Literature context: ignaling Technology Cat# 2250S; RRID:AB_2247211 Rabbit anti-NPAS4 Y. Lin (MIT)
Activity-dependent changes in neuronal function require coordinated regulation of the protein synthesis and protein degradation machinery to maintain protein homeostasis, critical for proper neuronal function. However, the biochemical evidence for this balance and coordination is largely lacking. Leveraging our recent discovery of a neuronal-specific 20S membrane proteasome complex (NMP), we began exploring how neuronal activity regulates its function. Here, we found that the NMP degrades exclusively a large fraction of ribosome-associated nascent polypeptides that are being newly synthesized during neuronal stimulation. Using deep-coverage and global mass spectrometry, we identified the nascent protein substrates of the NMP, which included products encoding immediate-early genes, such as c-Fos and Npas4. Intriguingly, we found that turnover of nascent polypeptides and not full-length proteins through the NMP occurred independent of canonical ubiquitylation pathways. We propose that these findings generally define a neuronal activity-induced protein homeostasis program of coordinated protein synthesis and degradation through the NMP.
Literature context: ignaling Technology Cat # 2250, RRID:AB_2247211) and rabbit anti-Calbindin-D28k
Facial vibrissae, commonly known as whiskers, are the main sensitive tactile system in rodents. Whisker stimulation triggers neuronal activity that promotes neural plasticity in the barrel cortex (BC) and helps create spatial maps in the adult hippocampus. Moreover, activity-dependent inputs and calcium homeostasis modulate adult neurogenesis. Therefore, the neuronal activity of the BC possibly regulates hippocampal functions and neurogenesis. To assess whether tactile information from facial whiskers may modulate hippocampal functions and neurogenesis, we permanently eliminated whiskers in CD1 male mice and analyzed the effects in cellular composition, molecular expression and memory processing in the adult hippocampus. Our data indicated that the permanent deprivation of whiskers reduced in 4-fold the density of c-Fos+ cells (a calcium-dependent immediate early gene) in cornu ammonis subfields (CA1, CA2 and CA3) and 4.5-fold the dentate gyrus (DG). A significant reduction in the expression of calcium-binding proteincalbindin-D28k was also observed in granule cells of the DG. Notably, these changes coincided with an increase in apoptosis and a decrease in the proliferation of neural precursor cells in the DG, which ultimately reduced the number of Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)+NeuN+ mature neurons generated after whisker elimination. These abnormalities in the hippocampus were associated with a significant impairment of spatial memory and navigation skills. This is the first evidence indicating that tactile inputs from vibrissal follicles strongly modify the expression of c-Fos and calbindin in the DG, disrupt different aspects of hippocampal neurogenesis, and support the notion that spatial memory and navigation skills strongly require tactile information in the hippocampus.
Literature context: Cell Signaling Technology; 2250 RRID:AB_2247211 rabbit monoclonal (clone 9F6) 1
Despite the reduced life expectancy and staggering financial burden of medical treatment associated with tobacco smoking, the molecular, cellular and ensemble adaptations associated with chronic nicotine consumption remain poorly understood. Complex circuitry interconnecting dopaminergic and cholinergic regions of the midbrain and mesopontine tegmentum are critical for nicotine associated reward. Yet our knowledge of the nicotine activation of these regions is incomplete, in part due to their cell type diversity. We performed double immunohistochemistry for the immediate early gene and surrogate activity sensor, c-Fos, and markers for either cholinergic, dopaminergic or GABAergic cell types in mice treated with nicotine. Both acute (0.5 mg/kg) and chronic (0.5 mg/kg/day for 7 days) nicotine strongly activated GABAergic neurons of the interpeduncular nucleus and medial terminal nucleus of the accessory optic tract (MT). Acute but not chronic nicotine also activated small percentages of dopaminergic and other neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) as well as non-cholinergic neurons in the pedunculotegmental and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei (PTg/LDTg). 24 h of nicotine withdrawal after chronic nicotine treatment suppressed c-Fos activation in the MT. In comparison to nicotine, a single dose of cocaine caused a similar activation in the PTg/LDTg but not the VTA where GABAergic cells were strongly activated but dopaminergic neurons were not affected. These results indicate the existence of drug of abuse specific ensembles. The loss of ensemble activation in the VTA and PTg/LDTg after chronic nicotine represents a molecular and cellular tolerance which may have implications for the mechanisms underlying nicotine dependence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Literature context: g Cat# 2250; RRID:AB_2247211 488-donkey-anti-rabbit Thermo F
The efficacy and duration of memory storage is regulated by neuromodulatory transmitter actions. While the modulatory transmitter serotonin (5-HT) plays an important role in implicit forms of memory in the invertebrate Aplysia, its function in explicit memory mediated by the mammalian hippocampus is less clear. Specifically, the consequences elicited by the spatio-temporal gradient of endogenous 5-HT release are not known. Here we applied optogenetic techniques in mice to gain insight into this fundamental biological process. We find that activation of serotonergic terminals in the hippocampal CA1 region both potentiates excitatory transmission at CA3-to-CA1 synapses and enhances spatial memory. Conversely, optogenetic silencing of CA1 5-HT terminals inhibits spatial memory. We furthermore find that synaptic potentiation is mediated by 5-HT4 receptors and that systemic modulation of 5-HT4 receptor function can bidirectionally impact memory formation. Collectively, these data reveal powerful modulatory influence of serotonergic synaptic input on hippocampal function and memory formation.
Literature context: ling Technology, catalog #2250; RRID:AB_2247211)] containing 3% normal donkey s
The internal environment of an organism must remain stable to ensure optimal performance and ultimately survival. The generation of motivated behaviors is an adaptive mechanism for defending homeostasis. While physiological state modulates motivated behaviors, the influence of physiological state on phasic dopamine signaling, an underlying neurobiological substrate of reward-driven behavior, is underexplored. Here, we use sodium depletion and water restriction, manipulations of body fluid homeostasis, to determine the flexibility and specificity of dopamine responses. Changes in dopamine concentration were measured using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in the nucleus accumbens shell of male rats in response to intraoral infusions of fluids that either satisfied or did not satisfy homeostatic need. Increases in dopamine concentration during intraoral infusions were observed only under conditions of physiological deficit. Furthermore, dopamine increases were selective and limited to those which satisfied the need state of the animal. Thus, dopamine neurons track fluid balance and respond to salt and water stimuli in a state and taste-dependent manner. Using Fluorogold tracing and immunohistochemistry for c-Fos and Foxp2, a marker of sodium-deprivation responsive neurons, we revealed brainstem populations of neurons that are activated by sodium depletion and project directly to the VTA. The identified projections may modulate dopamine neuron excitability and consequently the state-specific dopamine release observed in our experiments. This work illustrates the impact of physiological state on mesolimbic dopamine signaling and a potential circuit by which homeostatic disruptions are communicated to mesolimbic circuitry to drive the selective reinforcement of biologically-required stimuli under conditions of physiological need.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTMotivated behaviors arise during physiological need and are highly selective for homeostasis-restoring stimuli. While phasic dopamine signaling has been shown to contribute to the generation of motivated behaviors, the state and stimulus specificity of phasic dopamine signaling is less clear. These studies use thirst and sodium appetite to show that dopamine neurons dynamically track body fluid homeostasis and respond to water and salt stimuli in a state and taste-dependent manner. We also identify hindbrain sodium deprivation-responsive neurons that project directly to the ventral tegmental area, where dopamine neuron cell bodies reside. This work demonstrates command of homeostasis over dopamine signaling and proposes a circuit by which physiological need drives motivated behavior by state and taste-selective recruitment of phasic dopamine signaling.
Literature context: istered), c-Fos (cat. no. 2250; RRID:AB_2247211), and phospho-c-Fos (cat. no. 5
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common brain tumor in adults. Due to its highly invasive nature, it is not easy to treat, resulting in high mortality rates. Stromal interacting molecule 1 (Stim1) plays important roles in regulating store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), and controls invasion by cancer cells. However, the mechanisms and functions of Stim1 in glioma progression are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of targeting Stim1 expression on glioma cell invasion. By analyzing profiles of GBM patients from RNA-sequencing data in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), higher expression levels of STIM1 were correlated with the poor survival. Furthermore, signaling pathways associated with tumor malignancy, including the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), were activated in patients with high STIM1 expression according to gene set enrichment analyses. Higher Stim1 levels were found in glioma cells compared to human astrocytes, and these higher levels enhanced glioma cell invasion. Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated flavonoid extracted from the hop plant Humulus lupulus L. (Cannabaceae), significantly reduced cell invasion through inhibiting Stim1 expression. From an micro(mi)RNA array analysis, miR-4725-3p was upregulated by XN treatment. Overexpression of miR-4725-3p inhibited glioma cell invasion via directly targeting the 3'-untranslated region of STIM1. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase/c-Fos pathway was also validated to participate in XN-upregulated miR-4725-3p expression according to promoter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. These results emphasize that miR-4725-3p-inhibited STIM1 signaling is involved in XN-attenuated glioma cell invasion. These findings may provide insights into novel therapeutic strategies for future glioblastoma therapy and drug development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Literature context: Signaling Technology Cat#2250; RRID:AB_2247211 Chicken anti-Tyrosine Hydroxyla
Defensive responses to threatening stimuli are crucial to the survival of species. While expression of these responses is considered to be instinctive and unconditional, their magnitude may be affected by environmental and internal factors. The neural circuits underlying this modulation are still largely unknown. In mice, looming-evoked defensive responses are mediated by the superior colliculus (SC), a subcortical sensorimotor integration center. We found that repeated stress caused an anxiety-like state in mice and accelerated defensive responses to looming. Stress also induced c-fos activation in locus coeruleus (LC) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)+ neurons and modified adrenergic receptor expression in SC, suggesting a possible Th::LC-SC projection that may be involved in the accelerated defensive responses. Indeed, both anterograde and retrograde neural tracing confirmed the anatomical Th::LC-SC projection and that the SC-projecting TH+ neurons in LC were activated by repeated stress. Optogenetic stimulation of either LC TH+ neurons or the Th::LC-SC fibers also caused anxiety-like behaviors and accelerated defensive responses to looming. Meanwhile, chemogenetic inhibition of LC TH+ neurons and the infusion of an adrenergic receptor antagonist in SC abolished the enhanced looming defensive responses after repeated stress, confirming the necessity of this pathway. These findings suggest that the Th::LC-SC pathway plays a key role in the sophisticated adjustments of defensive behaviors induced by changes in physiological states.
Literature context: gy Cat# 2250 also 2250S, 2250P, RRID:AB_2247211, Lot #8
Parkinson's disease is characterized by the progressive loss of midbrain dopamine neurons. Dopamine replacement therapy with levodopa alleviates parkinsonian motor symptoms but is complicated by the development of involuntary movements, termed levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). Aberrant activity in the striatum has been hypothesized to cause LID. Here, to establish a direct link between striatal activity and dyskinesia, we combine optogenetics and a method to manipulate dyskinesia-associated neurons, targeted recombination in active populations (TRAP). We find that TRAPed cells are a stable subset of sensorimotor striatal neurons, predominantly from the direct pathway, and that reactivation of TRAPed striatal neurons causes dyskinesia in the absence of levodopa. Inhibition of TRAPed cells, but not a nonspecific subset of direct pathway neurons, ameliorates LID. These results establish that a distinct subset of striatal neurons is causally involved in LID and indicate that successful therapeutic strategies for treating LID may require targeting functionally selective neuronal subtypes.
Literature context: ignaling Technology Cat# 2250S; RRID:AB_2247211 Goat anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) High
Early life stress (ELS) in the form of child abuse/neglect is associated with an increased risk of developing social dysfunction in adulthood. Little is known, however, about the neural substrates or the neuromodulatory signaling that govern ELS-induced social dysfunction. Here, we show that ELS-induced downregulation of dopamine receptor 3 (Drd3) signaling and its corresponding effects on neural activity in the lateral septum (LS) are both necessary and sufficient to cause social abnormalities in adulthood. Using in vivo Ca2+ imaging, we found that Drd3-expressing-LS (Drd3LS) neurons in animals exposed to ELS show blunted activity in response to social stimuli. In addition, optogenetic activation of Drd3LS neurons rescues ELS-induced social impairments. Furthermore, pharmacological treatment with a Drd3 agonist, which increases Drd3LS neuronal activity, normalizes the social dysfunctions of ELS mice. Thus, we identify Drd3 in the LS as a critical mediator and potential therapeutic target for the social abnormalities caused by ELS.
Literature context: g Technology Cat: 2250; RRID:AB_2247211 Rabbit anti-Egr1 Cell Signaling
Cells decode information of signaling activation at a scale of tens of minutes by downstream gene expression with a scale of hours to days, leading to cell fate decisions such as cell differentiation. However, no system identification method with such different time scales exists. Here we used compressed sensing technology and developed a system identification method using data of different time scales by recovering signals of missing time points. We measured phosphorylation of ERK and CREB, immediate early gene expression products, and mRNAs of decoder genes for neurite elongation in PC12 cell differentiation and performed system identification, revealing the input-output relationships between signaling and gene expression with sensitivity such as graded or switch-like response and with time delay and gain, representing signal transfer efficiency. We predicted and validated the identified system using pharmacological perturbation. Thus, we provide a versatile method for system identification using data with different time scales.
Literature context: ling Cat#2250; RRID:AB_2247211 Chemicals, Peptides, and Recomb
ERK signaling regulates the expression of target genes, but it is unclear how ERK activity dynamics are interpreted. Here, we investigate this question using simultaneous, live, single-cell imaging of two ERK activity reporters and expression of Fra-1, a target gene controlling epithelial cell identity. We find that Fra-1 is expressed in proportion to the amplitude and duration of ERK activity. In contrast to previous "persistence detector" and "selective filter" models in which Fra-1 expression only occurs when ERK activity persists beyond a threshold duration, our observations demonstrate that the network regulating Fra-1 expression integrates total ERK activity and responds to it linearly. However, exploration of a generalized mathematical model of the Fra-1 coherent feedforward loop demonstrates that it can perform either linear integration or persistence detection, depending on the basal mRNA production rate and protein production delays. Our data indicate that significant basal expression and short delays cause Fra-1 to respond linearly to integrated ERK activity.
Literature context: Danvers, CA, Antibody Registry RRID:AB_2247211, 1:300 dilution), Alexa488-conj
Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which impaired decision-making and goal-directed behaviors are core features. One of the genes associated with schizophrenia is the Close Homolog of L1 (CHL1); CHL1-deficient mice are considered a model of schizophrenia-like deficits, including sensorimotor gating, interval timing and spatial memory impairments. Here we investigated temporal discounting in CHL1-deficient (KO) mice and their wild-type littermates. Although no discounting differences were found under baseline conditions, CHL1-KO mice showed increased impulsive choice following chronic unpredictable stress (fewer % larger-later choices, and reduced area under the discounting curve). Stressed CHL1-KO mice also showed decreased neuronal activation (number of cFos positive neurons) in the discounting task in the prelimbic cortex and dorsal striatum, areas thought to be part of executive and temporal processing circuits. Impulsive choice alterations were reversed by the 5-HT2C agonist Ro 60-0175. Our results provide evidence for a gene x environment, double-hit model of stress-related decision-making impairments, and identify CHL1-deficient mice as a mouse model for these deficits in regard to schizophrenia-like phenotypes.
Literature context: s (Ser32), Cell Signaling Tech, RRID:AB_2247211, D82C12 diluted 1:8000] in 4 pe
We recently developed a rat model of context-induced relapse to alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence to mimic relapse after self-imposed abstinence due to adverse consequences of drug use. Here, we determined the model's generality to cocaine and have begun to explore brain mechanisms of context-induced relapse to cocaine seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence, using the activity marker Fos. In exp. 1, we trained rats to self-administer cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/infusion, 6 hours/day, 12 days) in context A. Next, we transferred them to context B where for the paired group, but not unpaired group, 50 percent of cocaine-reinforced lever presses caused aversive footshock. We then tested the rats for cocaine seeking under extinction conditions in contexts A and B. We also retested them for relapse after retraining in context A and repunishment in context B. In exp. 2, we used Fos immunoreactivity to determine relapse-associated neuronal activation in brain regions of rats exposed to context A, context B or neither context. Results showed the selective shock-induced suppression of cocaine self-administration and context-induced relapse after punishment-imposed abstinence in rats exposed to paired, but not unpaired, footshock. Additionally, context-induced relapse was associated with selective activation of dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex, anterior insula, dorsal striatum, basolateral amygdala, paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, lateral habenula, substantia nigra, ventral subiculum, and dorsal raphe, but not nucleus accumbens, central amygdala, lateral hypothalamus, ventral tegmental area and other brain regions. Together, context-induced relapse after punishment-imposed abstinence generalizes to rats with a history of cocaine self-administration and is associated with selective activation of cortical and subcortical regions.
Literature context: ll Signaling Cat# 2250S; RRID:AB_2247211 Chemicals, Peptides, and Recomb
Hunger, driven by negative energy balance, elicits the search for and consumption of food. While this response is in part mediated by neurons in the hypothalamus, the role of specific cell types in other brain regions is less well defined. Here, we show that neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, expressing vesicular transporters for GABA or glutamate (hereafter, DRNVgat and DRNVGLUT3 neurons), are reciprocally activated by changes in energy balance and that modulating their activity has opposite effects on feeding-DRNVgat neurons increase, whereas DRNVGLUT3 neurons suppress, food intake. Furthermore, modulation of these neurons in obese (ob/ob) mice suppresses food intake and body weight and normalizes locomotor activity. Finally, using molecular profiling, we identify druggable targets in these neurons and show that local infusion of agonists for specific receptors on these neurons has potent effects on feeding. These data establish the DRN as an important node controlling energy balance. PAPERCLIP.
Literature context: MA, USA; RRID:AB_2247211) was used.
Conflicting evidence exists regarding the role of infralimbic cortex (IL) in the environmental control of appetitive behavior. Inhibition of IL, irrespective of its intrinsic neural activity, attenuates not only the ability of environmental cues predictive of reward availability to promote reward seeking, but also the ability of environmental cues predictive of reward omission to suppress this behavior. Here we report that such bidirectional behavioral modulation in rats is mediated by functionally distinct units of neurons (neural ensembles) that are concurrently localized within the same IL brain area but selectively reactive to different environmental cues. Ensemble-specific neural activity is thought to function as a memory engram representing a learned association between environment and behavior. Our findings establish the causal evidence for the concurrent existence of two distinct engrams within a single brain site, each mediating opposing environmental actions on a learned behavior.
Literature context: ignaling; RRID:AB_2247211), goat-Î±-s
There has recently been a resurgence of interest in psychedelics, substances that profoundly alter perception and cognition and have recently demonstrated therapeutic efficacy to treat anxiety, depression, and addiction in the clinic. The receptor mechanisms that drive their molecular and behavioral effects involve activation of cortical serotonin 5-HT2A receptors, but the responses of specific cellular populations remain unknown. Here, we provide evidence that a small subset of 5-HT2A-expressing excitatory neurons is directly activated by psychedelics and subsequently recruits other select cell types including subpopulations of inhibitory somatostatin and parvalbumin GABAergic interneurons, as well as astrocytes, to produce distinct and regional responses. To gather data regarding the response of specific neuronal populations, we developed methodology for fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to segregate and enrich specific cellular subtypes in the brain. These methods allow for robust neuronal sorting based on cytoplasmic epitopes followed by downstream nucleic acid analysis, expanding the utility of FACS in neuroscience research.
GnRH is expressed in first-trimester human placenta and increases cell invasion in extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVTs). Invasive phenotypes have been reported to be regulated by transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1) and mesenchymal cadherin-11. The aim of our study was to investigate the roles of AP-1 components (c-FOS/c-JUN) and cadherin-11 in GnRH-induced cell invasion in human EVT cells. Phosphorylated c-FOS and phosphorylated c-JUN were detected in the cell column regions of human first-trimester placental villi by immunohistochemistry. GnRH treatment increased c-FOS, c-JUN, and cadherin-11 mRNA and protein levels in immortalized EVT (HTR-8/SVneo) cells. Moreover, GnRH treatment induced c-FOS and c-JUN protein phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation. Pretreatment with antide, a GnRH antagonist, attenuated GnRH-induced cadherin-11 expression. Importantly, basal and GnRH-induced cadherin-11 expression and cell invasion were reduced by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of c-FOS, c-JUN, and cadherin-11 in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Our results suggest that GnRH induces the expression and phosphorylation of the AP-1 transcription factors c-FOS and c-JUN in trophoblast cells, which contributes to GnRH-induced elevation of cadherin-11 expression and cell invasion.