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Mouse Anti-Actin, beta Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone AC-15

RRID:AB_2223210

Antibody ID

AB_2223210

Target Antigen

beta Actin bovine, canine, chicken/avian, drosophila, feline, fish, guinea pig, human, mouse, other, porcine, rabbit, rat, sheep, reacts with human, mouse, rat, cat, chicken, cow, dog, fish, guinea pig, hamster, marmoset (common), opossum, pig, rabbit and sheepdetects beta actin in a wide variety of tissues and speciesdoes not react with dictyostelium discoideum or fruit fly (drosophila melanogaster)does not react with adult cardiac or skeletal muscle or amoeba beta actinnot yet tested in other species

Proper Citation

(Abcam Cat# ab6276, RRID:AB_2223210)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

validation status unknown, seller recommendations provided in 2012: Affinity purification; ELISA; Immunocytochemistry; Immunofluorescence; Immunohistochemistry; Other; Western Blot; Dot Blot, I-ELISA, Immunocytochemistry, Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry-FoFr, Immunohistochemistry-Fr, Immunohistochemistry-P, IM, Western Blot

Clone ID

AC-15

Host Organism

mouse

IKKβ inhibition prevents fat-induced beta cell dysfunction in vitro and in vivo in rodents.

  • Ivovic A
  • Diabetologia
  • 2018 Jun 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We have previously shown that oxidative stress plays a causal role in beta cell dysfunction induced by fat. Here, we address whether the proinflammatory kinase inhibitor of (nuclear factor) κB kinase β (IKKβ), which is activated by oxidative stress, is also implicated. METHODS: Fat (oleate or olive oil) was infused intravenously in Wistar rats for 48 h with or without the IKKβ inhibitor salicylate. Thereafter, beta cell function was evaluated in vivo using hyperglycaemic clamps or ex vivo in islets isolated from fat-treated rats. We also exposed rat islets to oleate in culture, with or without salicylate and 4(2'-aminoethyl)amino-1,8-dimethylimidazo(1,2-a)quinoxaline; BMS-345541 (BMS, another inhibitor of IKKβ) and evaluated beta cell function in vitro. Furthermore, oleate was infused in mice treated with BMS and in beta cell-specific Ikkb-null mice. RESULTS: 48 h infusion of fat impaired beta-cell function in vivo, assessed using the disposition index (DI), in rats (saline: 1.41 ± 0.13; oleate: 0.95 ± 0.11; olive oil [OLO]: 0.87 ± 0.15; p < 0.01 for both fats vs saline) and in mice (saline: 2.51 ± 0.39; oleate: 1.20 ± 0.19; p < 0.01 vs saline) and ex vivo (i.e., insulin secretion, units are pmol insulin islet-1 h-1) in rat islets (saline: 1.51 ± 0.13; oleate: 1.03 ± 0.10; OLO: 0.91 ± 0.13; p < 0.001 for both fats vs saline) and the dysfunction was prevented by co-infusion of salicylate in rats (oleate + salicylate: 1.30 ± 0.09; OLO + salicylate: 1.33 ± 0.23) or BMS in mice (oleate + BMS: 2.25 ± 0.42) in vivo and by salicylate in rat islets ex vivo (oleate + salicylate: 1.74 ± 0.31; OLO + salicylate: 1.54 ± 0.29). In cultured islets, 48 h exposure to oleate impaired beta-cell function ([in pmol insulin islet-1 h-1] control: 0.66 ± 0.12; oleate: 0.23 ± 0.03; p < 0.01 vs saline), an effect prevented by both inhibitors (oleate + salicylate: 0.98 ± 0.08; oleate + BMS: 0.50 ± 0.02). Genetic inhibition of IKKβ also prevented fat-induced beta-cell dysfunction ex vivo ([in pmol insulin islet-1 h-1] control saline: 0.16 ± 0.02; control oleate: 0.10 ± 0.02; knockout oleate: 0.17 ± 0.04; p < 0.05 control saline vs. control oleate) and in vivo (DI: control saline: 3.86 ± 0.40; control oleate: 1.95 ± 0.29; knockout oleate: 2.96 ± 0.24; p < 0.01 control saline vs control oleate). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our results demonstrate a causal role for IKKβ in fat-induced beta cell dysfunction in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo.

Structural Basis for Auto-Inhibition of the NDR1 Kinase Domain by an Atypically Long Activation Segment.

  • Xiong S
  • Structure
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The human NDR family kinases control diverse aspects of cell growth, and are regulated through phosphorylation and association with scaffolds such as MOB1. Here, we report the crystal structure of the human NDR1 kinase domain in its non-phosphorylated state, revealing a fully resolved atypically long activation segment that blocks substrate binding and stabilizes a non-productive position of helix αC. Consistent with an auto-inhibitory function, mutations within the activation segment of NDR1 dramatically enhance in vitro kinase activity. Interestingly, NDR1 catalytic activity is further potentiated by MOB1 binding, suggesting that regulation through modulation of the activation segment and by MOB1 binding are mechanistically distinct. Lastly, deleting the auto-inhibitory activation segment of NDR1 causes a marked increase in the association with upstream Hippo pathway components and the Furry scaffold. These findings provide a point of departure for future efforts to explore the cellular functions and the mechanism of NDR1.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - 1 R01 AI059492-01A1(United States)

Brain Transcriptomic Analysis of Hereditary Cerebral Hemorrhage With Amyloidosis-Dutch Type.

  • Grand Moursel L
  • Front Aging Neurosci
  • 2018 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type (HCHWA-D) is an early onset hereditary form of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) caused by a point mutation resulting in an amino acid change (NP_000475.1:p.Glu693Gln) in the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Post-mortem frontal and occipital cortical brain tissue from nine patients and nine age-related controls was used for RNA sequencing to identify biological pathways affected in HCHWA-D. Although previous studies indicated that pathology is more severe in the occipital lobe in HCHWA-D compared to the frontal lobe, the current study showed similar changes in gene expression in frontal and occipital cortex and the two brain regions were pooled for further analysis. Significantly altered pathways were analyzed using gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) on 2036 significantly differentially expressed genes. Main pathways over-represented by down-regulated genes were related to cellular aerobic respiration (including ATP synthesis and carbon metabolism) indicating a mitochondrial dysfunction. Principal up-regulated pathways were extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction and ECM proteoglycans in relation with an increase in the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling pathway. Comparison with the publicly available dataset from pre-symptomatic APP-E693Q transgenic mice identified overlap for the ECM-receptor interaction pathway, indicating that ECM modification is an early disease specific pathomechanism.

Funding information:
  • NIH HHS - P40 OD010440(United States)

A Novel Retrieval-Dependent Memory Process Revealed by the Arrest of ERK1/2 Activation in the Basolateral Amygdala.

  • Merlo E
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Mar 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Fully consolidated fear memories can be maintained or inhibited by retrieval-dependent mechanisms depending on the degree of re-exposure to fear cues. Short exposures promote memory maintenance through reconsolidation, and long exposures promote inhibition through extinction. Little is known about the neural mechanisms by which increasing cue exposure overrides reconsolidation and instead triggers extinction. Using auditory fear conditioning in male rats, we analyzed the role of a molecular mechanism common to reconsolidation and extinction of fear, ERK1/2 activation within the basolateral amygdala (BLA), after intermediate conditioned stimulus (CS) exposure events. We show that an intermediate re-exposure (four CS presentations) failed to activate ERK1/2 in the BLA, suggesting the absence of reconsolidation or extinction mechanisms. Supporting this hypothesis, pharmacologically inhibiting the BLA ERK1/2-dependent signaling pathway in conjunction with four CS presentations had no effect on fear expression, and the NMDA receptor partial agonist d-cycloserine, which enhanced extinction and ERK1/2 activation in partial extinction protocols (seven CSs), had no behavioral or molecular effect when given in association with four CS presentations. These molecular and behavioral data reveal a novel retrieval-dependent memory phase occurring along the transition between conditioned fear maintenance and inhibition. CS-dependent molecular events in the BLA may arrest reconsolidation intracellular signaling mechanism in an extinction-independent manner. These findings are critical for understanding the molecular underpinnings of fear memory persistence after retrieval both in health and disease.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Consolidated fear memories can be altered by retrieval-dependent mechanisms. Whereas a brief conditioned stimulus (CS) exposure promotes fear memory maintenance through reconsolidation, a prolonged exposure engages extinction and fear inhibition. The nature of this transition and whether an intermediate degree of CS exposure engages reconsolidation or extinction is unknown. We show that an intermediate cue exposure session (four CSs) produces the arrest of ERK1/2 activation in the basolateral amygdala, a common mechanism for reconsolidation and extinction. Amnestic or hypermnestic treatments given in association with four CSs had no behavioral or molecular effects, respectively. This evidence reveals a novel retrieval-dependent memory phase. Intermediate degrees of CS exposure fail to trigger reconsolidation or extinction, leaving the original memory in an insensitive state.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/E020860/1(United Kingdom)

Transmembrane Pickets Connect Cyto- and Pericellular Skeletons Forming Barriers to Receptor Engagement.

  • Freeman SA
  • Cell
  • 2018 Jan 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Phagocytic receptors must diffuse laterally to become activated upon clustering by multivalent targets. Receptor diffusion, however, can be obstructed by transmembrane proteins ("pickets") that are immobilized by interacting with the cortical cytoskeleton. The molecular identity of these pickets and their role in phagocytosis have not been defined. We used single-molecule tracking to study the interaction between Fcγ receptors and CD44, an abundant transmembrane protein capable of indirect association with F-actin, hence likely to serve as a picket. CD44 tethers reversibly to formin-induced actin filaments, curtailing receptor diffusion. Such linear filaments predominate in the trailing end of polarized macrophages, where receptor mobility was minimal. Conversely, receptors were most mobile at the leading edge, where Arp2/3-driven actin branching predominates. CD44 binds hyaluronan, anchoring a pericellular coat that also limits receptor displacement and obstructs access to phagocytic targets. Force must be applied to traverse the pericellular barrier, enabling receptors to engage their targets.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - (United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P50 GM085273()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM059907()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R35 GM119619()

Cytosolic Iron-Sulfur Assembly Is Evolutionarily Tuned by a Cancer-Amplified Ubiquitin Ligase.

  • Weon JL
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Jan 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

The cytosolic iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster assembly (CIA) pathway functions to incorporate inorganic Fe-S cofactors into a variety of proteins, including several DNA repair enzymes. However, the mechanisms regulating the CIA pathway are unknown. We describe here that the MAGE-F1-NSE1 E3 ubiquitin ligase regulates the CIA pathway through ubiquitination and degradation of the CIA-targeting protein MMS19. Overexpression or knockout of MAGE-F1 altered Fe-S incorporation into MMS19-dependent DNA repair enzymes, DNA repair capacity, sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents, and iron homeostasis. Intriguingly, MAGE-F1 has undergone adaptive pseudogenization in select mammalian lineages. In contrast, MAGE-F1 is highly amplified in multiple human cancer types and amplified tumors have increased mutational burden. Thus, flux through the CIA pathway can be regulated by degradation of the substrate-specifying MMS19 protein and its downregulation is a common feature in cancer and is evolutionarily controlled.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM15847(United States)

Topoisomerase 3α Is Required for Decatenation and Segregation of Human mtDNA.

  • Nicholls TJ
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Jan 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

How mtDNA replication is terminated and the newly formed genomes are separated remain unknown. We here demonstrate that the mitochondrial isoform of topoisomerase 3α (Top3α) fulfills this function, acting independently of its nuclear role as a component of the Holliday junction-resolving BLM-Top3α-RMI1-RMI2 (BTR) complex. Our data indicate that mtDNA replication termination occurs via a hemicatenane formed at the origin of H-strand replication and that Top3α is essential for resolving this structure. Decatenation is a prerequisite for separation of the segregating unit of mtDNA, the nucleoid, within the mitochondrial network. The importance of this process is highlighted in a patient with mitochondrial disease caused by biallelic pathogenic variants in TOP3A, characterized by muscle-restricted mtDNA deletions and chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) plus syndrome. Our work establishes Top3α as an essential component of the mtDNA replication machinery and as the first component of the mtDNA separation machinery.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - U54 AI081680(United States)

Therapeutic Antibody Targeting Tumor- and Osteoblastic Niche-Derived Jagged1 Sensitizes Bone Metastasis to Chemotherapy.

  • Zheng H
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Dec 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Bone metastasis is a major health threat to breast cancer patients. Tumor-derived Jagged1 represents a central node in mediating tumor-stromal interactions that promote osteolytic bone metastasis. Here, we report the development of a highly effective fully human monoclonal antibody against Jagged1 (clone 15D11). In addition to its inhibitory effect on bone metastasis of Jagged1-expressing tumor cells, 15D11 dramatically sensitizes bone metastasis to chemotherapy, which induces Jagged1 expression in osteoblasts to provide a survival niche for cancer cells. We further confirm the bone metastasis-promoting function of osteoblast-derived Jagged1 using osteoblast-specific Jagged1 transgenic mouse model. These findings establish 15D11 as a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention or treatment of bone metastasis.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA072720()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA134519()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA141062()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA212410()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R29 GM053989(United States)

The Wnt Inhibitor Apcdd1 Coordinates Vascular Remodeling and Barrier Maturation of Retinal Blood Vessels.

  • Mazzoni J
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Dec 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Coordinating angiogenesis with acquisition of tissue-specific properties in endothelial cells is essential for vascular function. In the retina, endothelial cells form a blood-retina barrier by virtue of tight junctions and low transcytosis. While the canonical Norrin/Fz4/Lrp5/6 pathway is essential for angiogenesis, vascular remodeling, and barrier maturation, how these diverse processes are coordinated remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that Apcdd1, a negative regulator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, is expressed in retinal endothelial cells during angiogenesis and barrier formation. Apcdd1-deficient mice exhibit a transient increase in vessel density at ages P10-P12 due to delayed vessel pruning. Moreover, Apcdd1 mutant endothelial cells precociously form the paracellular component of the barrier. Conversely, mice that overexpress Apcdd1 in retina endothelial cells have reduced vessel density but increased paracellular barrier permeability. Apcdd1 thus serves to precisely modulate Wnt/Norrin signaling activity in the retinal endothelium and coordinate the timing of both vascular pruning and barrier maturation.

PTEN Regulates PI(3,4)P2 Signaling Downstream of Class I PI3K.

  • Malek M
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Nov 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

The PI3K signaling pathway regulates cell growth and movement and is heavily mutated in cancer. Class I PI3Ks synthesize the lipid messenger PI(3,4,5)P3. PI(3,4,5)P3 can be dephosphorylated by 3- or 5-phosphatases, the latter producing PI(3,4)P2. The PTEN tumor suppressor is thought to function primarily as a PI(3,4,5)P3 3-phosphatase, limiting activation of this pathway. Here we show that PTEN also functions as a PI(3,4)P2 3-phosphatase, both in vitro and in vivo. PTEN is a major PI(3,4)P2 phosphatase in Mcf10a cytosol, and loss of PTEN and INPP4B, a known PI(3,4)P2 4-phosphatase, leads to synergistic accumulation of PI(3,4)P2, which correlated with increased invadopodia in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated cells. PTEN deletion increased PI(3,4)P2 levels in a mouse model of prostate cancer, and it inversely correlated with PI(3,4)P2 levels across several EGF-stimulated prostate and breast cancer lines. These results point to a role for PI(3,4)P2 in the phenotype caused by loss-of-function mutations or deletions in PTEN.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS037462(United States)

Small molecule Photoregulin3 prevents retinal degeneration in the RhoP23H mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa.

  • Nakamura PA
  • Elife
  • 2017 Nov 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Regulation of rod gene expression has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy to treat retinal degenerative diseases like retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We previously reported on a small molecule modulator of the rod transcription factor Nr2e3, Photoregulin1 (PR1), that regulates the expression of photoreceptor-specific genes. Although PR1 slows the progression of retinal degeneration in models of RP in vitro, in vivo analyses were not possible with PR1. We now report a structurally unrelated compound, Photoregulin3 (PR3) that also inhibits rod photoreceptor gene expression, potentially though Nr2e3 modulation. To determine the effectiveness of PR3 as a potential therapy for RP, we treated RhoP23H mice with PR3 and assessed retinal structure and function. PR3-treated RhoP23H mice showed significant structural and functional photoreceptor rescue compared with vehicle-treated littermate control mice. These results provide further support that pharmacological modulation of rod gene expression provides a potential strategy for the treatment of RP.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY021374()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P01 GM081619()

An excess dietary vitamin E concentration does not influence Nrf2 signaling in the liver of rats fed either soybean oil or salmon oil.

  • Eder K
  • Nutr Metab (Lond)
  • 2017 Nov 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to stimulate the activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), the key regulator of the antioxidant and cytoprotective defense system in the body. The hypothesis underlying this study was that high dietary concentrations of vitamin E suppress Nrf2 activation, and thus could weaken the body's antioxidative and cytoprotective capacity. As the effect of vitamin E on Nrf2 pathway might be influenced by concentrations of fatty acids susceptible to oxidation in the diet, we used also diets containing either soybean oil as a reference oil or salmon oil as a source of oil rich in n-3 polyunsatuated fatty acids. Methods: Seventy-two rats were divided into 6 groups of rats which received diets with either 25, 250 or 2500 mg vitamin E/kg, with either soybean oil or salmon oil as dietary fat sources according to a bi-factorial experimental design. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy was used to determine ROS production in the liver. qPCR analysis and western blot were performed to examine the expression of Nrf2 target genes in the liver of rats. Results: Rats fed the salmon oil diet with 25 mg vitamin E/kg showed a higher production of ROS in the liver than the 5 other groups of rats which did not differ in ROS production. Relative mRNA concentrations of NFE2L2 (encoding Nrf2), KEAP1 and various Nrf2 target genes, protein concentrations of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1) and activities of the antioxidant enzymes GPX, superoxide dismutase and catalase were not influenced by the dietary vitamin E concentration. The dietary fat had also less effect on Nrf2 target genes and no effect on protein concentrations of GPX, HO-1, NQO1 and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Dietary vitamin E concentration and type of fat moreover had less effect on mRNA concentrations of genes and concentrations of proteins involved in the unfolded protein response, a pathway which is closely linked with activation of Nrf2. Conclusion: We conclude that excess dietary concentrations of vitamin E do not suppress Nrf2 signaling, and thus do not weaken the endogenous antioxidant and cytoprotective capacity in the liver of rats.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - U01 HL098166(United States)

Prostaglandin E2 promotes neural proliferation and differentiation and regulates Wnt target gene expression.

  • Wong CT
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2017 Nov 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) is an endogenous lipid molecule that regulates important physiological functions, including calcium signaling, neuronal plasticity, and immune responses. Exogenous factors such as diet, exposure to immunological agents, toxic chemicals, and drugs can influence PGE2 levels in the developing brain and have been associated with autism disorders. This study seeks to determine whether changes in PGE2 level can alter the behavior of undifferentiated and differentiating neuroectodermal (NE-4C) stem cells and whether PGE2 signaling impinges on the Wnt/β-catenin pathways. We show that PGE2 increases proliferation of undifferentiated NE-4C stem cells. PGE2 also promotes the progression of NE-4C stem cell differentiation into neuronal-lineage cells, which is apparent by accelerated appearance of neuronal clusters (neurospheres) and earlier expression of the neuronal marker microtubule-associated protein tau. Furthermore, PGE2 alters the expression of downstream Wnt-regulated genes previously associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. In undifferentiated stem cells, PGE2 downregulates Ptgs2 expression and upregulates Mmp9 and Ccnd1 expression. In differentiating neuronal cells, PGE2 causes upregulation of Wnt3, Tcf4, and Ccnd1. The convergence of the PGE2 and the Wnt pathways is also apparent through increased expression of active β-catenin, a key signaling component of the Wnt/β-catenin pathways. This study provides novel evidence that PGE2 influences progression of neuronal development and influences Wnt target gene expression. We discuss how these findings could have potential implications for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Fatty-acid-binding protein inhibition produces analgesic effects through peripheral and central mechanisms.

  • Peng X
  • Mol Pain
  • 2017 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Background Fatty-acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular carriers for endocannabinoids, N-acylethanolamines, and related lipids. Previous work indicates that systemically administered FABP5 inhibitors produce analgesia in models of inflammatory pain. It is currently not known whether FABP inhibitors exert their effects through peripheral or central mechanisms. Here, we examined FABP5 distribution in dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord and examined the analgesic effects of peripherally and centrally administered FABP5 inhibitors. Results Immunofluorescence revealed robust expression of FABP5 in lumbar dorsal root ganglia. FABP5 was distributed in peptidergic calcitonin gene-related peptide-expressing dorsal root ganglia and non-peptidergic isolectin B4-expressing dorsal root ganglia. In addition, the majority of dorsal root ganglia expressing FABP5 also expressed transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and peripherin, a marker of nociceptive fibers. Intraplantar administration of FABP5 inhibitors reduced thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia in the complete Freund's adjuvant model of chronic inflammatory pain. In contrast to its robust expression in dorsal root ganglia, FABP5 was sparsely distributed in the lumbar spinal cord and intrathecal administration of FABP inhibitor did not confer analgesic effects. Administration of FABP inhibitor via the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) route reduced thermal hyperalgesia. Antagonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha blocked the analgesic effects of peripherally and i.c.v. administered FABP inhibitor while antagonism of cannabinoid receptor 1 blocked the effects of peripheral FABP inhibition and a TRPV1 antagonist blocked the effects of i.c.v. administered inhibitor. Although FABP5 and TRPV1 were co-expressed in the periaqueductal gray region of the brain, which is known to modulate pain, knockdown of FABP5 in the periaqueductal gray using adeno-associated viruses and pharmacological FABP5 inhibition did not produce analgesic effects. Conclusions This study demonstrates that FABP5 is highly expressed in nociceptive dorsal root ganglia neurons and FABP inhibitors exert peripheral and supraspinal analgesic effects. This indicates that peripherally restricted FABP inhibitors may serve as a new class of analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA035923()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA035949()

Negative regulation of urokinase receptor activity by a GPI-specific phospholipase C in breast cancer cells.

  • van Veen M
  • Elife
  • 2017 Aug 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

The urokinase receptor (uPAR) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein that promotes tissue remodeling, tumor cell adhesion, migration and invasion. uPAR mediates degradation of the extracellular matrix through protease recruitment and enhances cell adhesion, migration and signaling through vitronectin binding and interactions with integrins. Full-length uPAR is released from the cell surface, but the mechanism and significance of uPAR shedding remain obscure. Here we identify transmembrane glycerophosphodiesterase GDE3 as a GPI-specific phospholipase C that cleaves and releases uPAR with consequent loss of function, whereas its homologue GDE2 fails to attack uPAR. GDE3 overexpression depletes uPAR from distinct basolateral membrane domains in breast cancer cells, resulting in a less transformed phenotype, it slows tumor growth in a xenograft model and correlates with prolonged survival in patients. Our results establish GDE3 as a negative regulator of the uPAR signaling network and, furthermore, highlight GPI-anchor hydrolysis as a cell-intrinsic mechanism to alter cell behavior.

The U6 snRNA m6A Methyltransferase METTL16 Regulates SAM Synthetase Intron Retention.

  • Pendleton KE
  • Cell
  • 2017 May 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Maintenance of proper levels of the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is critical for a wide variety of biological processes. We demonstrate that the N6-adenosine methyltransferase METTL16 regulates expression of human MAT2A, which encodes the SAM synthetase expressed in most cells. Upon SAM depletion by methionine starvation, cells induce MAT2A expression by enhanced splicing of a retained intron. Induction requires METTL16 and its methylation substrate, a vertebrate conserved hairpin (hp1) in the MAT2A 3' UTR. Increasing METTL16 occupancy on the MAT2A 3' UTR is sufficient to induce efficient splicing. We propose that, under SAM-limiting conditions, METTL16 occupancy on hp1 increases due to inefficient enzymatic turnover, which promotes MAT2A splicing. We further show that METTL16 is the long-unknown methyltransferase for the U6 spliceosomal small nuclear RNA (snRNA). These observations suggest that the conserved U6 snRNA methyltransferase evolved an additional function in vertebrates to regulate SAM homeostasis.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI123165()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM094314()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM115473()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007062()

Alzheimer's disease-like pathology induced by amyloid-β oligomers in nonhuman primates.

  • Forny-Germano L
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Oct 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder and a major medical problem. Here, we have investigated the impact of amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers, AD-related neurotoxins, in the brains of rats and adult nonhuman primates (cynomolgus macaques). Soluble Aβ oligomers are known to accumulate in the brains of AD patients and correlate with disease-associated cognitive dysfunction. When injected into the lateral ventricle of rats and macaques, Aβ oligomers diffused into the brain and accumulated in several regions associated with memory and cognitive functions. Cardinal features of AD pathology, including synapse loss, tau hyperphosphorylation, astrocyte and microglial activation, were observed in regions of the macaque brain where Aβ oligomers were abundantly detected. Most importantly, oligomer injections induced AD-type neurofibrillary tangle formation in the macaque brain. These outcomes were specifically associated with Aβ oligomers, as fibrillar amyloid deposits were not detected in oligomer-injected brains. Human and macaque brains share significant similarities in terms of overall architecture and functional networks. Thus, generation of a macaque model of AD that links Aβ oligomers to tau and synaptic pathology has the potential to greatly advance our understanding of mechanisms centrally implicated in AD pathogenesis. Furthermore, development of disease-modifying therapeutics for AD has been hampered by the difficulty in translating therapies that work in rodents to humans. This new approach may be a highly relevant nonhuman primate model for testing therapeutic interventions for AD.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY13879(United States)

A serum component mediates food restriction-induced growth attenuation.

  • Pando R
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Mar 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Proper nutrition in terms of calories and essential food components is required to maximize longitudinal growth in children. Our previous study showed that prepubertal male rats subjected to 10 days of 40% food restriction (RES) exhibited a dramatic reduction in weight and epiphyseal growth plate height, as well as changes in gene expression and microRNAs (miRNAs) in the epiphyseal growth plate. These findings reversed rapidly after renewal of the regular food supply (catch-up [CU]). To further elucidate the mechanisms underlying the nutrition-growth association, serum collected from the RES and CU rats and control rats fed ad libitum (AL) was added to the culture medium of the chondrocyte cell line ATDC5 (instead of fetal calf serum). Serum from the RES group induced a reduction in cell viability (25%, P < .05) concomitant with an increase in cell differentiation compared with that for the AL group serum. The most interesting observation, in our opinion, was the significant reduction in the expression of specific miRNAs, including the chondro-specific miR-140. These effects were not observed for serum from refed (CU) rats. Serum levels of IGF-I, leptin, and fibroblast growth factor 21 were reduced by food restriction. The addition of IGF-I and leptin to the culture increased cell viability, whereas fibroblast growth factor 21 reduced it, suggesting the involvement of IGF-I, leptin, and possibly other still unidentified serum factors in chondrocyte cell growth. In conclusion, specific miRNAs respond to nutritional cues, and these effects are mediated by serum-borne factors. These results may promote the development of superior interventions for children with malnutrition and growth abnormalities.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY026024(United States)
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL112225(United States)

The presence of adenosine A2a receptor in thyrocytes and its involvement in Graves' IgG-induced VEGF expression.

  • Zhang L
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Dec 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Goitrogenesis in Graves' disease (GD) has been attributed to anti-TSH receptor antibody stimulation. Recently, a role for adenosine A2a receptor (A2aR) in goiter formation was reported in the thyroglobulin-A2aR transgenic mice. However, it is unclear whether A2aR is expressed in the thyroid and whether it is associated with the pathogenesis of goiter in GD. Here, we confirmed the expression of A2aR in FRTL-5 cells, primary normal human thyrocytes (both sexes were used without regard to sex), and thyroid tissue (both sexes were used without regard to sex) by PCR, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. After treatments with A2aR-specific agonist 2-p-(2-Carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine or GD IgG, the mRNA and protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a growth factor related to goitrogenesis, were evaluated along with upstream signaling pathways. A2aR activation and GD IgG promoted the expression of VEGF in thyrocytes, which was accompanied by the activation of cAMP/protein kinase A/phosphorylated-cAMP-response element-binding protein, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. The changes induced by GD IgG were partially abrogated by A2aR small interfering RNA and an A2aR antagonist. These results were supported by data on the goiter samples from the thyrotropin receptor adenovirus-induced GD mouse model (female). These data demonstrate that GD IgG could up-regulate the VEGF expression through A2aR, indicating a potential mechanism for goitrogenesis in GD.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - MOP-14096(Canada)
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC013048(United States)

Exogenous glucocorticoids and a high-fat diet cause severe hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia and limit islet glucose responsiveness in young male Sprague-Dawley rats.

  • Beaudry JL
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Sep 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Corticosterone (CORT) and other glucocorticoids cause peripheral insulin resistance and compensatory increases in β-cell mass. A prolonged high-fat diet (HFD) induces insulin resistance and impairs β-cell insulin secretion. This study examined islet adaptive capacity in rats treated with CORT and a HFD. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (age ∼6 weeks) were given exogenous CORT (400 mg/rat) or wax (placebo) implants and placed on a HFD (60% calories from fat) or standard diet (SD) for 2 weeks (N = 10 per group). CORT-HFD rats developed fasting hyperglycemia (>11 mM) and hyperinsulinemia (∼5-fold higher than controls) and were 15-fold more insulin resistant than placebo-SD rats by the end of ∼2 weeks (Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance [HOMA-IR] levels, 15.08 ± 1.64 vs 1.0 ± 0.12, P < .05). Pancreatic β-cell function, as measured by HOMA-β, was lower in the CORT-HFD group as compared to the CORT-SD group (1.64 ± 0.22 vs 3.72 ± 0.64, P < .001) as well as acute insulin response (0.25 ± 0.22 vs 1.68 ± 0.41, P < .05). Moreover, β- and α-cell mass were 2.6- and 1.6-fold higher, respectively, in CORT-HFD animals compared to controls (both P < .05). CORT treatment increased p-protein kinase C-α content in SD but not HFD-fed rats, suggesting that a HFD may lower insulin secretory capacity via impaired glucose sensing. Isolated islets from CORT-HFD animals secreted more insulin in both low and high glucose conditions; however, total insulin content was relatively depleted after glucose challenge. Thus, CORT and HFD, synergistically not independently, act to promote severe insulin resistance, which overwhelms islet adaptive capacity, thereby resulting in overt hyperglycemia.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - (United States)
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI074847(United States)

Induction of the metabolic regulator Txnip in fasting-induced and natural torpor.

  • Hand LE
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Jun 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Torpor is a physiological state characterized by controlled lowering of metabolic rate and core body temperature, allowing substantial energy savings during periods of reduced food availability or harsh environmental conditions. The hypothalamus coordinates energy homeostasis and thermoregulation and plays a key role in directing torpor. We recently showed that mice lacking the orphan G protein-coupled receptor Gpr50 readily enter torpor in response to fasting and have now used these mice to conduct a microarray analysis of hypothalamic gene expression changes related to the torpor state. This revealed a strong induction of thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) in the hypothalamus of torpid mice, which was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. In situ hybridization identified the ependyma lining the third ventricle as the principal site of torpor-related expression of Txnip. To characterize further the relationship between Txnip and torpor, we profiled Txnip expression in mice during prolonged fasting, cold exposure, and 2-deoxyglucose-induced hypometabolism, as well as in naturally occurring torpor bouts in the Siberian hamster. Strikingly, pronounced up-regulation of Txnip expression was only observed in wild-type mice when driven into torpor and during torpor in the Siberian hamster. Increase of Txnip was not limited to the hypothalamus, with exaggerated expression in white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue, and liver also demonstrated in torpid mice. Given the recent identification of Txnip as a molecular nutrient sensor important in the regulation of energy metabolism, our data suggest that elevated Txnip expression is critical to regulating energy expenditure and fuel use during the extreme hypometabolic state of torpor.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - R01 EB002009(United States)

PTHrP is endogenous relaxant for spontaneous smooth muscle contraction in urinary bladder of female rat.

  • Nishikawa N
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Jun 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Acute bladder distension causes various morphologic and functional changes, in part through altered gene expression. We aimed to investigate the physiologic role of PTHrP, which is up-regulated in an acute bladder distension model in female rats. In the control Empty group, bladders were kept empty for 6 hours, and in the Distension group, bladders were kept distended for 3 hours after an artificial storing-voiding cycle for 3 hours. In the Distention group bladder, up-regulation of transcripts was noted for 3 genes reported to be up-regulated by stretch in the cultured bladder smooth muscle cells in vitro. Further transcriptome analysis by microarray identified PTHrP as the 22nd highest gene up-regulated in Distension group bladder, among more than 27,000 genes. Localization of PTHrP and its functional receptor, PTH/PTHrP receptor 1 (PTH1R), were analyzed in the untreated rat bladders and cultured bladder cells using real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting, which revealed that PTH1R and PTHrP were more predominantly expressed in smooth muscle than in urothelium. Exogenous PTHrP peptide (1-34) increased intracellular cAMP level in cultured bladder smooth muscle cells. In organ bath study using bladder strips, the PTHrP peptide caused a marked reduction in the amplitude of spontaneous contraction but caused only modest suppression for carbachol-induced contraction. In in vivo functional study by cystometrogram, the PTHrP peptide decreased voiding pressure and increased bladder compliance. Thus, PTHrP is a potent endogenous relaxant of bladder contraction, and autocrine or paracrine mechanism of the PTHrP-PTH1R axis is a physiologically relevant pathway functioning in the bladder.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01AR056129(United States)

Identification of regulators of the innate immune response to cytosolic DNA and retroviral infection by an integrative approach.

  • Lee MN
  • Nat. Immunol.
  • 2013 Mar 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

The innate immune system senses viral DNA that enters mammalian cells, or in aberrant situations self-DNA, and triggers type I interferon production. Here we present an integrative approach that combines quantitative proteomics, genomics and small molecule perturbations to identify genes involved in this pathway. We silenced 809 candidate genes, measured the response to dsDNA and connected resulting hits with the known signaling network. We identified ABCF1 as a critical protein that associates with dsDNA and the DNA-sensing components HMGB2 and IFI204. We also found that CDC37 regulates the stability of the signaling molecule TBK1 and that chemical inhibition of the CDC37-HSP90 interaction and several other pathway regulators potently modulates the innate immune response to DNA and retroviral infection.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - P01 HL078825(United States)