of sciatic and phrenic nerves showed that the hyperactivities originate in myelinated axons distally from nerve terminals. Axon and myelin structure in the PNS were unaffected in quivering-3J mice. Of interest, KCNQ2 subunit aggregates were undetectable at PNS and CNS nodes, whereas Nav and Kv1.1/Kv1.2 channels were properly concentrated at nodal and juxtaparanodal regions, respectively. The protein level of KCNQ2 subunits was normal in mutant animals, suggesting that KCNQ2 subunit absence stems from clustering or trafficking defects in axons. The quivering-3J nodes also presented high densities of ankyrin-G and CK2α, two cytosolic molecules involved with aggregating Nav and KCNQ2/3 channels in axons. Because βIV-spectrin does not interact with KCNQ2/3 subunits, it is suspected that βIV-spectrin regulates the distribution of KCNQ2/3 subunits in axonal subdomains via regulatory partners. Retigabine, an activator of KCNQ2/3 channels, attenuated the repetitive activities in quivering-3J mice, suggesting that depletion of KCNQ2 subunits at nodes initiates neuromyotonic/myokymic discharges. These findings demonstrate that spectrin cytoskeleton finely regulates ion channel distribution and implicates KCNQ2/3 subunits in axonal excitability and in myokymia aetiology.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - U54 HG004555(United States)

Contribution of the delayed-rectifier potassium channel Kv2.1 to acute spinal cord injury in rats.

  • Song MY
  • BMB Rep
  • 2010 Nov 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

Recent studies have reported that delayed-rectifier Kv channels regulate apoptosis in the nervous system. Herein, we investigated changes in the expression of the delayed-rectifier Kv channels Kv1.2, Kv2.1, and Kv3.1 after acute spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. We performed RT-PCR analysis and found an increase in the level of Kv2.1 mRNA after SCI but no significant changes in the levels of Kv1.2 and Kv3.1 mRNA. Western blot analysis revealed that Kv2.1 protein levels rapidly decreased and then dramatically increased from 1 day, whereas Kv3.1b protein levels gradually and sharply decreased at 5 days. Kv1.2 protein levels did not change significantly. In addition, Kv2.1 clusters were disrupted in the plasma membranes of motor neurons after SCI. Interestingly, the expressional changes and translocation of Kv2.1 were consistent with the apoptotic changes on day 1. Therefore, these results suggest that Kv2.1 channels probably contribute to neuronal cell responses to SCI.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G9900837(United Kingdom)
  • NCRR NIH HHS - R01 RR07861(United States)

Oestrogen receptor beta ligand: a novel treatment to enhance endogenous functional remyelination.

  • Crawford DK
  • Brain
  • 2010 Oct 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, are characterized by inflammatory demyelination and neurodegeneration of the central nervous system. Therapeutic strategies that induce effective neuroprotection and enhance intrinsic repair mechanisms are central goals for future therapy of multiple sclerosis. Oestrogens and oestrogen receptor ligands are promising treatments to prevent multiple sclerosis-induced neurodegeneration. In the present study we investigated the capacity of oestrogen receptor β ligand treatment to affect callosal axon demyelination and stimulate endogenous myelination in chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis using electrophysiology, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and tract-tracing methods. Oestrogen receptor β ligand treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice prevented both histopathological and functional abnormalities of callosal axons despite the presence of inflammation. Specifically, there were fewer demyelinated, damaged axons and more myelinated axons with intact nodes of Ranvier in oestrogen receptor β ligand-treated mice. In addition, oestrogen receptor β ligand treatment caused an increase in mature oligodendrocyte numbers, a significant increase in myelin sheath thickness and axon transport. Functional analysis of callosal axon conduction showed a significant improvement in compound action potential amplitudes, latency and in axon refractoriness. These findings show a direct neuroprotective effect of oestrogen receptor β ligand treatment on oligodendrocyte differentiation, myelination and axon conduction during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - R01 EB006494-04S1(United States)

Localization of Kv1.3 channels in presynaptic terminals of brainstem auditory neurons.

  • Gazula VR
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Elimination of the Kv1.3 voltage-dependent potassium channel gene produces striking changes in the function of the olfactory bulb, raising the possibility that this channel also influences other sensory systems. We have examined the cellular and subcellular localization of Kv1.3 in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) in the auditory brainstem, a nucleus in which neurons fire at high rates with high temporal precision. A clear gradient of Kv1.3 immunostaining along the lateral to medial tonotopic axis of the MNTB was detected. Highest levels were found in the lateral region of the MNTB, which corresponds to neurons that respond selectively to low-frequency auditory stimuli. Previous studies have demonstrated that MNTB neurons and their afferent inputs from the cochlear nucleus express three other members of the Kv1 family, Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv1.6. Nevertheless, confocal microscopy of MNTB sections coimmunostained for Kv1.3 with these subunits revealed that the distribution of Kv1.3 differed significantly from other Kv1 family subunits. In particular, no axonal staining of Kv1.3 was detected, and most prominent labeling was in structures surrounding the somata of the principal neurons, suggesting specific localization to the large calyx of Held presynaptic endings that envelop the principal cells. The presence of Kv1.3 in presynaptic terminals was confirmed by coimmunolocalization with the synaptic markers synaptophysin, syntaxin, and synaptotagmin and by immunogold electron microscopy. Kv1.3 immunogold particles in the terminals were arrayed along the plasma membrane and on internal vesicular structures. To confirm these patterns of staining, we carried out immunolabeling on sections from Kv1.3(-/-) mice. No immunoreactivity could be detected in Kv1.3(-/-) mice either at the light level or in immunogold experiments. The finding of a tonotopic gradient in presynaptic terminals suggests that Kv1.3 may regulate neurotransmitter release differentially in neurons that respond to different frequencies of sound.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - R01 EB002010(United States)

A simple method of in vitro electroporation allows visualization, recording, and calcium imaging of local neuronal circuits.

  • Hovis KR
  • J. Neurosci. Methods
  • 2010 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Since Cajal's early drawings, the characterization of neuronal architecture has been paramount in understanding neuronal function. With the development of electrophysiological techniques that provide unprecedented access to the physiology of these cells, experimental questions of neuronal function have also become more tractable. Fluorescent tracers that can label the anatomy of individual or populations of neurons have opened the door to linking anatomy with physiology. Experimentally however, current techniques for bulk labeling of cells in vitro often affect neuronal function creating a barrier for exploring structure-function questions. Here we describe a new technique for highly localized electroporation within a cell or cell population that enables the introduction of membrane impermeable charged dyes including dextran-conjugated fluorophores, hydrazide tracers, and calcium indicator dyes in vitro. We demonstrate that this technique is highly versatile, allowing for labeling of large or small areas of tissue, allowing for the investigation of both cellular morphology and physiological activity in identified neuronal circuits in acute brain slices. Furthermore, this approach allows subsequent targeted whole-cell patch recording based on well-defined connectivity as well as assessment of physiological activity in targeted circuits on a fast time scale.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - 1R01AI066116-01(United States)

Role of transverse bands in maintaining paranodal structure and axolemmal domain organization in myelinated nerve fibers: effect on longevity in dysmyelinated mutant mice.

  • Mierzwa AJ
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Jul 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The consequences of dysmyelination are poorly understood and vary widely in severity. The shaking mouse, a quaking allele, is characterized by severe central nervous system (CNS) dysmyelination and demyelination, a conspicuous action tremor, and seizures in approximately 25% of animals, but with normal muscle strength and a normal lifespan. In this study we compare this mutant with other dysmyelinated mutants including the ceramide sulfotransferase deficient (CST-/-) mouse, which are more severely affected behaviorally, to determine what might underlie the differences between them with respect to behavior and longevity. Examination of the paranodal junctional region of CNS myelinated fibers shows that "transverse bands," a component of the junction, are present in nearly all shaking paranodes but in only a minority of CST-/- paranodes. The number of terminal loops that have transverse bands within a paranode and the number of transverse bands per unit length are only moderately reduced in the shaking mutant, compared with controls, but markedly reduced in CST-/- mice. Immunofluorescence studies also show that although the nodes of the shaking mutant are somewhat longer than normal, Na(+) and K(+) channels remain separated, distinguishing this mutant from CST-/- mice and others that lack transverse bands. We conclude that the essential difference between the shaking mutant and others more severely affected is the presence of transverse bands, which serve to stabilize paranodal structure over time as well as the organization of the axolemmal domains, and that differences in the prevalence of transverse bands underlie the marked differences in progressive neurological impairment and longevity among dysmyelinated mouse mutants.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - 1P50HL073996-01(United States)

Myelin, DIGs, and membrane rafts in the central nervous system.

  • Dupree JL
  • Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat.
  • 2010 Apr 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Over the past 40 years our understanding of the organization of cell membranes has changed dramatically. Membranes are no longer viewed as a homogenous sea of phospholipids studded with randomly positioned islands of proteins. Our current view of the membrane involves the formation of small lipid clusters, comprised mainly of cholesterol and sphingolipids, known as membrane rafts. These lipid clusters apparently include and exclude specific proteins leading to the hypothesis that these domains (1) regulate cellular polarity and compartmentalization through trafficking and sorting, (2) provide platforms for cellular signaling and adhesion, and (3) function as cellular gate keepers. Tremendous controversy surrounds the concept of membrane rafts primarily because these small, highly dynamic entities are too small to be observed with traditional microscopic methods and the most utilized approach for raft analysis relies on poorly quantified, inconsistent biochemical extractions. New analytical approaches are being developed and applied to the study of membrane rafts and these techniques provide great promise for furthering our understanding of these enigmatic domains. In this review we will provide a brief summary of the current understanding of membrane rafts, utilizing the CNS myelin literature for illustrative purposes, and present caveats that should be considered when studying these domains.

Disruption of LGI1-linked synaptic complex causes abnormal synaptic transmission and epilepsy.

  • Fukata Y
  • Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • 2010 Feb 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Epilepsy is a devastating and poorly understood disease. Mutations in a secreted neuronal protein, leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1), were reported in patients with an inherited form of human epilepsy, autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF). Here, we report an essential role of LGI1 as an antiepileptogenic ligand. We find that loss of LGI1 in mice (LGI1(-/-)) causes lethal epilepsy, which is specifically rescued by the neuronal expression of LGI1 transgene, but not LGI3. Moreover, heterozygous mice for the LGI1 mutation (LGI1(+/-)) show lowered seizure thresholds. Extracellularly secreted LGI1 links two epilepsy-related receptors, ADAM22 and ADAM23, in the brain and organizes a transsynaptic protein complex that includes presynaptic potassium channels and postsynaptic AMPA receptor scaffolds. A lack of LGI1 disrupts this synaptic protein connection and selectively reduces AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. Thus, LGI1 may serve as a major determinant of brain excitation, and the LGI1 gene-targeted mouse provides a good model for human epilepsy.

Organization of myelinated axons by Caspr and Caspr2 requires the cytoskeletal adapter protein 4.1B.

  • Horresh I
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2010 Feb 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Caspr and Caspr2 regulate the formation of distinct axonal domains around the nodes of Ranvier. Caspr is required for the generation of a membrane barrier at the paranodal junction (PNJ), whereas Caspr2 serves as a membrane scaffold that clusters Kv1 channels at the juxtaparanodal region (JXP). Both Caspr and Caspr2 interact with protein 4.1B, which may link the paranodal and juxtaparanodal adhesion complexes to the axonal cytoskeleton. To determine the role of protein 4.1B in the function of Caspr proteins, we examined the ability of transgenic Caspr and Caspr2 mutants lacking their 4.1-binding sequence (d4.1) to restore Kv1 channel clustering in Caspr- and Caspr2-null mice, respectively. We found that Caspr-d4.1 was localized to the PNJ and is able to recruit the paranodal adhesion complex components contactin and NF155 to this site. Nevertheless, in axons expressing Caspr-d4.1, Kv1 channels were often detected at paranodes, suggesting that the interaction of Caspr with protein 4.1B is necessary for the generation of an efficient membrane barrier at the PNJ. We also found that the Caspr2-d4.1 transgene did not accumulate at the JXP, even though it was targeted to the axon, demonstrating that the interaction with protein 4.1B is required for the accumulation of Caspr2 and Kv1 channels at the juxtaparanodal axonal membrane. In accordance, we show that Caspr2 and Kv1 channels are not clustered at the JXP in 4.1B-null mice. Our results thus underscore the functional importance of protein 4.1B in the organization of peripheral myelinated axons.

ADAM22, a Kv1 channel-interacting protein, recruits membrane-associated guanylate kinases to juxtaparanodes of myelinated axons.

  • Ogawa Y
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2010 Jan 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Clustered Kv1 K(+) channels regulate neuronal excitability at juxtaparanodes of myelinated axons, axon initial segments, and cerebellar basket cell terminals (BCTs). These channels are part of a larger protein complex that includes cell adhesion molecules and scaffolding proteins. To identify proteins that regulate assembly, clustering, and/or maintenance of axonal Kv1 channel protein complexes, we immunoprecipitated Kv1.2 alpha subunits, and then used mass spectrometry to identify interacting proteins. We found that a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 22 (ADAM22) is a component of the Kv1 channel complex and that ADAM22 coimmunoprecipitates Kv1.2 and the membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) PSD-93 and PSD-95. When coexpressed with MAGUKs in heterologous cells, ADAM22 and Kv1 channels are recruited into membrane surface clusters. However, coexpression of Kv1.2 with ADAM22 and MAGUKs does not alter channel properties. Among all the known Kv1 channel-interacting proteins, only ADAM22 is found at every site where Kv1 channels are clustered. Analysis of Caspr-null mice showed that, like other previously described juxtaparanodal proteins, disruption of the paranodal junction resulted in redistribution of ADAM22 into paranodal zones. Analysis of Caspr2-, PSD-93-, PSD-95-, and double PSD-93/PSD-95-null mice showed ADAM22 clustering at BCTs requires PSD-95, but ADAM22 clustering at juxtaparanodes requires neither PSD-93 nor PSD-95. In direct contrast, analysis of ADAM22-null mice demonstrated juxtaparanodal clustering of PSD-93 and PSD-95 requires ADAM22, whereas Kv1.2 and Caspr2 clustering is normal in ADAM22-null mice. Thus, ADAM22 is an axonal component of the Kv1 K(+) channel complex that recruits MAGUKs to juxtaparanodes.

Proteomic analysis of optic nerve lipid rafts reveals new paranodal proteins.

  • Ogawa Y
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2009 Nov 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuron-glia interactions at paranodal junctions play important roles in action potential propagation. Among their many functions, they contribute to the passive electrical properties of myelinated nerve fibers and actively regulate the polarized distribution of ion channels along axons. Despite their importance, relatively little is known about the molecules responsible for paranode formation and function. Paranodal junction formation apparently depends on interactions among three cell adhesion molecules: caspr and contactin on the axon and neurofascin 155 (NF-155) on the glial membrane. Using Caspr-null paranodal mutant mice, we demonstrate that loss of paranodal junctions causes failure of NF-155 to partition into lipid rafts, indicating that proteins located at paranodal junctions have biochemical characteristics of lipid raft-associated proteins. Based on this property of paranodal junctions, mass spectrometry of lipid rafts isolated from a pure white matter tract (optic nerve) was used to search for new paranodal proteins. Because we used a relatively crude biochemical preparation, we identified several hundred different proteins. Among these, we found all previously described paranodal proteins. Further analysis based on antibody staining of central and peripheral nerves revealed beta-adducin, septin 2, and sh3p8 as putative paranodal proteins. We describe the localization of these proteins in relation to other markers of nodes, paranodes, and juxtaparanodes in adult and developing nerve fibers. Finally, we describe their distribution in dysmyelinating TremblerJ mice, a model for the peripheral neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

SH3TC2/KIAA1985 protein is required for proper myelination and the integrity of the node of Ranvier in the peripheral nervous system.

  • Arnaud E
  • Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • 2009 Oct 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4C (CMT4C) is an early-onset, autosomal recessive form of demyelinating neuropathy. The clinical manifestations include progressive scoliosis, delayed age of walking, muscular atrophy, distal weakness, and reduced nerve conduction velocity. The gene mutated in CMT4C disease, SH3TC2/KIAA1985, was recently identified; however, the function of the protein it encodes remains unknown. We have generated knockout mice where the first exon of the Sh3tc2 gene is replaced with an enhanced GFP cassette. The Sh3tc2(DeltaEx1/DeltaEx1) knockout animals develop progressive peripheral neuropathy manifested by decreased motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity and hypomyelination. We show that Sh3tc2 is specifically expressed in Schwann cells and localizes to the plasma membrane and to the perinuclear endocytic recycling compartment, concordant with its possible function in myelination and/or in regions of axoglial interactions. Concomitantly, transcriptional profiling performed on the endoneurial compartment of peripheral nerves isolated from control and Sh3tc2(DeltaEx1/DeltaEx1) animals uncovered changes in transcripts encoding genes involved in myelination and cell adhesion. Finally, detailed analyses of the structures composed of compact and noncompact myelin in the peripheral nerve of Sh3tc2(DeltaEx1/DeltaEx1) animals revealed abnormal organization of the node of Ranvier, a phenotype that we confirmed in CMT4C patient nerve biopsies. The generated Sh3tc2 knockout mice thus present a reliable model of CMT4C neuropathy that was instrumental in establishing a role for Sh3tc2 in myelination and in the integrity of the node of Ranvier, a morphological phenotype that can be used as an additional CMT4C diagnostic marker.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS30888(United States)

Atypical sialylated N-glycan structures are attached to neuronal voltage-gated potassium channels.

  • Cartwright TA
  • Biosci. Rep.
  • 2009 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mammalian brains contain relatively high amounts of common and uncommon sialylated N-glycan structures. Sialic acid linkages were identified for voltage-gated potassium channels, Kv3.1, 3.3, 3.4, 1.1, 1.2 and 1.4, by evaluating their electrophoretic migration patterns in adult rat brain membranes digested with various glycosidases. Additionally, their electrophoretic migration patterns were compared with those of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule), transferrin and the Kv3.1 protein heterologously expressed in B35 neuroblastoma cells. Metabolic labelling of the carbohydrates combined with glycosidase digestion reactions were utilized to show that the N-glycan of recombinant Kv3.1 protein was capped with an oligo/poly-sialyl unit. All three brain Kv3 glycoproteins, like NCAM, were terminated with alpha2,3-linked sialyl residues, as well as atypical alpha2,8-linked sialyl residues. Additionally, at least one of their antennae was terminated with an oligo/poly-sialyl unit, similar to recombinant Kv3.1 and NCAM. In contrast, brain Kv1 glycoproteins consisted of sialyl residues with alpha2,8-linkage, as well as sialyl residues linked to internal carbohydrate residues of the carbohydrate chains of the N-glycans. This type of linkage was also supported for Kv3 glycoproteins. To date, such a sialyl linkage has only been identified in gangliosides, not N-linked glycoproteins. We conclude that all six Kv channels (voltage-gated K+ channels) contribute to the alpha2,8-linked sialylated N-glycan pool in mammalian brain and furthermore that their N-glycan structures contain branched sialyl residues. Identification of these novel and unique sialylated N-glycan structures implicate a connection between potassium channel activity and atypical sialylated N-glycans in modulating and fine-tuning the excitable properties of neurons in the nervous system.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS42291(United States)

Defects in myelination, paranode organization and Purkinje cell innervation in the ether lipid-deficient mouse cerebellum.

  • Teigler A
  • Hum. Mol. Genet.
  • 2009 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ether lipids (ELs), particularly plasmalogens, are essential constituents of the mammalian central nervous system. The physiological role of ELs, in vivo, however is still enigmatic. In the present study, we characterized a mouse model carrying a targeted deletion of the peroxisomal dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase gene that results in the complete lack of ELs. Investigating the cerebellum of these mice, we observed: (i) defects in foliation patterning and delay in precursor granule cell migration, (ii) defects in myelination and concomitant reduction in the level of myelin basic protein, (iii) disturbances in paranode organization by extending the Caspr distribution and disrupting axo-glial septate-like junctions, (iv) impaired innervation of Purkinje cells by both parallel fibers and climbing fibers and (v) formation of axon swellings by the accumulation of inositol-tris-phosphate receptor 1 containing smooth ER-like tubuli. Functionally, conduction velocity of myelinated axons in the corpus callosum was significantly reduced. Most of these phenotypes were already apparent at P20 but still persisted in 1-year-old animals. In summary, these data show that EL deficiency results in severe developmental and lasting structural alterations at the cellular and network level of the cerebellum, and reveal an important role of ELs for proper brain function. Common molecular mechanisms that may underlie these phenotypes are discussed.

Disruption of neurofascin and gliomedin at nodes of Ranvier precedes demyelination in experimental allergic neuritis.

  • Lonigro A
  • Brain
  • 2009 Jan 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

High densities of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels at nodes of Ranvier enable the rapid regeneration and propagation of the action potentials along myelinated axons. In demyelinating pathologies, myelin alterations lead to conduction slowing and even to conduction block. In order to unravel the mechanisms of conduction failure in inflammatory demyelinating diseases, we have examined two models of Guillain-Barré syndrome: the experimental allergic neuritis induced in the Lewis rat by immunization against peripheral myelin (EAN-PM) and against a neuritogenic P2 peptide (EAN-P2). We found that Nav channel clusters were disrupted at EAN-PM nodes. Neurofascin and gliomedin, two cell adhesion molecules involved with aggregating Nav channels at nodes, were selectively affected prior to demyelination in EAN-PM, indicating that degradation of the axo-glial unit initiated node alteration. This was associated with autoantibodies to neurofascin and gliomedin. Node disruption was, however, independent from complement deposition at nodes, and deposits of the terminal complement complex (C5b-9) were found on the external surface of Schwann cells in EAN-PM. In these animals, the paranodal junctions were also affected and Kv1 channels, which are normally juxtaparanodal, were found dispersed at nodes and paranodes. Altogether, these alterations were associated with conduction deficits in EAN-PM ventral spinal roots. EAN-P2 animals also exhibited inflammatory demyelination, but did not show alteration in nodal clusters or autoantibodies. Our results highlighted the complex mechanisms underlying conduction abnormalities in demyelinating disorders, and unraveled neurofascin and gliomedin as two novel immune targets in experimental allergic neuritis.

Postsynaptic density-93 clusters Kv1 channels at axon initial segments independently of Caspr2.

  • Ogawa Y
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2008 May 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Postsynaptic density-93 (PSD-93)/Chapsyn-110 is a PDZ (PSD-95/Discs large/zona occludens-1) domain-containing membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) that functions as a scaffold to assemble channels, receptors, and other signaling proteins at cell membranes. PSD-93 is highly enriched at synapses, but mice lacking this protein have no synaptic structural abnormalities, probably because of overlapping expression and redundancy with other MAGUKs. Consequently, the function of PSD-93 is not well understood. Here, we show that PSD-93, but not other MAGUKs, is enriched at the axon initial segment (AIS), where it colocalizes with Kv1.1, Kv1.2, Kv1.4, and Kvbeta2 subunit-containing K(+) channels, Caspr2, and TAG-1 (transient axonal glycoprotein-1). When coexpressed with Kv1 channels in heterologous cells, PSD-93 induces formation of large cell-surface clusters. Knockdown of PSD-93 in cultured hippocampal neurons by RNA interference disrupted Kv1 channel localization at the AIS. Similarly, PSD-93-/- mice failed to cluster Kv1 channels at the AIS of cortical and hippocampal neurons. In contrast, Caspr2, which mediates Kv1 channel clustering at the juxtaparanode, is not required for localization of Kv1 channels at the AIS. These results show PSD-93 mediates AIS accumulation of Kv1 channels independently of Caspr2.

No evidence for chronic demyelination in spared axons after spinal cord injury in a mouse.

  • Lasiene J
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2008 Apr 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

The pattern of remyelination after traumatic spinal cord injury remains elusive, with animal and human studies reporting partial to complete demyelination followed by incomplete remyelination. In the present study, we found that spared rubrospinal tract (RST) axons of passage traced with actively transported dextrans and examined caudally to the lesion 12 weeks after mouse spinal cord contusion injury were fully remyelinated. Spared axons exhibited a marginally reduced myelin thickness and significantly shorter internodes. CASPR (contactin-associated protein) and K(v)1.2 channels were used to identify internodes and paranodal protein distribution properties were used as an index of myelin integrity. This is the first time the CNS myelin internode length was measured in a mouse. To better understand the significance of shortened internodes and thinner myelin in spared axons, we modeled conduction properties using McIntyre's et al. model of myelinated axons. Mathematical modeling predicted a 21% decrease in the conduction velocity of remyelinated RST axons attributable to shortened internodes. To determine whether demyelination could be present on axons exhibiting a pathological transport system, we used the retroviral reporter system. Virally delivered green fluorescent protein unveiled a small population of dystrophic RST axons that persist chronically with evident demyelination or abnormal remyelination. Collectively, these data show that lasting demyelination in spared axons is rare and that remyelination of axons of passage occurs in the chronically injured mouse spinal cord.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01GM103785(United States)

Structural consequences of Kcna1 gene deletion and transfer in the mouse hippocampus.

  • Wenzel HJ
  • Epilepsia
  • 2007 Nov 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

PURPOSE: Mice lacking the Kv1.1 potassium channel alpha subunit encoded by the Kcna1 gene develop recurrent behavioral seizures early in life. We examined the neuropathological consequences of seizure activity in the Kv1.1(-/-) (knock-out) mouse, and explored the effects of injecting a viral vector carrying the deleted Kcna1 gene into hippocampal neurons. METHODS: Morphological techniques were used to assess neuropathological patterns in hippocampus of Kv1.1(-/-) animals. Immunohistochemical and biochemical techniques were used to monitor ion channel expression in Kv1.1(-/-) brain. Both wild-type and knockout mice were injected (bilaterally into hippocampus) with an HSV1 amplicon vector that contained the rat Kcna1 subunit gene and/or the E. coli lacZ reporter gene. Vector-injected mice were examined to determine the extent of neuronal infection. RESULTS: Video/EEG monitoring confirmed interictal abnormalities and seizure occurrence in Kv1.1(-/-) mice. Neuropathological assessment suggested that hippocampal damage (silver stain) and reorganization (Timm stain) occurred only after animals had exhibited severe prolonged seizures (status epilepticus). Ablation of Kcna1 did not result in compensatory changes in expression levels of other related ion channel subunits. Vector injection resulted in infection primarily of granule cells in hippocampus, but the number of infected neurons was quite variable across subjects. Kcna1 immunocytochemistry showed "ectopic" Kv1.1 alpha channel subunit expression. CONCLUSIONS: Kcna1 deletion in mice results in a seizure disorder that resembles--electrographically and neuropathologically--the patterns seen in rodent models of temporal lobe epilepsy. HSV1 vector-mediated gene transfer into hippocampus yielded variable neuronal infection.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH084812(United States)

Regulation of Kv1 channel trafficking by the mamba snake neurotoxin dendrotoxin K.

  • Vacher H
  • FASEB J.
  • 2007 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Modulation of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel surface expression can profoundly affect neuronal excitability. Some, but not all, mammalian Shaker or Kv1 alpha subunits contain a dominant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal in their pore region, preventing surface expression of Kv1.1 homotetrameric channels and of heteromeric Kv1 channels containing more than one Kv1.1 subunit. The critical amino acid residues within this ER pore-region retention signal are also critical for high-affinity binding of snake dendrotoxins (DTX). This suggests that ER retention may be mediated by an ER protein with a domain structurally similar to that of DTX. One facet of such a model is that expression of soluble DTX in the ER lumen should compete for binding to the retention protein and allow for surface expression of retained Kv1.1. Here, we show that luminal DTX expression dramatically increased both the level of cell surface Kv1.1 immunofluorescence staining and the proportion of Kv1.1 with processed N-linked oligosaccharides. Electrophysiological analyses showed that luminal DTX expression led to significant increases in Kv1.1 currents. Together, these data showed that luminal DTX expression increases surface expression of functional Kv1.1 homotetrameric channels and support a model whereby a DTX-like ER protein regulates abundance of cell surface Kv1 channels.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/E004431/1(United Kingdom)

Polarized distribution of ion channels within microdomains of the axon initial segment.

  • Van Wart A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Jan 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Voltage-gated sodium (Na(v)) channels accumulate at the axon initial segment (IS), where their high density supports spike initiation. Maintenance of this high density of Na(v) channels involves a macromolecular complex that includes the cytoskeletal linker protein ankyrin-G, the only protein known to bind Na(v) channels and localize them at the IS. We found previously that Na(v)1.6 is the predominant Na(v) channel isoform at IS of adult rodent retinal ganglion cells. However, here we report that Na(v)1.6 immunostaining is consistently reduced or absent in short regions of the IS proximal to the soma, although both ankyrin-G and pan-Na(v) antibodies stain this region. We show that this proximal IS subregion is a unique axonal microdomain, containing an accumulation of Na(v)1.1 channels that are spatially segregated from the Na(v)1.6 channels of the distal IS. Additionally, we find that axonal K(v)1.2 potassium channels are present within the distal IS, but are also excluded from the Na(v)1.1-enriched proximal IS microdomain. Because ankyrin-G was prominent in both proximal and distal subcompartments of the IS, where it colocalized with either Na(v)1.1 or Na(v)1.6, respectively, mechanisms other than association with ankyrin-G must mediate differential targeting of Na(v) channel subtypes to achieve the spatial precision observed within the IS. This precise arrangement of ion channels within the axon initial segment is likely an important determinant of the firing properties of ganglion cells and other mammalian neurons.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - 3P41RR024851-02S1(United States)