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alpha Tubulin antibody [DM1A] - Loading Control

RRID:AB_2241126

Antibody ID

AB_2241126

Target Antigen

Tuba4a human, dog, mouse

Proper Citation

(Abcam Cat# ab7291, RRID:AB_2241126)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

validation status unknown, seller recommendations provided in 2012:western blot, immunoprecipitation, immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry

Host Organism

mouse

Vendor

Abcam

Apoptotic Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Promote Malignancy of Glioblastoma Via Intercellular Transfer of Splicing Factors.

  • Pavlyukov MS
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Jul 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Aggressive cancers such as glioblastoma (GBM) contain intermingled apoptotic cells adjacent to proliferating tumor cells. Nonetheless, intercellular signaling between apoptotic and surviving cancer cells remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that apoptotic GBM cells paradoxically promote proliferation and therapy resistance of surviving tumor cells by secreting apoptotic extracellular vesicles (apoEVs) enriched with various components of spliceosomes. apoEVs alter RNA splicing in recipient cells, thereby promoting their therapy resistance and aggressive migratory phenotype. Mechanistically, we identified RBM11 as a representative splicing factor that is upregulated in tumors after therapy and shed in extracellular vesicles upon induction of apoptosis. Once internalized in recipient cells, exogenous RBM11 switches splicing of MDM4 and Cyclin D1 toward the expression of more oncogenic isoforms.

Funding information:
  • Cancer Research UK - (United Kingdom)
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA183991()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA201402()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS083767()

Exit from Naive Pluripotency Induces a Transient X Chromosome Inactivation-like State in Males.

  • Sousa EJ
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

A hallmark of naive pluripotency is the presence of two active X chromosomes in females. It is not clear whether prevention of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is mediated by gene networks that preserve the naive state. Here, we show that robust naive pluripotent stem cell (nPSC) self-renewal represses expression of Xist, the master regulator of XCI. We found that nPSCs accumulate Xist on the male X chromosome and on both female X chromosomes as they become NANOG negative at the onset of differentiation. This is accompanied by the appearance of a repressive chromatin signature and partial X-linked gene silencing, suggesting a transient and rapid XCI-like state in male nPSCs. In the embryo, Xist is transiently expressed in males and in females from both X chromosomes at the onset of naive epiblast differentiation. In conclusion, we propose that XCI initiation is gender independent and triggered by destabilization of naive identity, suggesting that gender-specific mechanisms follow, rather than precede, XCI initiation.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL085036(United States)

Evidence of altered depression and dementia-related proteins in the brains of young rats after ovariectomy.

  • Fang YY
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 Jun 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Menopause, a risk factor for brain dysfunction in women, is characterized by neuropsychological symptoms including depression and dementia, which are closely related to alterations in different brain regions after menopause. However, little is known about the variability of pathophysiologic changes associated with menopause in the brain. Here, we observed that menopause in rats induced by bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) showed depressive and dementia-related behaviors along with neuronal loss in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HIP), hypothalamus (HYP) and amygdala (AMY) by Nissl staining. Meanwhile, by immunohistochemical staining, increased microglia in the HIP and AMY and increased astrocytes in the PFC, HYP and AMY were shown. By using quantitative proteomics, we identified 146 differentially expressed proteins in the brains of OVX rats, e.g., 20 in the PFC, 41 in the HIP, 17 in the HYP and 79 in the AMY, and performed further detection by Western blotting. A link between neuronal loss and apoptosis was suggested, as evidenced by increases in adenylate kinase 2 (AK2), B-cell lymphoma 2 associated X (Bax), cleaved caspase-3 and phosphorylated p53 and decreases in Huntingtin-interacting protein K (HYPK), hexokinase (HK), and phosphorylated B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and apoptosis might be triggered by endoplasmic reticulum stress (probed by increased glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), cleaved caspase-12, phosphorylated protein kinase R (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE-1) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6)) and mitochondrial dysfunction (probed by increased cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3 and decreased sideroflexin-1 (SFXN1) and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 α subcomplex 11 (NDUFA11)). Activation of autophagy was also indicated by increased autophagy-related 7 (ATG7), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-associated protein-like 2 (GABARAPL2) and oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 1 (ORP1) and confirmed by increased microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3II/I), autophagy-related 5 (ATG5), and Beclin1 in the HIP and AMY. In the AMY, which is important in emotion, higher GABA transporter 3 (GAT3) and lower vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VgluT1) levels indicated an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, and the increased calretinin and decreased calbindin levels suggested an adjustment of GABAergic transmission after OVX. In addition, cytoskeletal abnormalities including tau hyperphosphorylation, dysregulated Ca²+ signals and glutamic synaptic impairments were observed in the brains of OVX rats. Collectively, our study showed the changes in different brain regions related to depression and dementia during menopause. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - 1K08AI097238-01(United States)

Systematic Discovery of RNA Binding Proteins that Regulate MicroRNA Levels.

  • Nussbacher JK
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

RNA binding proteins (RBPs) interact with primary, precursor, and mature microRNAs (miRs) to influence mature miR levels, which in turn affect critical aspects of human development and disease. To understand how RBPs contribute to miR biogenesis, we analyzed human enhanced UV crosslinking followed by immunoprecipitation (eCLIP) datasets for 126 RBPs to discover miR-encoding genomic loci that are statistically enriched for RBP binding. We find that 92% of RBPs interact directly with at least one miR locus, and that some interactions are cell line specific despite expression of the miR locus in both cell lines evaluated. We validated that ILF3 and BUD13 directly interact with and stabilize miR-144 and that BUD13 suppresses mir-210 processing to the mature species. We also observed that DDX3X regulates primary miR-20a, while LARP4 stabilizes precursor mir-210. Our approach to identifying regulators of miR loci can be applied to any user-defined RNA annotation, thereby guiding the discovery of uncharacterized regulators of RNA processing.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - 5T32GM007454(United States)

PINK1 Phosphorylates MIC60/Mitofilin to Control Structural Plasticity of Mitochondrial Crista Junctions.

  • Tsai PI
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mitochondrial crista structure partitions vital cellular reactions and is precisely regulated by diverse cellular signals. Here, we show that, in Drosophila, mitochondrial cristae undergo dynamic remodeling among distinct subcellular regions and the Parkinson's disease (PD)-linked Ser/Thr kinase PINK1 participates in their regulation. Mitochondria increase crista junctions and numbers in selective subcellular areas, and this remodeling requires PINK1 to phosphorylate the inner mitochondrial membrane protein MIC60/mitofilin, which stabilizes MIC60 oligomerization. Expression of MIC60 restores crista structure and ATP levels of PINK1-null flies and remarkably rescues their behavioral defects and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. In an extension to human relevance, we discover that the PINK1-MIC60 pathway is conserved in human neurons, and expression of several MIC60 coding variants in the mitochondrial targeting sequence found in PD patients in Drosophila impairs crista junction formation and causes locomotion deficits. These findings highlight the importance of maintenance and plasticity of crista junctions to cellular homeostasis in vivo.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007337(United States)

Actin nucleator Spire 1 is a regulator of ectoplasmic specialization in the testis.

  • Wen Q
  • Cell Death Dis
  • 2018 Feb 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Germ cell differentiation during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis is accompanied by extensive remodeling at the Sertoli cell-cell and Sertoli cell-spermatid interface to accommodate the transport of preleptotene spermatocytes and developing spermatids across the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and the adluminal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium, respectively. The unique cell junction in the testis is the actin-rich ectoplasmic specialization (ES) designated basal ES at the Sertoli cell-cell interface, and the apical ES at the Sertoli-spermatid interface. Since ES dynamics (i.e., disassembly, reassembly and stabilization) are supported by actin microfilaments, which rapidly converts between their bundled and unbundled/branched configuration to confer plasticity to the ES, it is logical to speculate that actin nucleation proteins play a crucial role to ES dynamics. Herein, we reported findings that Spire 1, an actin nucleator known to polymerize actins into long stretches of linear microfilaments in cells, is an important regulator of ES dynamics. Its knockdown by RNAi in Sertoli cells cultured in vitro was found to impede the Sertoli cell tight junction (TJ)-permeability barrier through changes in the organization of F-actin across Sertoli cell cytosol. Unexpectedly, Spire 1 knockdown also perturbed microtubule (MT) organization in Sertoli cells cultured in vitro. Biochemical studies using cultured Sertoli cells and specific F-actin vs. MT polymerization assays supported the notion that a transient loss of Spire 1 by RNAi disrupted Sertoli cell actin and MT polymerization and bundling activities. These findings in vitro were reproduced in studies in vivo by RNAi using Spire 1-specific siRNA duplexes to transfect testes with Polyplus in vivo-jetPEI as a transfection medium with high transfection efficiency. Spire 1 knockdown in the testis led to gross disruption of F-actin and MT organization across the seminiferous epithelium, thereby impeding the transport of spermatids and phagosomes across the epithelium and perturbing spermatogenesis. In summary, Spire 1 is an ES regulator to support germ cell development during spermatogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - HD007520(United States)

mTORC1/rpS6 regulates blood-testis barrier dynamics and spermatogenetic function in the testis in vivo.

  • Li SYT
  • Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • 2018 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The blood-testis barrier (BTB), conferred by Sertoli cells in the mammalian testis, is an important ultrastructure that supports spermatogenesis. Studies using animal models have shown that a disruption of the BTB leads to meiotic arrest, causing defects in spermatogenesis and male infertility. To better understand the regulation of BTB dynamics, we report findings herein to understand the role of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), a downstream signaling protein of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), in promoting BTB disruption in the testis in vivo, making the barrier "leaky." Overexpression of wild-type rpS6 (rpS6-WT, the full-length cDNA cloned into the mammalian expression vector pCI-neo) and a constitutively active quadruple phosphomimetic mutant cloned into pCI-neo (p-rpS6-MT) vs. control (empty pCI-neo vector) was achieved by transfecting adult rat testes with the corresponding plasmid DNA using a Polyplus in vivo-jetPEI transfection reagent. On the basis of an in vivo functional BTB integrity assay, p-rpS6-MT was found to induce BTB disruption better than rpS6-WT did (and no effects in empty vector control), leading to defects in spermatogenesis, including loss of spermatid polarity and failure in the transport of cells (e.g., spermatids) and organelles (e.g., phagosomes), to be followed by germ exfoliation. More important, rpS6-WT and p-rpS6-MT exert their disruptive effects through changes in the organization of actin- and microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeletons, which are mediated by changes in the spatiotemporal expression of actin- and MT-based binding and regulatory proteins. In short, mTORC1/rpS6 signaling complex is a regulator of spermatogenesis and BTB by modulating the organization of the actin- and MT-based cytoskeletons.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD056034()

Sperm Release at Spermiation Is Regulated by Changes in the Organization of Actin- and Microtubule-Based Cytoskeletons at the Apical Ectoplasmic Specialization-A Study Using the Adjudin Model.

  • Li L
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mechanism that regulates sperm release at spermiation is unknown. Herein, we used an animal model wherein rats were treated with adjudin, 1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carbohydrazide, via oral gavage to induce premature release of elongating/elongated spermatids, followed by round spermatids and spermatocytes. Spermatid release mimicking spermiation occurred within 6 to 12 hours following adjudin treatment and, by 96 hours, virtually all tubules were devoid of elongating/elongated spermatids. Using this model, we tracked the organization of F-actin and microtubules (MTs) by immunofluorescence microscopy, and the association of actin or MT regulatory proteins that either promote or demolish cytoskeletal integrity through changes in the organization of actin microfilaments or MTs by coimmunoprecipitation. Adjudin treatment induced an increase in the association of (1) epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (an actin barbed-end capping and bundling protein) or formin 1 (an actin nucleator) with actin and (2) end-binding protein 1 (an MT stabilizing protein) with MT shortly after adjudin exposure (at 6 hours), in an attempt to maintain spermatid adhesion to the Sertoli cell at the apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES). However, this was followed by a considerable decline of their steady-state protein levels, replacing with an increase in association of (1) actin-related protein 3 (a branched actin nucleator that converts actin filaments into a branched/unbundled network) with actin and (2) MT affinity-regulating kinase 4 (an MT destabilizing protein kinase) with MTs by 12 hours after adjudin treatment. These latter changes thus promoted actin and MT disorganization, leading to apical ES disruption and the release of elongating/elongated spermatids, mimicking spermiation. In summary, spermiation is a cytoskeletal-dependent event, involving regulatory proteins that modify cytoskeletal organization.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM071603(United States)

HMGB1 down-regulation mediates terameprocol vascular anti-proliferative effect in experimental pulmonary hypertension.

  • Nogueira-Ferreira R
  • J. Cell. Physiol.
  • 2017 Nov 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease with a poor prognosis. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) play a crucial role in PAH pathophysiology, displaying a hyperproliferative, and apoptotic-resistant phenotype. In the present study, we evaluated the potential therapeutic role of terameprocol (TMP), an inhibitor of cellular proliferation and promoter of apoptosis, in a well-established pre-clinical model of PAH induced by monocrotaline (MCT) and studied the biological pathways modulated by TMP in PASMCs. Wistar rats injected with MCT or saline (SHAM group) were treated with TMP or vehicle. On day 21 after injection, we assessed bi-ventricular hemodynamics and cardiac and pulmonary morphometry. The effects of TMP on PASMCs were studied in a primary culture isolated from SHAM and MCT-treated rats, using an iTRAQ-based proteomic approach to investigate the molecular pathways modulated by this drug. In vivo, TMP significantly reduced pulmonary and cardiac remodeling and improved cardiac function in PAH. In vitro, TMP inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of PASMCs. A total of 65 proteins were differentially expressed in PASMCs from MCT rats treated with TMP, some of which involved in the modulation of transforming growth factor beta pathway and DNA transcription. Anti-proliferative effect of TMP seems to be explained, at least in part, by the down-regulation of the transcription factor HMGB1. Our findings support the beneficial role of TMP in PAH and suggest that it may be an effective therapeutic option to be considered in the clinical management of PAH.

Regulation of spermatogenesis by a local functional axis in the testis: role of the basement membrane-derived noncollagenous 1 domain peptide.

  • Chen H
  • FASEB J.
  • 2017 Oct 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Spermatogenesis takes place in the epithelium of the seminiferous tubules of the testes, producing millions of spermatozoa per day in an adult male in rodents and humans. Thus, multiple cellular events that are regulated by an array of signaling molecules and pathways are tightly coordinated to support spermatogenesis. Here, we report findings of a local regulatory axis between the basement membrane (BM), the blood-testis barrier (BTB), and the apical ectoplasmic specialization (apical ES; a testis-specific, actin-rich adherens junction at the Sertoli cell-spermatid interface) to coordinate cellular events across the seminiferous epithelium during the epithelial cycle. In short, a biologically active fragment, noncollagenous 1 (NC1) domain that is derived from collagen chains in the BM, was found to modulate cell junction dynamics at the BTB and apical ES. NC1 domain from the collagen α3(IV) chain was cloned into a mammalian expression vector, pCI-neo, with and without a collagen signal peptide. We also prepared a specific Ab against the purified recombinant NC1 domain peptide. These reagents were used to examine whether overexpression of NC1 domain with high transfection efficacy would perturb spermatogenesis, in particular, spermatid adhesion (i.e., inducing apical ES degeneration) and BTB function (i.e., basal ES and tight junction disruption, making the barrier leaky), in the testis in vivo We report our findings that NC1 domain derived from collagen α3(IV) chain-a major structural component of the BM-was capable of inducing BTB remodeling, making the BTB leaky in studies in vivo Furthermore, NC1 domain peptide was transported across the epithelium via a microtubule-dependent mechanism and is capable of inducing apical ES degeneration, which leads to germ cell exfoliation from the seminiferous epithelium. Of more importance, we show that NC1 domain peptide exerted its regulatory effect by disorganizing actin microfilaments and microtubules in Sertoli cells so that they failed to support cell adhesion and transport of germ cells and organelles (e.g., residual bodies, phagosomes) across the seminiferous epithelium. This local regulatory axis between the BM, BTB, and the apical ES thus coordinates cellular events that take place across the seminiferous epithelium during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis.-Chen, H., Mruk, D. D., Lee, W. M., Cheng, C. Y. Regulation of spermatogenesis by a local functional axis in the testis: role of the basement membrane-derived noncollagenous 1 domain peptide.

Cell-Intrinsic Glycogen Metabolism Supports Early Glycolytic Reprogramming Required for Dendritic Cell Immune Responses.

  • Thwe PM
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Sep 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dendritic cell (DC) activation by Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists causes rapid glycolytic reprogramming that is required to meet the metabolic demands of their immune activation. Recent efforts in the field have identified an important role for extracellular glucose sourcing to support DC activation. However, the contributions of intracellular glucose stores to these processes have not been well characterized. We demonstrate that DCs possess intracellular glycogen stores and that cell-intrinsic glycogen metabolism supports the early effector functions of TLR-activated DCs. Inhibition of glycogenolysis significantly attenuates TLR-mediated DC maturation and impairs their ability to initiate lymphocyte activation. We further report that DCs exhibit functional compartmentalization of glucose- and glycogen-derived carbons, where these substrates preferentially contribute to distinct metabolic pathways. This work provides novel insights into nutrient homeostasis in DCs, demonstrating that differential utilization of glycogen and glucose metabolism regulates their optimal immune function.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P30 GM118228()

Identification of Chlamydomonas Central Core Centriolar Proteins Reveals a Role for Human WDR90 in Ciliogenesis.

  • Hamel V
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Aug 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Centrioles are evolutionarily conserved macromolecular structures that are fundamental to form cilia, flagella, and centrosomes. Centrioles are 9-fold symmetrical microtubule-based cylindrical barrels comprising three regions that can be clearly distinguished in the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii organelle: an ∼100-nm-long proximal region harboring a cartwheel; an ∼250-nm-long central core region containing a Y-shaped linker; and an ∼150-nm-long distal region ending at the transitional plate. Despite the discovery of many centriolar components, no protein has been localized specifically to the central core region in Chlamydomonas thus far. Here, combining relative quantitative mass spectrometry and super-resolution microscopy on purified Chlamydomonas centrioles, we identified POB15 and POC16 as two proteins of the central core region, the distribution of which correlates with that of tubulin glutamylation. We demonstrated that POB15 is an inner barrel protein within this region. Moreover, we developed an assay to uncover temporal relationships between centriolar proteins during organelle assembly and thus established that POB15 is recruited after the cartwheel protein CrSAS-6 and before tubulin glutamylation takes place. Furthermore, we discovered that two poc16 mutants exhibit flagellar defects, indicating that POC16 is important for flagellum biogenesis. In addition, we discovered that WDR90, the human homolog of POC16, localizes to a region of human centrioles that we propose is analogous to the central core of Chlamydomonas centrioles. Moreover, we demonstrate that WDR90 is required for ciliogenesis, echoing the findings in Chlamydomonas. Overall, our work provides novel insights into the identity and function of centriolar central core components.

PTEN controls glandular morphogenesis through a juxtamembrane β-Arrestin1/ARHGAP21 scaffolding complex.

  • Javadi A
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jul 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

PTEN controls three-dimensional (3D) glandular morphogenesis by coupling juxtamembrane signaling to mitotic spindle machinery. While molecular mechanisms remain unclear, PTEN interacts through its C2 membrane-binding domain with the scaffold protein β-Arrestin1. Because β-Arrestin1 binds and suppresses the Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein ARHGAP21, we hypothesize that PTEN controls Cdc42 -dependent morphogenic processes through a β-Arrestin1-ARHGAP21 complex. Here, we show that PTEN knockdown (KD) impairs β-Arrestin1 membrane localization, β-Arrestin1-ARHGAP21 interactions, Cdc42 activation, mitotic spindle orientation and 3D glandular morphogenesis. Effects of PTEN deficiency were phenocopied by β-Arrestin1 KD or inhibition of β-Arrestin1-ARHGAP21 interactions. Conversely, silencing of ARHGAP21 enhanced Cdc42 activation and rescued aberrant morphogenic processes of PTEN-deficient cultures. Expression of the PTEN C2 domain mimicked effects of full-length PTEN but a membrane-binding defective mutant of the C2 domain abrogated these properties. Our results show that PTEN controls multicellular assembly through a membrane-associated regulatory protein complex composed of β-Arrestin1, ARHGAP21 and Cdc42.

Lineage commitment of embryonic cells involves MEK1-dependent clearance of pluripotency regulator Ventx2.

  • Scerbo P
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

During early embryogenesis, cells must exit pluripotency and commit to multiple lineages in all germ-layers. How this transition is operated in vivo is poorly understood. Here, we report that MEK1 and the Nanog-related transcription factor Ventx2 coordinate this transition. MEK1 was required to make Xenopus pluripotent cells competent to respond to all cell fate inducers tested. Importantly, MEK1 activity was necessary to clear the pluripotency protein Ventx2 at the onset of gastrulation. Thus, concomitant MEK1 and Ventx2 knockdown restored the competence of embryonic cells to differentiate. Strikingly, MEK1 appeared to control the asymmetric inheritance of Ventx2 protein following cell division. Consistently, when Ventx2 lacked a functional PEST-destruction motif, it was stabilized, displayed symmetric distribution during cell division and could efficiently maintain pluripotency gene expression over time. We suggest that asymmetric clearance of pluripotency regulators may represent an important mechanism to ensure the progressive assembly of primitive embryonic tissues.

Aging Triggers Cytoplasmic Depletion and Nuclear Translocation of the E3 Ligase Mahogunin: A Function for Ubiquitin in Neuronal Survival.

  • Benvegnù S
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 May 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

A decline in proteasome function is causally connected to neuronal aging and aging-associated neuropathologies. By using hippocampal neurons in culture and in vivo, we show that aging triggers a reduction and a cytoplasm-to-nucleus redistribution of the E3 ubiquitin ligase mahogunin (MGRN1). Proteasome impairment induces MGRN1 monoubiquitination, the key post-translational modification for its nuclear entry. One potential mechanism for MGRN1 monoubiquitination is via progressive deubiquitination at the proteasome of polyubiquitinated MGRN1. Once in the nucleus, MGRN1 potentiates the transcriptional cellular response to proteotoxic stress. Inhibition of MGRN1 impairs ATF3-mediated neuronal responsiveness to proteosomal stress and increases neuronal stress, while increasing MGRN1 ameliorates signs of neuronal aging, including cognitive performance in old animals. Our results imply that, among others, the strength of neuronal survival in a proteasomal deterioration background, like during aging, depends on the fine-tuning of ubiquitination-deubiquitination.

A subcellular map of the human proteome.

  • Thul PJ
  • Science
  • 2017 May 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Resolving the spatial distribution of the human proteome at a subcellular level can greatly increase our understanding of human biology and disease. Here we present a comprehensive image-based map of subcellular protein distribution, the Cell Atlas, built by integrating transcriptomics and antibody-based immunofluorescence microscopy with validation by mass spectrometry. Mapping the in situ localization of 12,003 human proteins at a single-cell level to 30 subcellular structures enabled the definition of the proteomes of 13 major organelles. Exploration of the proteomes revealed single-cell variations in abundance or spatial distribution and localization of about half of the proteins to multiple compartments. This subcellular map can be used to refine existing protein-protein interaction networks and provides an important resource to deconvolute the highly complex architecture of the human cell.

The Sec61 translocon limits IRE1α signaling during the unfolded protein response.

  • Sundaram A
  • Elife
  • 2017 May 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

IRE1α is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localized endonuclease activated by misfolded proteins in the ER. Previously, we demonstrated that IRE1α forms a complex with the Sec61 translocon, to which its substrate XBP1u mRNA is recruited for cleavage during ER stress (Plumb et al., 2015). Here, we probe IRE1α complexes in cells with blue native PAGE immunoblotting. We find that IRE1α forms a hetero-oligomeric complex with the Sec61 translocon that is activated upon ER stress with little change in the complex. In addition, IRE1α oligomerization, activation, and inactivation during ER stress are regulated by Sec61. Loss of the IRE1α-Sec61 translocon interaction as well as severe ER stress conditions causes IRE1α to form higher-order oligomers that exhibit continuous activation and extended cleavage of XBP1u mRNA. Thus, we propose that the Sec61-IRE1α complex defines the extent of IRE1α activity and may determine cell fate decisions during ER stress conditions.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007223()

CRISPR/Cas9 Screens Reveal Epstein-Barr Virus-Transformed B Cell Host Dependency Factors.

  • Ma Y
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 May 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes endemic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and immunosuppression-related lymphomas. These B cell malignancies arise by distinct transformation pathways and have divergent viral and host expression programs. To identify host dependency factors resulting from these EBV+, B cell-transformed cell states, we performed parallel genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 loss-of-function screens in BL and lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). These highlighted 57 BL and 87 LCL genes uniquely important for their growth and survival. LCL hits were enriched for EBV-induced genes, including viral super-enhancer targets. Our systematic approach uncovered key mechanisms by which EBV oncoproteins activate the PI3K/AKT pathway and evade tumor suppressor responses. LMP1-induced cFLIP was found to be critical for LCL defense against TNFα-mediated programmed cell death, whereas EBV-induced BATF/IRF4 were critical for BIM suppression and MYC induction in LCLs. Finally, EBV super-enhancer-targeted IRF2 protected LCLs against Blimp1-mediated tumor suppression. Our results identify viral transformation-driven synthetic lethal targets for therapeutic intervention.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI123420()

Validation of commercially available sphingosine kinase 2 antibodies for use in immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence.

  • Neubauer HA
  • F1000Res
  • 2017 Apr 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Sphingosine kinase 2 (SK2) is a ubiquitously expressed lipid kinase that has important, albeit complex and poorly understood, roles in regulating cell survival and cell death. In addition to being able to promote cell cycle arrest and apoptosis under certain conditions, it has recently been shown that SK2 can promote neoplastic transformation and tumorigenesis in vivo. Therefore, well validated and reliable tools are required to study and better understand the true functions of SK2. Here, we compare two commercially available SK2 antibodies: a rabbit polyclonal antibody from Proteintech that recognizes amino acids 266-618 of human SK2a, and a rabbit polyclonal antibody from ECM Biosciences that recognizes amino acids 36-52 of human SK2a. We examine the performance of these antibodies for use in immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence staining of endogenous SK2, using human HEK293 and HeLa cell lines, as well as mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Furthermore, we assess the specificity of these antibodies to the target protein through the use of siRNA-mediated SK2 knockdown and SK2 knockout ( Sphk2-/-) MEFs. Our results demonstrate that the Proteintech anti-SK2 antibody reproducibly displayed superior sensitivity and selectivity towards SK2 in immunoblot analyses, while the ECM Biosciences anti-SK2 antibody was reproducibly superior for SK2 immunoprecipitation and detection by immunofluorescence staining. Notably, both antibodies produced non-specific bands and staining in the MEFs, which was not observed with the human cell lines. Therefore, we conclude that the Proteintech SK2 antibody is a valuable reagent for use in immunoblot analyses, and the ECM Biosciences SK2 antibody is a useful tool for SK2 immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence staining, at least in the human cell lines employed in this study.

Insulin Signaling Regulates the FoxM1/PLK1/CENP-A Pathway to Promote Adaptive Pancreatic β Cell Proliferation.

  • Shirakawa J
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Apr 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Investigation of cell-cycle kinetics in mammalian pancreatic β cells has mostly focused on transition from the quiescent (G0) to G1 phase. Here, we report that centromere protein A (CENP-A), which is required for chromosome segregation during the M-phase, is necessary for adaptive β cell proliferation. Receptor-mediated insulin signaling promotes DNA-binding activity of FoxM1 to regulate expression of CENP-A and polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1) by modulating cyclin-dependent kinase-1/2. CENP-A deposition at the centromere is augmented by PLK1 to promote mitosis, while knocking down CENP-A limits β cell proliferation and survival. CENP-A deficiency in β cells leads to impaired adaptive proliferation in response to pregnancy, acute and chronic insulin resistance, and aging in mice. Insulin-stimulated CENP-A/PLK1 protein expression is blunted in islets from patients with type 2 diabetes. These data implicate the insulin-FoxM1/PLK1/CENP-A pathway-regulated mitotic cell-cycle progression as an essential component in the β cell adaptation to delay and/or prevent progression to diabetes.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK036836()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK055523()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK067536()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK103215()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - UC4 DK104167()

Artemisinins Target GABAA Receptor Signaling and Impair α Cell Identity.

  • Li J
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jan 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Type 1 diabetes is characterized by the destruction of pancreatic β cells, and generating new insulin-producing cells from other cell types is a major aim of regenerative medicine. One promising approach is transdifferentiation of developmentally related pancreatic cell types, including glucagon-producing α cells. In a genetic model, loss of the master regulatory transcription factor Arx is sufficient to induce the conversion of α cells to functional β-like cells. Here, we identify artemisinins as small molecules that functionally repress Arx by causing its translocation to the cytoplasm. We show that the protein gephyrin is the mammalian target of these antimalarial drugs and that the mechanism of action of these molecules depends on the enhancement of GABAA receptor signaling. Our results in zebrafish, rodents, and primary human pancreatic islets identify gephyrin as a druggable target for the regeneration of pancreatic β cell mass from α cells.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD084409(United States)

Coordination of Actin- and Microtubule-Based Cytoskeletons Supports Transport of Spermatids and Residual Bodies/Phagosomes During Spermatogenesis in the Rat Testis.

  • Tang EI
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Apr 2

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Abstract:

Germ cell transport across the seminiferous epithelium during spermatogenesis requires the intricate coordination of cell junctions, signaling proteins, and both actin- and microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeletons. Although the involvement of cytoskeletons in germ cell transport has been suggested, the precise mechanism(s) remains elusive. Based on growing evidence that actin and MT interactions underlie fundamental cellular processes, such as cell motility, it is unlikely that actin- and MT-based cytoskeletons work independently to regulate germ cell transport in the testis. Using rats treated with adjudin, a potential male contraceptive that disrupts spermatid adhesion and transport in the testis, as a study model, we show herein that actin- and MT-based cytoskeletons are both necessary for transport of spermatids and residual bodies/phagosomes across the seminiferous epithelium in adult rat testes. Analysis of intratubular expression of F-actin and tubulin revealed disruption of both actin and MT networks, concomitant with misdirected spermatids and phagosomes in rats treated with adjudin. Actin regulatory proteins, epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 and actin-related protein 3, were mislocalized and down-regulated at the actin-rich anchoring junction between germ and Sertoli cells (apical ectoplasmic specialization) after adjudin treatment. Nonreceptor tyrosine kinase p-FAK-Tyr(407), known to regulate F-actin nucleation via actin-related protein 3, was also mislocalized and down-regulated at the apical ectoplasmic specialization, corroborating the observation of actin cytoskeleton disruption. Additionally, spatiotemporal expression of MT regulatory protein end-binding protein 1, shown to be involved in MT-actin cross talk herein, was also disrupted after adjudin treatment. In summary, spermatid/phagosome transport across the epithelium during spermatogenesis requires the coordination between actin- and MT-based cytoskeletons.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - T32 MH019983(United States)

Dp412e: a novel human embryonic dystrophin isoform induced by BMP4 in early differentiated cells.

  • Massouridès E
  • Skelet Muscle
  • 2015 Nov 16

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Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating X-linked recessive genetic myopathy. DMD physiopathology is still not fully understood and a prenatal onset is suspected but difficult to address. METHODS: The bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is a critical signaling molecule involved in mesoderm commitment. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from DMD and healthy individuals and human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) treated with BMP4 allowed us to model the early steps of myogenesis in normal and DMD contexts. RESULTS: Unexpectedly, 72h following BMP4 treatment, a new long DMD transcript was detected in all tested hiPSCs and hESCs, at levels similar to that found in adult skeletal muscle. This novel transcript named "Dp412e" has a specific untranslated first exon which is conserved only in a sub-group of anthropoids including human. The corresponding novel dystrophin protein of 412-kiloDalton (kDa), characterized by an N-terminal-truncated actin-binding domain, was detected in normal BMP4-treated hiPSCs/hESCs and in embryoid bodies. Finally, using a phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO) targeting the DMD exon 53, we demonstrated the feasibility of exon skipping validation with this BMP4-inducible hiPSCs model. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the use of hiPSCs to analyze early phases of human development in normal and DMD contexts has led to the discovery of an embryonic 412 kDa dystrophin isoform. Deciphering the regulation process(es) and the function(s) associated to this new isoform can contribute to a better understanding of the DMD physiopathology and potential developmental defects. Moreover, the simple and robust BMP4-inducible model highlighted here, providing large amount of a long DMD transcript and the corresponding protein in only 3 days, is already well-adapted to high-throughput and high-content screening approaches. Therefore, availability of this powerful cell platform can accelerate the development, validation and improvement of DMD genetic therapies.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL60714(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK097820(United States)

Formin 1 Regulates Ectoplasmic Specialization in the Rat Testis Through Its Actin Nucleation and Bundling Activity.

  • Li N
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Aug 18

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Abstract:

During spermatogenesis, developing spermatids and preleptotene spermatocytes are transported across the adluminal compartment and the blood-testis barrier (BTB), respectively, so that spermatids line up near the luminal edge to prepare for spermiation, whereas preleptotene spermatocytes enter the adluminal compartment to differentiate into late spermatocytes to prepare for meiosis I/II. These cellular events involve actin microfilament reorganization at the testis-specific, actin-rich Sertoli-spermatid and Sertoli-Sertoli cell junction called apical and basal ectoplasmic specialization (ES). Formin 1, an actin nucleation protein known to promote actin microfilament elongation and bundling, was expressed at the apical ES but limited to stage VII of the epithelial cycle, whereas its expression at the basal ES/BTB stretched from stage III to stage VI, diminished in stage VII, and was undetectable in stage VIII tubules. Using an in vitro model of studying Sertoli cell BTB function by RNA interference and biochemical assays to monitor actin bundling and polymerization activity, a knockdown of formin 1 in Sertoli cells by approximately 70% impeded the tight junction-permeability function. This disruptive effect on the tight junction barrier was mediated by a loss of actin microfilament bundling and actin polymerization capability mediated by changes in the localization of branched actin-inducing protein Arp3 (actin-related protein 3), and actin bundling proteins Eps8 (epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8) and palladin, thereby disrupting cell adhesion. Formin 1 knockdown in vivo was found to impede spermatid adhesion, transport, and polarity, causing defects in spermiation in which elongated spermatids remained embedded into the epithelium in stage IX tubules, mediated by changes in the spatiotemporal expression of Arp3, Eps8, and palladin. In summary, formin 1 is a regulator of ES dynamics.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U24 DK059637(United States)

Disruption of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B expression in the pancreas affects β-cell function.

  • Liu S
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Sep 25

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Abstract:

Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a physiological regulator of glucose homeostasis and energy balance. However, the role of PTP1B in pancreatic endocrine function remains largely unknown. To investigate the metabolic role of pancreatic PTP1B, we generated mice with pancreas PTP1B deletion (panc-PTP1B KO). Mice were fed regular chow or a high-fat diet, and metabolic parameters, insulin secretion and glucose tolerance were determined. On regular chow, panc-PTP1B KO and control mice exhibited comparable glucose tolerance whereas aged panc-PTP1B KO exhibited mild glucose intolerance. Furthermore, high-fat feeding promoted earlier impairment of glucose tolerance and attenuated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in panc-PTP1B KO mice. The secretory defect in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was recapitulated in primary islets ex vivo, suggesting that the effects were likely cell-autonomous. At the molecular level, PTP1B deficiency in vivo enhanced basal and glucose-stimulated tyrosyl phosphorylation of EphA5 in islets. Consistently, PTP1B overexpression in the glucose-responsive MIN6 β-cell line attenuated EphA5 tyrosyl phosphorylation, and substrate trapping identified EphA5 as a PTP1B substrate. In summary, these studies identify a novel role for PTP1B in pancreatic endocrine function.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS084959(United States)

β-Cell proliferation after a partial pancreatectomy is independent of IRS-2 in mice.

  • Togashi Y
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 May 21

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Abstract:

The glucokinase-induced up-regulation of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS-2) plays an important role in β-cell adaptive proliferation in response to high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. This study aimed to investigate the role of IRS-2 in the proliferation of β-cells after a 60% partial pancreatectomy. IRS-2-deficient (IRS-2(-/-)) mice or wild-type mice were subjected to a pancreatectomy (60% partial pancreatectomy) or a sham operation (Sham). The β-cell proliferation and gene expression profiles of the islets were then assessed. Gene expression in islets from pancreatectomized and Sham C57BL/6J male mice was analyzed using a cDNA microarray analysis. To compare with β-cell proliferation induced by a high-fat diet, Gck(+/-) mice subjected to a pancreatectomy were also analyzed. The IRS-2(-/-) mice exhibited β-cell expansion and a significant increase in β-cell proliferation after the pancreatectomy, compared with the Sham group. Although glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from islets was not impaired, IRS-2(-/-) mice manifested severe hyperglycemia after the pancreatectomy. The expression levels of Aurora kinase B, Cyclin A, and Cyclin B1 in the pancreatectomized islets were also enhanced in the IRS-2(-/-) mice. A gene set enrichment analysis suggested an association between the genes that were up-regulated in the pancreatectomized islets and those involved in M phase progression in the cell cycle. β-Cell proliferation after a pancreatectomy was observed even in the Gck(+/-) mice. In conclusion, IRS-2 was not required for β-cell proliferation but might be needed for functional β-cell mass, after a pancreatectomy. A partial pancreatectomy in mice may be an attractive model for the development of new strategy for exploring the unique nature of β-cell proliferation.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R03 NS071442(United States)

Chronically increased ciliary neurotrophic factor and fibroblast growth factor-2 expression after spinal contusion in rats.

  • Tripathi RB
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Sep 10

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Abstract:

Demyelination and oligodendrocyte loss following spinal cord injury (SCI) are well documented. Recently, we showed oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) accumulation and robust oligodendrocyte genesis occurring along SCI lesion borders. We have since begun investigating potential mechanisms for this endogenous repair response. Here, we examined ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) expression, because both factors alter progenitor proliferation and differentiation and are increased in several CNS disorders. We hypothesized that CNTF and FGF-2 would increase after SCI, especially in regions of enhanced oligogenesis. First, CNTF protein was quantified using Western blots, which revealed that CNTF protein continually rose through 28 days post injury (dpi). Next, by using immunohistochemistry, we examined the spatiotemporal expression of CNTF in cross-sections spanning the injury site. CNTF immunoreactivity was observed on astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in naïve and contused spinal cords. Significantly increased CNTF was detected in spared white and gray matter between 5 and 28 dpi compared with uninjured controls. By 28 dpi, CNTF expression was significantly higher along lesion borders compared with outlying spared tissue; a similar distribution of phosphorylated STAT3, a transcription factor up-regulated by CNTF and to a lesser extent FGF-2, was also detected. Because CNTF can potentiate FGF-2 expression, we examined the distribution of FGF-2+ cells. Significantly more FGF-2+ cells were noted along lesion borders at 7 and 28 dpi. Thus, both CNTF and FGF-2 are present in regions of elevated OPC proliferation and oligodendrocyte generation after SCI and therefore may play a role in injury-induced gliogenesis.

Neuronal expression and subcellular localization of cholesterol 24-hydroxylase in the mouse brain.

  • Ramirez DM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Apr 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cholesterol 24-hydroxylase is a cytochrome P450 (CYP46A1) that is selectively expressed in the brain and is responsible for the majority of cholesterol turnover in the central nervous system. Mice deficient in 24-hydroxylase exhibit impaired learning and defective hippocampal long-term potentiation, suggesting that the metabolism of cholesterol by this enzyme is required for learning and memory formation. To determine where in the neuron cholesterol turnover was taking place, monoclonal antibodies directed against 24-hydroxylase were generated by immunization of mice with recombinant protein and used to detect the enzyme in brain homogenates, cultured neurons, and histological sections. 24-Hydroxylase was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and was distributed throughout the cell bodies and dendrites of multiple types of neurons; the enzyme was not detected in axon terminals or in the cells of 24-hydroxylase knockout mice. 24-Hydroxylase was highly expressed in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus and cortex, in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, and in hippocampal and cerebellar interneurons. Within the retina, 24-hydroxylase was detected in ganglion cells and some but not all cells of the inner nuclear layer. These findings reveal the microsomal localization of 24-hydroxylase and provide subcellular insight into cholesterol turnover in the brain.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS045195(United States)