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Mouse Anti-Human c-myc Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated

RRID:AB_2266850

BAI1 Suppresses Medulloblastoma Formation by Protecting p53 from Mdm2-Mediated Degradation.

  • Zhu D
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Jun 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (ADGRs) encompass 33 human transmembrane proteins with long N termini involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. We show the ADGRB1 gene, which encodes Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1), is epigenetically silenced in medulloblastomas (MBs) through a methyl-CpG binding protein MBD2-dependent mechanism. Knockout of Adgrb1 in mice augments proliferation of cerebellar granule neuron precursors, and leads to accelerated tumor growth in the Ptch1+/- transgenic MB mouse model. BAI1 prevents Mdm2-mediated p53 polyubiquitination, and its loss substantially reduces p53 levels. Reactivation of BAI1/p53 signaling axis by a brain-permeable MBD2 pathway inhibitor suppresses MB growth in vivo. Altogether, our data define BAI1's physiological role in tumorigenesis and directly couple an ADGR to cancer formation.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - ROP99020(Canada)
  • NCI NIH HHS - P20 CA151129()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA138292()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA086335()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA163722()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30 NS055077()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS096236()

Tension-Dependent Stretching Activates ZO-1 to Control the Junctional Localization of Its Interactors.

  • Spadaro D
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Dec 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tensile forces regulate epithelial homeostasis, but the molecular mechanisms behind this regulation are poorly understood. Using structured illumination microscopy and proximity ligation assays, we show that the tight junction protein ZO-1 exists in stretched and folded conformations within epithelial cells, depending on actomyosin-generated force. We also show that ZO-1 and ZO-2 regulate the localization of the transcription factor DbpA and the tight junction membrane protein occludin in a manner that depends on the organization of the actin cytoskeleton, myosin-II activity, and substrate stiffness, resulting in modulation of gene expression, cell proliferation, barrier function, and cyst morphogenesis. Pull-down experiments show that interactions between N-terminal (ZPSG) and C-terminal domains of ZO-1 prevent binding of DbpA to the ZPSG, suggesting that force-dependent intra-molecular interactions regulate ZPSG binding to ligands within cells. In vivo and in vitro experiments also suggest that ZO-1 heterodimerization with ZO-2 promotes the stretched conformation and ZPSG interaction with ligands. Magnetic tweezers single-molecule experiments suggest that pN-scale tensions (∼2-4 pN) are sufficient to maintain the stretched conformation of ZO-1, while keeping its structured domains intact, and that 5-20 pN force is required to disrupt the interaction between the extreme C-terminal and the ZPSG domains of ZO-1. We propose that tensile forces regulate epithelial homeostasis by activating ZO proteins through stretching, to control the junctional recruitment and downstream signaling of their interactors.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - AI090166(United States)

Heterodimeric capping protein is required for stereocilia length and width regulation.

  • Avenarius MR
  • J. Cell Biol.
  • 2017 Nov 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Control of the dimensions of actin-rich processes like filopodia, lamellipodia, microvilli, and stereocilia requires the coordinated activity of many proteins. Each of these actin structures relies on heterodimeric capping protein (CAPZ), which blocks actin polymerization at barbed ends. Because dimension control of the inner ear's stereocilia is particularly precise, we studied the CAPZB subunit in hair cells. CAPZB, present at ∼100 copies per stereocilium, concentrated at stereocilia tips as hair cell development progressed, similar to the CAPZB-interacting protein TWF2. We deleted Capzb specifically in hair cells using Atoh1-Cre, which eliminated auditory and vestibular function. Capzb-null stereocilia initially developed normally but later shortened and disappeared; surprisingly, stereocilia width decreased concomitantly with length. CAPZB2 expressed by in utero electroporation prevented normal elongation of vestibular stereocilia and irregularly widened them. Together, these results suggest that capping protein participates in stereocilia widening by preventing newly elongating actin filaments from depolymerizing.

Centriole triplet microtubules are required for stable centriole formation and inheritance in human cells.

  • Wang JT
  • Elife
  • 2017 Sep 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Centrioles are composed of long-lived microtubules arranged in nine triplets. However, the contribution of triplet microtubules to mammalian centriole formation and stability is unknown. Little is known of the mechanism of triplet microtubule formation, but experiments in unicellular eukaryotes indicate that delta-tubulin and epsilon-tubulin, two less-studied tubulin family members, are required. Here, we report that centrioles in delta-tubulin and epsilon-tubulin null mutant human cells lack triplet microtubules and fail to undergo centriole maturation. These aberrant centrioles are formed de novo each cell cycle, but are unstable and do not persist to the next cell cycle, leading to a futile cycle of centriole formation and disintegration. Disintegration can be suppressed by paclitaxel treatment. Delta-tubulin and epsilon-tubulin physically interact, indicating that these tubulins act together to maintain triplet microtubules and that these are necessary for inheritance of centrioles from one cell cycle to the next.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI038382(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - F32 GM117678()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM052022()

FGF13 Selectively Regulates Heat Nociception by Interacting with Nav1.7.

  • Yang L
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Feb 22

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Abstract:

The current knowledge about heat nociception is mainly confined to the thermosensors, including the transient receptor potential cation channel V1 expressed in the nociceptive neurons of dorsal root ganglion (DRG). However, the loss of thermosensors only partially impairs heat nociception, suggesting the existence of undiscovered mechanisms. We found that the loss of an intracellular fibroblast growth factor (FGF), FGF13, in the mouse DRG neurons selectively abolished heat nociception. The noxious heat stimuli could not evoke the sustained action potential firing in FGF13-deficient DRG neurons. Furthermore, FGF13 interacted with the sodium channel Nav1.7 in a heat-facilitated manner. FGF13 increased Nav1.7 sodium currents and maintained the membrane localization of Nav1.7 during noxious heat stimulation, enabling the sustained firing of action potentials. Disrupting the FGF13/Nav1.7 interaction reduced the heat-evoked action potential firing and nociceptive behavior. Thus, beyond the thermosensors, the FGF13/Nav1.7 complex is essential for sustaining the transmission of noxious heat signals.

Pa2G4 is a novel Six1 co-factor that is required for neural crest and otic development.

  • Neilson KM
  • Dev. Biol.
  • 2017 Jan 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mutations in SIX1 and in its co-factor, EYA1, underlie Branchiootorenal Spectrum disorder (BOS), which is characterized by variable branchial arch, otic and kidney malformations. However, mutations in these two genes are identified in only half of patients. We screened for other potential co-factors, and herein characterize one of them, Pa2G4 (aka Ebp1/Plfap). In human embryonic kidney cells, Pa2G4 binds to Six1 and interferes with the Six1-Eya1 complex. In Xenopus embryos, knock-down of Pa2G4 leads to down-regulation of neural border zone, neural crest and cranial placode genes, and concomitant expansion of neural plate genes. Gain-of-function leads to a broader neural border zone, expanded neural crest and altered cranial placode domains. In loss-of-function assays, the later developing otocyst is reduced in size, which impacts gene expression. In contrast, the size of the otocyst in gain-of-function assays is not changed but the expression domains of several otocyst genes are reduced. Together these findings establish an interaction between Pa2G4 and Six1, and demonstrate that it has an important role in the development of tissues affected in BOS. Thereby, we suggest that pa2g4 is a potential candidate gene for BOS.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01NS038752(United States)

Neuropeptide F neurons modulate sugar reward during associative olfactory learning of Drosophila larvae.

  • Rohwedder A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Dec 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

All organisms continuously have to adapt their behavior according to changes in the environment in order to survive. Experience-driven changes in behavior are usually mediated and maintained by modifications in signaling within defined brain circuits. Given the simplicity of the larval brain of Drosophila and its experimental accessibility on the genetic and behavioral level, we analyzed if Drosophila neuropeptide F (dNPF) neurons are involved in classical olfactory conditioning. dNPF is an ortholog of the mammalian neuropeptide Y, a highly conserved neuromodulator that stimulates food-seeking behavior. We provide a comprehensive anatomical analysis of the dNPF neurons on the single-cell level. We demonstrate that artificial activation of dNPF neurons inhibits appetitive olfactory learning by modulating the sugar reward signal during acquisition. No effect is detectable for the retrieval of an established appetitive olfactory memory. The modulatory effect is based on the joint action of three distinct cell types that, if tested on the single-cell level, inhibit and invert the conditioned behavior. Taken together, our work describes anatomically and functionally a new part of the sugar reinforcement signaling pathway for classical olfactory conditioning in Drosophila larvae.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY015128(United States)

Structural basis of Toxoplasma gondii MIC2-associated protein interaction with MIC2.

  • Huynh MH
  • J. Biol. Chem.
  • 2015 Jan 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Toxoplasma gondii parasites must actively invade host cells to propagate. Secretory microneme proteins have been shown to be important for both gliding motility and active invasion. MIC2-M2AP is a protein complex that is essential for productive motility and rapid invasion by binding to host cell surface receptors. To investigate the architecture of the MIC2 and M2AP complex, we identified the minimal domains sufficient for interaction and solved the NMR solution structure of the globular domain of M2AP. We found that M2AP adopts a modified galectin fold similar to the C-terminal domain of another microneme protein, MIC1. NMR and immunoprecipitation analyses implicated hydrophobic residues on one face of the M2AP galectin fold in binding to the membrane proximal sixth thrombospondin type I repeat domain of MIC2. Our findings provide a second example of a galectin fold adapted for microneme protein-protein interactions and suggest a conserved strategy for the assembly and folding of diverse protein complexes.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - (International)

Cdk12 and Cdk13 regulate axonal elongation through a common signaling pathway that modulates Cdk5 expression.

  • Chen HR
  • Exp. Neurol.
  • 2014 Nov 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cdk12 and Cdk13 are Cdc2-related proteins that share 92% identity in their kinase domains. Using in situ hybridization and Western blot analysis, we detected the expression of Cdk12 and Cdk13 mRNAs and their proteins in developing mouse embryos, especially during development of the nervous system. We explored the roles of Cdk12 and Cdk13 in neuronal differentiation using the P19 neuronal differentiation model. Upon knockdown of Cdk12 or Cdk13, no effect on differentiated cell numbers was detected, but a substantial decrease of numbers of neurons with long neurites was identified. Similarly, knockdown of Cdk12 or Cdk13 in primarily cultured cortical neurons shortens the averaged axonal length. A microarray analysis was used to examine changes in gene expression after knockdown or overexpression of Cdk12 and we identified Cdk5 as a molecule potentially involved in mediating the effect of Cdk12 and Cdk13. Depletion of Cdk12 or Cdk13 in P19 cells significantly reduces Cdk5 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Expression of Cdk5 protein in the developing mouse brain is also reduced in conditional Cdk12-knockout mice in proportion to the residual amount of Cdk12 protein present. This suggests that the reduced axonal outgrowth after knockdown of Cdk12 or Cdk13 might be due to lower Cdk5 expression. Furthermore, overexpression of Cdk5 protein in P19 cells was able to partially rescue the neurite outgrowth defect observed when Cdk12 or Cdk13 is depleted. Together, these findings suggest that Cdk12 and Cdk13 regulate axonal elongation through a common signaling pathway that modulates Cdk5 expression.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)

Peptidergic cell-specific synaptotagmins in Drosophila: localization to dense-core granules and regulation by the bHLH protein DIMMED.

  • Park D
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Sep 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Bioactive peptides are packaged in large dense-core secretory vesicles, which mediate regulated secretion by exocytosis. In a variety of tissues, the regulated release of neurotransmitters and hormones is dependent on calcium levels and controlled by vesicle-associated synaptotagmin (SYT) proteins. Drosophila express seven SYT isoforms, of which two (SYT-α and SYT-β) were previously found to be enriched in neuroendocrine cells. Here we show that SYT-α and SYT-β tissue expression patterns are similar, though not identical. Furthermore, both display significant overlap with the bHLH transcription factor DIMM, a known neuroendocrine (NE) regulator. RNAi-mediated knockdown indicates that both SYT-α and SYT-β functions are essential in identified NE cells as these manipulations phenocopy loss-of-function states for the indicated peptide hormones. In Drosophila cell culture, both SYT-α and neuropeptide cargo form DIMM-dependent fluorescent puncta that are coassociated by super-resolution microscopy. DIMM is required to maintain SYT-α and SYT-β protein levels in DIMM-expressing cells in vivo. In neurons normally lacking all three proteins (DIMM(-)/SYT-α(-)/SYT-β(-)), DIMM misexpression conferred accumulation of endogenous SYT-α and SYT-β proteins. Furthermore transgenic SYT-α does not appreciably accumulate in nonpeptidergic neurons in vivo but does so if DIMM is comisexpressed. Among Drosophila syt genes, only syt-α and syt-β RNA levels are upregulated by DIMM overexpression. Together, these data suggest that SYT-α and SYT-β are important for NE cell physiology, that one or both are integral membrane components of the large dense-core vesicles, and that they are closely regulated by DIMM at a post-transcriptional level.

Funding information:
  • RRD VA - I01 RX002133(United States)

Low levels of p53 protein and chromatin silencing of p53 target genes repress apoptosis in Drosophila endocycling cells.

  • Zhang B
  • PLoS Genet.
  • 2014 Sep 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Apoptotic cell death is an important response to genotoxic stress that prevents oncogenesis. It is known that tissues can differ in their apoptotic response, but molecular mechanisms are little understood. Here, we show that Drosophila polyploid endocycling cells (G/S cycle) repress the apoptotic response to DNA damage through at least two mechanisms. First, the expression of all the Drosophila p53 protein isoforms is strongly repressed at a post-transcriptional step. Second, p53-regulated pro-apoptotic genes are epigenetically silenced in endocycling cells, preventing activation of a paused RNA Pol II by p53-dependent or p53-independent pathways. Over-expression of the p53A isoform did not activate this paused RNA Pol II complex in endocycling cells, but over-expression of the p53B isoform with a longer transactivation domain did, suggesting that dampened p53B protein levels are crucial for apoptotic repression. We also find that the p53A protein isoform is ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome in endocycling cells. In mitotic cycling cells, p53A was the only isoform expressed to detectable levels, and its mRNA and protein levels increased after irradiation, but there was no evidence for an increase in protein stability. However, our data suggest that p53A protein stability is regulated in unirradiated cells, which likely ensures that apoptosis does not occur in the absence of stress. Without irradiation, both p53A protein and a paused RNA pol II were pre-bound to the promoters of pro-apoptotic genes, preparing mitotic cycling cells for a rapid apoptotic response to genotoxic stress. Together, our results define molecular mechanisms by which different cells in development modulate their apoptotic response, with broader significance for the survival of normal and cancer polyploid cells in mammals.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH084812(United States)

Sestrin2 promotes Unc-51-like kinase 1 mediated phosphorylation of p62/sequestosome-1.

  • Ro SH
  • FEBS J.
  • 2014 Sep 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Autophagy is a homeostatic process that is important for degrading protein aggregates, nutrient deposits, dysfunctional organelles and several signaling molecules. p62/sequestosome-1 is a protein that binds to several autophagy substrates, such as ubiquitinated proteins, damaged mitochondria and signaling molecules such as an Nrf2 inhibitor Keap1, promoting their autophagic degradation. Sestrin2, a stress-inducible protein, has recently been shown to bind to p62 and promote autophagic degradation of such p62 targets. Because Sestrin2 is a metabolic regulator that suppresses diverse age- and obesity-associated pathologies, the autophagy-controlling function of Sestrin2 may be important for its other physiological functions. However, the molecular mechanism of how Sestrin2 can promote clearance of p62-associated proteins has been unclear. Here we show that Sestrin2 physically associates with Unc-51-like protein kinase 1 (ULK1) and p62 to form a complex in which both Sestrin2 and p62 become phosphorylated by ULK1 at multiple sites. Ser403 of p62, whose phosphorylation is known to promote autophagic degradation of p62 and its targets, is among the sites phosphorylated by ULK1. ULK1-mediated p62 phosphorylation was facilitated by Sestrin2 in cells as well as in in vitro kinase assays. Consistent with this finding, oligomycin-induced energy deprivation, which strongly activates ULK1, provoked a robust Ser403 phosphorylation of p62 in wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts. However, in ULK1/2- and Sestrin2-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts, oligomycin-induced p62 phosphorylation was dramatically attenuated, suggesting that endogenous Sestrin2-ULK1/2 mainly mediates p62 phosphorylation in response to energetic stress. Taken together, this study identifies ULK1 as a new p62 Ser403 kinase and establishes Sestrin2 as a promoter of ULK1-mediated p62 phosphorylation.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R25 GM056833(United States)

Progranulin transcripts with short and long 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) are differentially expressed via posttranscriptional and translational repression.

  • Capell A
  • J. Biol. Chem.
  • 2014 Sep 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Frontotemporal lobar degeneration is associated with cytoplasmic or nuclear deposition of the TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43). Haploinsufficiency of progranulin (GRN) is a major genetic risk factor for frontotemporal lobar degeneration associated with TDP-43 deposition. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that control cellular expression of GRN is required not only to understand disease etiology but also for the development of potential therapeutic strategies. We identified different GRN transcripts with short (38-93 nucleotides) or long (219 nucleotides) 5' UTRs and demonstrate a cellular mechanism that represses translation of GRN mRNAs with long 5' UTRs. The long 5' UTR of GRN mRNA contains an upstream open reading frame (uORF) that is absent in all shorter transcripts. Because such UTRs can be involved in translational control as well as in mRNA stability, we compared the expression of GRN in cells expressing cDNAs with and without 5' UTRs. This revealed a selective repression of GRN translation and a reduction of mRNA levels by the 219-nucleotide-long 5' UTR. The specific ability of this GRN 5' UTR to repress protein expression was further confirmed by its transfer to an independent reporter. Deletion analysis identified a short stretch between nucleotides 76 and 125 containing two start codons within one uORF that is required and sufficient for repression of protein expression. Mutagenesis of the two AUG codons within the uORF is sufficient to reduce translational repression. Therefore initiating ribosomes at the AUGs of the uORF fail to efficiently initiate translation at the start codon of GRN. In parallel the 5' UTR also affects mRNA stability; thus two independent mechanisms determine GRN expression via mRNA stability and translational efficiency.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM08464(United States)

Ipsen 5i is a Novel Potent Pharmacoperone for Intracellularly Retained Melanocortin-4 Receptor Mutants.

  • Tao YX
  • Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
  • 2014 Aug 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Inactivating mutations of the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) cause early-onset severe obesity in humans. Comprehensive functional studies show that most of the inactivating mutants of the MC4R are retained intracellularly. In the present study, we investigated whether a small molecule inverse agonist of the MC4R, Ipsen 5i, could act as a pharmacoperone and correct the cell surface expression and function of intracellularly retained mutant MC4Rs using multiple cell lines, including HEK293 and two neuronal cell lines. We showed that Ipsen 5i rescued the cell surface expression of all 11 intracellularly retained mutant MC4Rs studied herein in at least one cell line. Ipsen 5i functionally rescued seven mutants in all cell lines used. One mutant (Y157S) was functionally rescued in HEK293 cells but not in the two neuronal cell lines. Ipsen 5i increased cell surface expression of three mutants (S58C, G98R, and F261S) but did not affect signaling. Ipsen 5i had no effect on mutant MC4Rs with other defects (Δ88-92, D90N, I102S) or no defect (N274S). It also did not affect trafficking of a misrouted MC3R mutant (I335S). Cell impermeable peptide ligands of the MC4R or cell permeable small molecule ligand of δ opioid receptor could not rescue misrouted mutant MC4R. In summary, we demonstrated that Ipsen 5i was a novel potent pharmacoperone of the MC4R, correcting trafficking and signaling of a significant portion (73%) of intracellularly retained mutants. Additional studies are needed to demonstrate its in vivo efficacy.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R56 MH081152(United States)

Regulation of plasticity and fibrogenic activity of trabecular meshwork cells by Rho GTPase signaling.

  • Pattabiraman PP
  • J. Cell. Physiol.
  • 2014 Jul 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glaucoma, a prevalent blinding disease is commonly associated with increased intraocular pressure due to impaired aqueous humor (AH) drainage through the trabecular meshwork (TM). Although increased TM tissue contraction and stiffness in association with accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) are believed to be partly responsible for increased resistance to AH outflow, the extracellular cues and intracellular mechanisms regulating TM cell contraction and ECM production are not well defined. This study tested the hypothesis that sustained activation of Rho GTPase signaling induced by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), TGF-β, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) influences TM cell plasticity and fibrogenic activity which may eventually impact resistance to AH outflow. Various experiments performed using human TM cells revealed that constitutively active RhoA (RhoAV14), TGF-β2, LPA, and CTGF significantly increase the levels and expression of Fibroblast Specific Protein-1 (FSP-1), α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), collagen-1A1 and secretory total collagen, as determined by q-RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, immunoblot, flow cytometry and the Sircol assay. Significantly, these changes appear to be mediated by Serum Response Factor (SRF), myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF-A), Slug, and Twist-1, which are transcriptional regulators known to control cell plasticity, myofibroblast generation/activation and fibrogenic activity. Additionally, the Rho kinase inhibitor-Y27632 and anti-fibrotic agent-pirfenidone were both found to suppress the TGF-β2-induced expression of αSMA, FSP-1, and collagen-1A1. Taken together, these observations demonstrate the significance of RhoA/Rho kinase signaling in regulation of TM cell plasticity, fibrogenic activity, and myofibroblast activation, events with potential implications for the pathobiology of elevated intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R24CA095841(United States)

Neuronal nitric oxide synthase-dependent S-nitrosylation of gephyrin regulates gephyrin clustering at GABAergic synapses.

  • Dejanovic B
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Jun 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Gephyrin, the principal scaffolding protein at inhibitory synapses, is essential for postsynaptic clustering of glycine and GABA type A receptors (GABA(A)Rs). Gephyrin cluster formation, which determines the strength of GABAergic transmission, is modulated by interaction with signaling proteins and post-translational modifications. Here, we show that gephyrin was found to be associated with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), the major source of the ubiquitous and important signaling molecule NO in brain. Furthermore, we identified that gephyrin is S-nitrosylated in vivo. Overexpression of nNOS decreased the size of postsynaptic gephyrin clusters in primary hippocampal neurons. Conversely, inhibition of nNOS resulted in a loss of S-nitrosylation of gephyrin and the formation of larger gephyrin clusters at synaptic sites, ultimately increasing the number of cell surface expressed synaptic GABA(A)Rs. In conclusion, S-nitrosylation of gephyrin is important for homeostatic assembly and plasticity of GABAergic synapses.

Adeno-associated virus-mediated overexpression of LARGE rescues α-dystroglycan function in dystrophic mice with mutations in the fukutin-related protein.

  • Vannoy CH
  • Hum Gene Ther Methods
  • 2014 Jun 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Multiple genes (e.g., POMT1, POMT2, POMGnT1, ISPD, GTDC2, B3GALNT2, FKTN, FKRP, and LARGE) are known to be involved in the glycosylation pathway of α-dystroglycan (α-DG). Mutations of these genes result in muscular dystrophies with wide phenotypic variability. Abnormal glycosylation of α-DG with decreased extracellular ligand binding activity is a common biochemical feature of these genetic diseases. While it is known that LARGE overexpression can compensate for defects in a few aforementioned genes, it is unclear whether it can also rescue defects in FKRP function. We examined adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated LARGE or FKRP overexpression in two dystrophic mouse models with loss-of-function mutations: (1) Large(myd) (LARGE gene) and (2) FKRP(P448L) (FKRP gene). The results agree with previous findings that overexpression of LARGE can ameliorate the dystrophic phenotypes of Large(myd) mice. In addition, LARGE overexpression in the FKRP(P448L) mice effectively generated functional glycosylation (hyperglycosylation) of α-DG and improved dystrophic pathologies in treated muscles. Conversely, FKRP transgene overexpression failed to rescue the defect in glycosylation and improve the phenotypes of the Large(myd) mice. Our findings suggest that AAV-mediated LARGE gene therapy may still be a viable therapeutic strategy for dystroglycanopathies with FKRP deficiency.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA140550(United States)

Identification of TgCBAP, a novel cytoskeletal protein that localizes to three distinct subcompartments of the Toxoplasma gondii pellicle.

  • Tilley LD
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2014 Jun 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

The cytoskeletons of Toxoplasma gondii and related apicomplexan parasites are highly polarized, with apical and basal regions comprised of distinct protein complexes. Components of these complexes are known to play important roles in parasite shape, cell division, and host cell invasion. During an effort to discover the biologically relevant target of a small-molecule inhibitor of T. gondii invasion (Conoidin A), we discovered a novel cytoskeletal protein that we named TgCBAP (Conserved Basal Apical Peripheral protein). Orthologs of TgCBAP are only found in the genomes of other apicomplexans; they contain no identifiable domains or motifs and their function(s) is unknown. As a first step toward elucidating the function of this highly conserved family of proteins, we disrupted the TgCBAP gene by double homologous recombination. Parasites lacking TgCBAP are as sensitive to the effects of Conoidin A as wild-type parasites, demonstrating that TgCBAP is not the biologically relevant target of Conoidin A. However, ΔTgCBAP parasites are significantly shorter than wild-type parasites and have a growth defect in culture. Furthermore, TgCBAP has an unusual subcellular localization, forming small rings at the apical and basal ends of the parasite and localizing to punctate, ring-like structures around the parasite periphery. These data identify a new marker of the apical and basal subcompartments of T. gondii, reveal a potentially novel compartment along the parasite periphery, and identify TgCBAP as a determinant of parasite size that is required for a maximally efficient lytic cycle.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - P50 MH090963(United States)

Persistent replicative stress alters polycomb phenotypes and tissue homeostasis in Drosophila melanogaster.

  • Landais S
  • Cell Rep
  • 2014 May 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Polycomb group (PcG) proteins establish and maintain genetic programs that regulate cell-fate decisions. Drosophila multi sex combs (mxc) was categorized as a PcG gene based on a classical Polycomb phenotype and genetic interactions; however, a mechanistic connection between Polycomb and Mxc has not been elucidated. Hypomorphic alleles of mxc are characterized by male and female sterility and ectopic sex combs. Mxc is an important regulator of histone synthesis, and we find that increased levels of the core histone H3 in mxc mutants result in replicative stress and a persistent DNA damage response (DDR). Germline loss, ectopic sex combs and the DDR are suppressed by reducing H3 in mxc mutants. Conversely, mxc phenotypes are enhanced when the DDR is abrogated. Importantly, replicative stress induced by hydroxyurea treatment recapitulated mxc germline phenotypes. These data reveal how persistent replicative stress affects gene expression, tissue homeostasis, and maintenance of cellular identity in vivo.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - 5R01NS066072(United States)

Ribosome assembly factors Pwp1 and Nop12 are important for folding of 5.8S rRNA during ribosome biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  • Talkish J
  • Mol. Cell. Biol.
  • 2014 May 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Previous work from our lab suggests that a group of interdependent assembly factors (A(3) factors) is necessary to create early, stable preribosomes. Many of these proteins bind at or near internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), but in their absence, ITS1 is not removed from rRNA, suggesting long-range communication between these two spacers. By comparing the nonessential assembly factors Nop12 and Pwp1, we show that misfolding of rRNA is sufficient to perturb early steps of biogenesis, but it is the lack of A(3) factors that results in turnover of early preribosomes. Deletion of NOP12 significantly inhibits 27SA(3) pre-rRNA processing, even though the A(3) factors are present in preribosomes. Furthermore, pre-rRNAs are stable, indicating that the block in processing is not sufficient to trigger turnover. This is in contrast to the absence of Pwp1, in which the A(3) factors are not present and pre-rRNAs are unstable. In vivo RNA structure probing revealed that the pre-rRNA processing defects are due to misfolding of 5.8S rRNA. In the absence of Nop12 and Pwp1, rRNA helix 5 is not stably formed. Interestingly, the absence of Nop12 results in the formation of an alternative yet unproductive helix 5 when cells are grown at low temperatures.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R21 DK092735(United States)

GABAergic circuit dysfunction in the Drosophila Fragile X syndrome model.

  • Gatto CL
  • Neurobiol. Dis.
  • 2014 May 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Fragile X syndrome (FXS), caused by loss of FMR1 gene function, is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. The FMR1 protein (FMRP) translational regulator mediates activity-dependent control of synapses. In addition to the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) hyperexcitation FXS theory, the GABA theory postulates that hypoinhibition is causative for disease state symptoms. Here, we use the Drosophila FXS model to assay central brain GABAergic circuitry, especially within the Mushroom Body (MB) learning center. All 3 GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunits are reportedly downregulated in dfmr1 null brains. We demonstrate parallel downregulation of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the rate-limiting GABA synthesis enzyme, although GABAergic cell numbers appear unaffected. Mosaic analysis with a repressible cell marker (MARCM) single-cell clonal studies show that dfmr1 null GABAergic neurons innervating the MB calyx display altered architectural development, with early underdevelopment followed by later overelaboration. In addition, a new class of extra-calyx terminating GABAergic neurons is shown to include MB intrinsic α/β Kenyon Cells (KCs), revealing a novel level of MB inhibitory regulation. Functionally, dfmr1 null GABAergic neurons exhibit elevated calcium signaling and altered kinetics in response to acute depolarization. To test the role of these GABAergic changes, we attempted to pharmacologically restore GABAergic signaling and assay effects on the compromised MB-dependent olfactory learning in dfmr1 mutants, but found no improvement. Our results show that GABAergic circuit structure and function are impaired in the FXS disease state, but that correction of hypoinhibition alone is not sufficient to rescue a behavioral learning impairment.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P20 RR017677(United States)

Coordinated nuclear and synaptic shuttling of afadin promotes spine plasticity and histone modifications.

  • VanLeeuwen JE
  • J. Biol. Chem.
  • 2014 Apr 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

The ability of a neuron to transduce extracellular signals into long lasting changes in neuronal morphology is central to its normal function. Increasing evidence shows that coordinated regulation of synaptic and nuclear signaling in response to NMDA receptor activation is crucial for long term memory, synaptic tagging, and epigenetic signaling. Although mechanisms have been proposed for synapse-to-nuclear communication, it is unclear how signaling is coordinated at both subcompartments. Here, we show that activation of NMDA receptors induces the bi-directional and concomitant shuttling of the scaffold protein afadin from the cytosol to the nucleus and synapses. Activity-dependent afadin nuclear translocation peaked 2 h post-stimulation, was independent of protein synthesis, and occurred concurrently with dendritic spine remodeling. Moreover, activity-dependent afadin nuclear translocation coincides with phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 (H3S10p), a marker of epigenetic modification. Critically, blocking afadin nuclear accumulation attenuated activity-dependent dendritic spine remodeling and H3 phosphorylation. Collectively, these data support a novel model of neuronal nuclear signaling whereby dual-residency proteins undergo activity-dependent bi-directional shuttling from the cytosol to synapses and the nucleus, coordinately regulating dendritic spine remodeling and histone modifications.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - HHSN272200900047C(United States)

Sc65 is a novel endoplasmic reticulum protein that regulates bone mass homeostasis.

  • Gruenwald K
  • J. Bone Miner. Res.
  • 2014 Mar 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Members of the Leprecan family of proteins include enzymes, prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 (P3h1), P3h2, and P3h3, and nonenzymatic proteins, Crtap and Sc65. Mutations in CRTAP and LEPRE1 (encoding P3H1) have been associated with human disease such as recessive osteogenesis imperfecta; however, the function of Sc65, which is closely related and highly homologous to Crtap, is unknown. Sc65 has been described as a synaptonemal complex protein, a nucleolar protein, and a cytoplasmic adapter protein. In light of its high sequence similarity with Crtap, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein, and the importance of post-translational modifications such as collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation in bone metabolism, we hypothesized that Sc65 was an ER-resident protein that would have an important role in bone homeostasis. In this study, we demonstrate that Sc65 is a previously unrecognized ER protein and that it does not localize in the nucleus of somatic cells. Moreover, Sc65 is expressed and functional during skeletal development because loss of Sc65 results in a progressive osteopenia that affects both trabecular and cortical bone. Bone loss is the result of increased bone resorption mediated by a non-cell-autonomous effect on osteoclasts. Therefore, Sc65, like its related family member Crtap, is an important modulator of bone homeostasis, acting as a negative regulator of osteoclastogenesis.

dAcsl, the Drosophila ortholog of acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 3 and 4, inhibits synapse growth by attenuating bone morphogenetic protein signaling via endocytic recycling.

  • Liu Z
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Feb 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Fatty acid metabolism plays an important role in brain development and function. Mutations in acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4), which converts long-chain fatty acids to acyl-CoAs, result in nonsyndromic X-linked mental retardation. ACSL4 is highly expressed in the hippocampus, a structure critical for learning and memory. However, the underlying mechanism by which mutations of ACSL4 lead to mental retardation remains poorly understood. We report here that dAcsl, the Drosophila ortholog of ACSL4 and ACSL3, inhibits synaptic growth by attenuating BMP signaling, a major growth-promoting pathway at neuromuscular junction (NMJ) synapses. Specifically, dAcsl mutants exhibited NMJ overgrowth that was suppressed by reducing the doses of the BMP pathway components, accompanied by increased levels of activated BMP receptor Thickveins (Tkv) and phosphorylated mothers against decapentaplegic (Mad), the effector of the BMP signaling at NMJ terminals. In addition, Rab11, a small GTPase involved in endosomal recycling, was mislocalized in dAcsl mutant NMJs, and the membrane association of Rab11 was reduced in dAcsl mutant brains. Consistently, the BMP receptor Tkv accumulated in early endosomes but reduced in recycling endosomes in dAcsl mutant NMJs. dAcsl was also required for the recycling of photoreceptor rhodopsin in the eyes, implying a general role for dAcsl in regulating endocytic recycling of membrane receptors. Importantly, expression of human ACSL4 rescued the endocytic trafficking and NMJ phenotypes of dAcsl mutants. Together, our results reveal a novel mechanism whereby dAcsl facilitates Rab11-dependent receptor recycling and provide insights into the pathogenesis of ACSL4-related mental retardation.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 102645(United Kingdom)

Latrophilins function as heterophilic cell-adhesion molecules by binding to teneurins: regulation by alternative splicing.

  • Boucard AA
  • J. Biol. Chem.
  • 2014 Jan 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Latrophilin-1, -2, and -3 are adhesion-type G protein-coupled receptors that are auxiliary α-latrotoxin receptors, suggesting that they may have a synaptic function. Using pulldowns, we here identify teneurins, type II transmembrane proteins that are also candidate synaptic cell-adhesion molecules, as interactors for the lectin-like domain of latrophilins. We show that teneurin binds to latrophilins with nanomolar affinity and that this binding mediates cell adhesion, consistent with a role of teneurin binding to latrophilins in trans-synaptic interactions. All latrophilins are subject to alternative splicing at an N-terminal site; in latrophilin-1, this alternative splicing modulates teneurin binding but has no effect on binding of latrophilin-1 to another ligand, FLRT3. Addition to cultured neurons of soluble teneurin-binding fragments of latrophilin-1 decreased synapse density, suggesting that latrophilin binding to teneurin may directly or indirectly influence synapse formation and/or maintenance. These observations are potentially intriguing in view of the proposed role for Drosophila teneurins in determining synapse specificity. However, teneurins in Drosophila were suggested to act as homophilic cell-adhesion molecules, whereas our findings suggest a heterophilic interaction mechanism. Thus, we tested whether mammalian teneurins also are homophilic cell-adhesion molecules, in addition to binding to latrophilins as heterophilic cell-adhesion molecules. Strikingly, we find that although teneurins bind to each other in solution, homophilic teneurin-teneurin binding is unable to support stable cell adhesion, different from heterophilic teneurin-latrophilin binding. Thus, mammalian teneurins act as heterophilic cell-adhesion molecules that may be involved in trans-neuronal interaction processes such as synapse formation or maintenance.

Integrin α3β1 can function to promote spontaneous metastasis and lung colonization of invasive breast carcinoma.

  • Zhou B
  • Mol. Cancer Res.
  • 2014 Jan 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Significant evidence implicates α3β1 integrin in promoting breast cancer tumorigenesis and metastasis-associated cell behaviors in vitro and in vivo. However, the extent to which α3β1 is actually required for breast cancer metastasis remains to be determined. We used RNA interference to silence α3 integrin expression by approximately 70% in 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma cells, a model of aggressive, metastatic breast cancer. Loss of α3 integrin reduced adhesion, spreading, and proliferation on laminin isoforms, and modestly reduced the growth of orthotopically implanted cells. However, spontaneous metastasis to lung was strikingly curtailed. Experimental lung colonization after tail vein injection revealed a similar loss of metastatic capacity for the α3-silenced (α3si) cells, suggesting that critical, α3-dependent events at the metastatic site could account for much of α3β1's contribution to metastasis in this model. Reexpressing α3 in the α3si cells reversed the loss of metastatic capacity, and silencing another target, the small GTPase RhoC, had no effect, supporting the specificity of the effect of silencing α3. Parental, α3si, and α3-rescued cells, all secreted abundant laminin α5 (LAMA5), an α3β1 integrin ligand, suggesting that loss of α3 integrin might disrupt an autocrine loop that could function to sustain metastatic growth. Analysis of human breast cancer cases revealed reduced survival in cases where α3 integrin and LAMA5 are both overexpressed. IMPLICATIONS: α3 integrin or downstream effectors may be potential therapeutic targets in disseminated breast cancers, especially when laminin α5 or other α3 integrin ligands are also over-expressed.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - HG002659(United States)

A novel role for Lh3 dependent ECM modifications during neural crest cell migration in zebrafish.

  • Banerjee S
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2013 Jan 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

During vertebrate development, trunk neural crest cells delaminate along the entire length of the dorsal neural tube and initially migrate as a non-segmented sheet. As they enter the somites, neural crest cells rearrange into spatially restricted segmental streams. Extracellular matrix components are likely to play critical roles in this transition from a sheet-like to a stream-like mode of migration, yet the extracellular matrix components and their modifying enzymes critical for this transition are largely unknown. Here, we identified the glycosyltransferase Lh3, known to modify extracellular matrix components, and its presumptive substrate Collagen18A1, to provide extrinsic signals critical for neural crest cells to transition from a sheet-like migration behavior to migrating as a segmental stream. Using live cell imaging we show that in lh3 null mutants, neural crest cells fail to transition from a sheet to a stream, and that they consequently enter the somites as multiple streams, or stall shortly after entering the somites. Moreover, we demonstrate that transgenic expression of lh3 in a small subset of somitic cells adjacent to where neural crest cells switch from sheet to stream migration restores segmental neural crest cell migration. Finally, we show that knockdown of the presumptive Lh3 substrate Collagen18A1 recapitulates the neural crest cell migration defects observed in lh3 mutants, consistent with the notion that Lh3 exerts its effect on neural crest cell migration by regulating post-translational modifications of Collagen18A1. Together these data suggest that Lh3-Collagen18A1 dependent ECM modifications regulate the transition of trunk neural crest cells from a non-segmental sheet like migration mode to a segmental stream migration mode.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM19351(United States)

Regulation of Fasciclin II and synaptic terminal development by the splicing factor beag.

  • Beck ES
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2012 May 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Pre-mRNA alternative splicing is an important mechanism for the generation of synaptic protein diversity, but few factors governing this process have been identified. From a screen for Drosophila mutants with aberrant synaptic development, we identified beag, a mutant with fewer synaptic boutons and decreased neurotransmitter release. Beag encodes a spliceosomal protein similar to splicing factors in humans and Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that both beag mutants and mutants of an interacting gene dsmu1 have changes in the synaptic levels of specific splice isoforms of Fasciclin II (FasII), the Drosophila ortholog of neural cell adhesion molecule. We show that restoration of one splice isoform of FasII can rescue synaptic morphology in beag mutants while expression of other isoforms cannot. We further demonstrate that this FasII isoform has unique functions in synaptic development independent of transsynaptic adhesion. beag and dsmu1 mutants demonstrate an essential role for these previously uncharacterized splicing factors in the regulation of synapse development and function.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008169(United States)

Initiation of synapse formation by Wnt-induced MuSK endocytosis.

  • Gordon LR
  • Development
  • 2012 Mar 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

In zebrafish, the MuSK receptor initiates neuromuscular synapse formation by restricting presynaptic growth cones and postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) to the center of skeletal muscle cells. Increasing evidence suggests a role for Wnts in this process, yet how muscle cells respond to Wnt signals is unclear. Here, we show that in vivo, wnt11r and wnt4a initiate MuSK translocation from muscle membranes to recycling endosomes and that this transition is crucial for AChR accumulation at future synaptic sites. Moreover, we demonstrate that components of the planar cell polarity pathway colocalize to recycling endosomes and that this localization is MuSK dependent. Knockdown of several core components disrupts MuSK translocation to endosomes, AChR localization and axonal guidance. We propose that Wnt-induced trafficking of the MuSK receptor to endosomes initiates a signaling cascade to align pre- with postsynaptic elements. Collectively, these findings suggest a general mechanism by which Wnt signals shape synaptic connectivity through localized receptor endocytosis.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - T32 DC009401(United States)

ZNRF1 promotes Wallerian degeneration by degrading AKT to induce GSK3B-dependent CRMP2 phosphorylation.

  • Wakatsuki S
  • Nat. Cell Biol.
  • 2011 Nov 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Wallerian degeneration is observed in many neurological disorders, and it is therefore important to elucidate the axonal degeneration mechanism to prevent, and further develop treatment for, such diseases. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has been implicated in Wallerian degeneration, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that ZNRF1, an E3 ligase, promotes Wallerian degeneration by targeting AKT to degrade through the UPS. AKT phosphorylates glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3B), and thereby inactivates it in axons. AKT overexpression significantly delays axonal degeneration. Overexpression of the active (non-phosphorylated) form of GSK3B induces CRMP2 phosphorylation, which is required for the microtubule reorganization observed in the degenerating axon. The inhibition of GSK3B and the overexpression of non-phosphorylated CRMP2 both protected axons from Wallerian degeneration. These findings indicate that the ZNRF1-AKT-GSK3B-CRMP2 pathway plays an important role in controlling Wallerian degeneration.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 281699(International)

Regulation of Hippo signaling by Jun kinase signaling during compensatory cell proliferation and regeneration, and in neoplastic tumors.

  • Sun G
  • Dev. Biol.
  • 2011 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

When cells undergo apoptosis, they can stimulate the proliferation of nearby cells, a process referred to as compensatory cell proliferation. The stimulation of proliferation in response to tissue damage or removal is also central to epimorphic regeneration. The Hippo signaling pathway has emerged as an important regulator of growth during normal development and oncogenesis from Drosophila to humans. Here we show that induction of apoptosis in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc stimulates activation of the Hippo pathway transcription factor Yorkie in surviving and nearby cells, and that Yorkie is required for the ability of the wing to regenerate after genetic ablation of the wing primordia. Induction of apoptosis activates Yorkie through the Jun kinase pathway, and direct activation of Jun kinase signaling also promotes Yorkie activation in the wing disc. We also show that depletion of neoplastic tumor suppressor genes, including lethal giant larvae and discs large, or activation of aPKC, activates Yorkie through Jun kinase signaling, and that Jun kinase activation is necessary, but not sufficient, for the disruption of apical-basal polarity associated with loss of lethal giant larvae. Our observations identify Jnk signaling as a modulator of Hippo pathway activity in wing imaginal discs, and implicate Yorkie activation in compensatory cell proliferation and disc regeneration.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/E018068/1(United Kingdom)

Syk and Zap-70 function redundantly to promote angioblast migration.

  • Christie TL
  • Dev. Biol.
  • 2010 Apr 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) plays critical roles in B-cell and T-cell development, the maintenance of vascular integrity, and proper partitioning of the blood vascular and lymphatic vascular system. Here, we utilize the zebrafish as an in vivo system to demonstrate novel roles for Syk and the related kinase Zeta associated protein (Zap-70) in promoting angioblast migration. Partial knockdown of either gene results in early angiogenic delay of the intersegmental vessels, dorsal intersegmental vessel patterning defects, and partial loss of the thoracic duct. Higher dose knockdown of both genes results in little to no angiogenic sprouting of the intersegmental vessels, a phenotype which resembles knockdown of vegfa. Di-phosphorylated ERK, an effector of the vegfa pathway, is also downregulated in the aorta of syk:zap double morphants. Over-expression of syk under the control of a blood-specific or vascular-specific promoter rescues sprouting defects after loss of vegfa. Together these results suggest that syk and zap-70 function redundantly in an early progenitor to promote the migration of intersegmental vessel angioblasts and lymphangioblasts that contribute to the thoracic duct, either downstream of, or in parallel to vegfa.

Protogenin defines a transition stage during embryonic neurogenesis and prevents precocious neuronal differentiation.

  • Wong YH
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2010 Mar 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Many Ig superfamily members are expressed in the developing nervous system, but the functions of these molecules during neurogenesis are not all clear. Here, we explore the expression and function of one of members of this superfamily, protogenin (PRTG), in the developing nervous system. Expression of PRTG protein is strong in the neural tube of mouse embryos between embryonic days 7.75 and 9.5 but disappears after embryonic day 10.5 when the neural progenitor marker nestin expresses prominently. Perturbation of PRTG activity in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells and in chick embryos, by either RNA interference or a dominant-negative PRTG mutant, increases neuronal differentiation. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and an in situ binding assay, we were able to identify ERdj3 (a stress-inducible endoplasmic reticulum DnaJ homolog) as a putative PRTG ligand. Addition of purified ERdj3 protein into the P19 differentiation assay reduced neurogenesis. This effect was blocked by addition of either a neutralizing antibody against PRTG or purified PRTG ectodomain protein, indicating that the effect of ERdj3 on neurogenesis is mediated through PRTG. Forced expression of ERdj3 in the chick neural tube also impairs neuronal differentiation. Together, these results suggest that expression of PRTG defines a stage between pluripotent epiblasts and committed neural progenitors, and its signaling plays a critical role in suppressing premature neuronal differentiation during early neural development.

Funding information:
  • NIH HHS - DP1 OD003958(United States)

Zebrafish gbx1 refines the midbrain-hindbrain boundary border and mediates the Wnt8 posteriorization signal.

  • Rhinn M
  • Neural Dev
  • 2009 Apr 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Studies in mouse, Xenopus and chicken have shown that Otx2 and Gbx2 expression domains are fundamental for positioning the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) organizer. Of the two zebrafish gbx genes, gbx1 is a likely candidate to participate in this event because its early expression is similar to that reported for Gbx2 in other species. Zebrafish gbx2, on the other hand, acts relatively late at the MHB. To investigate the function of zebrafish gbx1 within the early neural plate, we used a combination of gain- and loss-of-function experiments. RESULTS: We found that ectopic gbx1 expression in the anterior neural plate reduces forebrain and midbrain, represses otx2 expression and repositions the MHB to a more anterior position at the new gbx1/otx2 border. In the case of gbx1 loss-of-function, the initially robust otx2 domain shifts slightly posterior at a given stage (70% epiboly), as does MHB marker expression. We further found that ectopic juxtaposition of otx2 and gbx1 leads to ectopic activation of MHB markers fgf8, pax2.1 and eng2. This indicates that, in zebrafish, an interaction between otx2 and gbx1 determines the site of MHB development. Our work also highlights a novel requirement for gbx1 in hindbrain development. Using cell-tracing experiments, gbx1 was found to cell-autonomously transform anterior neural tissue into posterior. Previous studies have shown that gbx1 is a target of Wnt8 graded activity in the early neural plate. Consistent with this, we show that gbx1 can partially restore hindbrain patterning in cases of Wnt8 loss-of-function. We propose that in addition to its role at the MHB, gbx1 acts at the transcriptional level to mediate Wnt8 posteriorizing signals that pattern the developing hindbrain. CONCLUSION: Our results provide evidence that zebrafish gbx1 is involved in positioning the MHB in the early neural plate by refining the otx2 expression domain. In addition to its role in MHB formation, we have shown that gbx1 is a novel mediator of Wnt8 signaling during hindbrain patterning.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - HD008748-03(United States)

Shuttling of the chaperones Unc45b and Hsp90a between the A band and the Z line of the myofibril.

  • Etard C
  • J. Cell Biol.
  • 2008 Mar 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

The formation of thick filaments in striated muscle involves the chaperones Hsp90a and Unc45. We show that Unc45b and Hsp90a, two zebrafish orthologues, colocalize with myosin during myofibrillogenesis and associate with the Z line when myofibril assembly is completed. In response to stress or damage to the myofiber, Unc45b and Hsp90a dissociate from the Z line and transiently associate with myosin. Although chaperone activity of Unc45b requires the full-length protein, only the central and Unc45-Cro1p-She4p domains are required to anchor it to the Z line, and multiple subdomains mediate association with nascent myosin. We propose that the Z line serves as a reservoir for chaperones, allowing a rapid mobilization in response to muscle damage. Our data are consistent with a differential affinity model as an explanation for the shuttling of the chaperones between the Z line and myosin.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS039600(United States)

Replacement of the essential Dictyostelium Arp2 gene by its Entamoeba homologue using parasexual genetics.

  • Zaki M
  • BMC Genet.
  • 2007 Jun 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Cell motility is an essential feature of the pathogenesis and morbidity of amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica. As motility depends on cytoskeletal organisation and regulation, a study of the molecular components involved is key to a better understanding of amoebic pathogenesis. However, little is known about the physiological roles, interactions and regulation of the proteins of the Entamoeba cytoskeleton. RESULTS: We have established a genetic strategy that uses parasexual genetics to allow essential Dictyostelium discoideum genes to be manipulated and replaced with modified or tagged homologues. Our results show that actin related protein 2 (Arp2) is essential for survival, but that the Dictyostelium protein can be complemented by E. histolytica Arp2, despite the presence of an insertion of 16 amino acids in an otherwise highly conserved protein. Replacement of endogenous Arp2 with myc-tagged Entamoeba or Dictyostelium Arp2 has no obvious effects on growth and the protein incorporates effectively into the Arp2/3 complex. CONCLUSION: We have established an effective two-step method for replacing genes that are required for survival. Our protocol will allow such genes to be studied far more easily, and also allows an unambiguous demonstration that particular genes are truly essential. In addition, cells in which the Dictyostelium Arp2 has been replaced by the Entamoeba protein are potential targets for drug screens.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G0300170(United Kingdom)
  • PHS HHS - HHSN271200577531C(United States)

Identification and characterization of the CDK12/cyclin L1 complex involved in alternative splicing regulation.

  • Chen HH
  • Mol. Cell. Biol.
  • 2006 Apr 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

CrkRS is a Cdc2-related protein kinase that contains an arginine- and serine-rich (SR) domain, a characteristic of the SR protein family of splicing factors, and is proposed to be involved in RNA processing. However, whether it acts together with a cyclin and at which steps it may function to regulate RNA processing are not clear. Here, we report that CrkRS interacts with cyclin L1 and cyclin L2, and thus rename it as the long form of cyclin-dependent kinase 12 (CDK12(L)). A shorter isoform of CDK12, CDK12(S), that differs from CDK12(L) only at the carboxyl end, was also identified. Both isoforms associate with cyclin L1 through interactions mediated by the kinase domain and the cyclin domain, suggesting a bona fide CDK/cyclin partnership. Furthermore, CDK12 isoforms alter the splicing pattern of an E1a minigene, and the effect is potentiated by the cyclin domain of cyclin L1. When expression of CDK12 isoforms is perturbed by small interfering RNAs, a reversal of the splicing choices is observed. The activity of CDK12 on splicing is counteracted by SF2/ASF and SC35, but not by SRp40, SRp55, and SRp75. Together, our findings indicate that CDK12 and cyclin L1/L2 are cyclin-dependent kinase and cyclin partners and regulate alternative splicing.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - 5P01 HL-67105(United States)
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL66621(United States)

Syne proteins anchor muscle nuclei at the neuromuscular junction.

  • Grady RM
  • Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • 2005 Mar 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Vertebrate skeletal muscle fibers contain hundreds of nuclei, of which three to six are functionally specialized and stably anchored beneath the postsynaptic membrane at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). The mechanisms that localize synaptic nuclei and the roles they play in neuromuscular development are unknown. Syne-1 is concentrated at the nuclear envelope of synaptic nuclei; its Caenorhabditis elegans orthologue ANC-1 functions to tether nuclei to the cytoskeleton. To test the involvement of Syne proteins in nuclear anchoring, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing the conserved C-terminal Klarsicht/ANC-1/Syne homology domain of Syne-1. The transgene acted in a dominant interfering fashion, displacing endogenous Syne-1 from the nuclear envelope. Muscle nuclei failed to aggregate at the NMJ in transgenic mice, demonstrating that localization and positioning of synaptic nuclei require Syne proteins. We then exploited this phenotype to show that synaptic nuclear aggregates are dispensable for maturation of the NMJ.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MC_U142684171(United Kingdom)

Exocrine specific expression of Connexin32 is dependent on the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Mist1.

  • Rukstalis JM
  • J. Cell. Sci.
  • 2003 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Gap junctions are intercellular channels that provide direct passage of small molecules between adjacent cells. In pancreatic acini, the connexin26 (Cx26) and connexin32 (Cx32) proteins form functional channels that coordinate the secretion of digestive enzymes. Although the function of Cx26/Cx32 gap junctions are well characterized, the regulatory circuits that control the spatial and temporal expression patterns of these connexin genes are not known. In an effort to identify the molecular pathways that regulate connexin gene expression, we examined Cx26 and Cx32 gene activities in mice lacking the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Mist1 (Mist1KO). Mist1, Cx26 and Cx32 are co-expressed in most exocrine cell types, and acinar cells from Mist1KO mice exhibit a highly disorganized cellular architecture and an altered pattern of expression for several genes involved in regulated exocytosis. Analysis of Mist1KO mice revealed a dramatic decrease in both connexin proteins, albeit through different molecular mechanisms. Cx32 gene transcription was greatly reduced in all Mist1KO exocrine cells, while Cx26 gene expression remained unaffected. However, in the absence of Cx32 protein, Cx26 did not participate in gap junction formation, leading to a complete lack of intercellular communication among Mist1KO acinar cells. Additional studies testing Mist1 gene constructs in pancreatic exocrine cells confirmed that Mist1 transcriptionally regulates expression of the Cx32 gene. We conclude that Mist1 functions as a positive regulator of Cx32 gene expression and, in its absence, acinar cell gap junctions and intercellular communication pathways become disrupted.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI062428(United States)

Multiple functions of LIM domain-binding CLIM/NLI/Ldb cofactors during zebrafish development.

  • Becker T
  • Mech. Dev.
  • 2002 Sep 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

The crucial involvement of CLIM/NLI/Ldb cofactors for the exertion of the biological activity of LIM homeodomain transcription factors (LIM-HD) has been demonstrated. In this paper we show that CLIM cofactors are widely expressed during zebrafish development with high protein levels in specific neuronal cell types where LIM-HD proteins of the Isl class are synthesized. The overexpression of a dominant-negative CLIM molecule (DN-CLIM) that contains the LIM interaction domain (LID) during early developmental stages of zebrafish embryos results in an impairment of eye and midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) development and disturbances in the formation of the anterior midline. On a cellular level we show that the outgrowth of peripheral but not central axons from Rohon Beard (RB) and trigeminal sensory neurons is inhibited by DN-CLIM overexpression. We demonstrate a further critical role of CLIM cofactors for axonal outgrowth of motor neurons. Additionally, DN-CLIM overexpression causes an increase of Isl-protein expression levels in specific neuronal cell types, likely due to a protection of the DN-CLIM/LIM-HD complex from proteasomal degradation. Our results demonstrate multiple roles of the CLIM cofactor family for the development of entire organs, axonal outgrowth of specific neurons and protein expression levels.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY-03592(United States)
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL122494(United States)

Anti-c-myc antibody 9E10: epitope key positions and variability characterized using peptide spot synthesis on cellulose.

  • Hilpert K
  • Protein Eng.
  • 2001 Oct 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

The 9E10 antibody epitope (EQKLISEEDL) derives from a protein sequence in the human proto-oncogen p62(c-myc) and is widely used as a protein fusion tag. This myc-tag is a powerful tool in protein localization, immunochemistry, ELISA or protein purification. Here, we characterize the myc-tag epitope by substitutional analysis and length variation using peptide spot synthesis on cellulose. The key amino acids of this interaction are the core residues LISE. The shortest peptide with a strong binding signal is KLISEEDL. Dissociation constants of selected peptide variants to the antibody 9E10 were determined. scFv constructs with the shortest possible myc-tags were successfully detected by Western blot and ELISA, giving a signal comparable to that of the original myc-tag.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS081738(United States)

Immunohistochemical demonstration of altered intracellular localization of the C-Myc oncogene product in human colorectal neoplasms.

  • Williams AR
  • J. Pathol.
  • 1990 Apr 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

The distribution of the c-myc oncogene product p62 was examined by immunohistochemistry using the monoclonal antibody Mycl-9E10 in a series of 50 colorectal resections for carcinoma. The specimens were specially handled to ensure rapid fixation in formalin, and a significant improvement was shown in the quality and localization of staining compared with routinely handled specimens. Non-neoplastic mucosa showed the presence of nuclear staining of epithelial cells in 93 per cent of the samples, whilst all carcinomas showed cytoplasmic staining and infrequent nuclear staining. Adenomas showed an intermediate pattern, with significantly more frequent cytoplasmic distribution than non-neoplastic mucosa, but less than carcinomas. The results show that whilst fixation conditions are important in the immunolocalization of the c-myc protein product, there may be a consistent difference between non-neoplastic mucosa and carcinoma in the manner of association of p62 with the nucleus.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA140550(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R56 NS053897-05A1(United States)

Isolation of monoclonal antibodies specific for human c-myc proto-oncogene product.

  • Evan GI
  • Mol. Cell. Biol.
  • 1985 Dec 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Six monoclonal antibodies have been isolated from mice immunized with synthetic peptide immunogens whose sequences are derived from that of the human c-myc gene product. Five of these antibodies precipitate p62c-myc from human cells, and three of these five also recognize the mouse c-myc gene product. None of the antibodies sees the chicken p110gag-myc protein. All six antibodies recognize immunoblotted p62c-myc. These reagents also provide the basis for an immunoblotting assay by which to quantitate p62c-myc in cells.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U01 DK062444-06S1(United States)