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alpha Tubulin antibody


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

alpha Tubulin antibody chicken/bird, drosophila/arthropod, other mammalian, human, hamster, mouse, human, mouse, chicken, chinese hamster, fruit fly (drosophila melanogaster), indian muntjac

Proper Citation

(Abcam Cat# ab18251, RRID:AB_2210057)


polyclonal antibody


validation status unknown, seller recommendations provided in 2012: ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB; Immunohistochemistry; Immunocytochemistry; Immunohistochemistry - fixed; Western Blot; Immunofluorescence

Host Organism




Deletion of Tsc2 in Nociceptors Reduces Target Innervation, Ion Channel Expression, and Sensitivity to Heat.

  • Carlin D
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 May 17

Literature context:


The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is known to regulate cellular growth pathways, and its genetic activation is sufficient to enhance regenerative axon growth following injury to the central or peripheral nervous systems. However, excess mTORC1 activation may promote innervation defects, and mTORC1 activity mediates injury-induced hypersensitivity, reducing enthusiasm for the pathway as a therapeutic target. While mTORC1 activity is required for full expression of some pain modalities, the effects of pathway activation on nociceptor phenotypes and sensory behaviors are currently unknown. To address this, we genetically activated mTORC1 in mouse peripheral sensory neurons by conditional deletion of its negative regulator Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 (Tsc2). Consistent with the well-known role of mTORC1 in regulating cell size, soma size and axon diameter of C-nociceptors were increased in Tsc2-deleted mice. Glabrous skin and spinal cord innervation by C-fiber neurons were also disrupted. Transcriptional profiling of nociceptors enriched by fluorescence-associated cell sorting (FACS) revealed downregulation of multiple classes of ion channels as well as reduced expression of markers for peptidergic nociceptors in Tsc2-deleted mice. In addition to these changes in innervation and gene expression, Tsc2-deleted mice exhibited reduced noxious heat sensitivity and decreased injury-induced cold hypersensitivity, but normal baseline sensitivity to cold and mechanical stimuli. Together, these data show that excess mTORC1 activity in sensory neurons produces changes in gene expression, neuron morphology and sensory behavior.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - T32 MH019132-21(United States)

The HCMV Assembly Compartment Is a Dynamic Golgi-Derived MTOC that Controls Nuclear Rotation and Virus Spread.

  • Procter DJ
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Apr 9

Literature context:


Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a leading cause of congenital birth defects, forms an unusual cytoplasmic virion maturation site termed the "assembly compartment" (AC). Here, we show that the AC also acts as a microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) wherein centrosome activity is suppressed and Golgi-based microtubule (MT) nucleation is enhanced. This involved viral manipulation of discrete functions of MT plus-end-binding (EB) proteins. In particular, EB3, but not EB1 or EB2, was recruited to the AC and was required to nucleate MTs that were rapidly acetylated. EB3-regulated acetylated MTs were necessary for nuclear rotation prior to cell migration, maintenance of AC structure, and optimal virus replication. Independently, a myristoylated peptide that blocked EB3-mediated enrichment of MT regulatory proteins at Golgi regions of the AC also suppressed acetylated MT formation, nuclear rotation, and infection. Thus, HCMV offers new insights into the regulation and functions of Golgi-derived MTs and the therapeutic potential of targeting EB3.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA188427()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL103922()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - T32 HL094290(United States)
  • NIAID NIH HHS - P30 AI117943()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI101080()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P01 GM105536()

The Dynamics of mRNA Turnover Revealed by Single-Molecule Imaging in Single Cells.

  • Horvathova I
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Nov 2

Literature context:


RNA degradation plays a fundamental role in regulating gene expression. In order to characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics of RNA turnover in single cells, we developed a fluorescent biosensor based on dual-color, single-molecule RNA imaging that allows intact transcripts to be distinguished from stabilized degradation intermediates. Using this method, we measured mRNA decay in single cells and found that individual degradation events occur independently within the cytosol and are not enriched within processing bodies. We show that slicing of an mRNA targeted for endonucleolytic cleavage by the RNA-induced silencing complex can be observed in real time in living cells. This methodology provides a framework for investigating the entire life history of individual mRNAs from birth to death in single cells.

Funding information:
  • Austrian Science Fund FWF - S 9302(Austria)

NuMA recruits dynein activity to microtubule minus-ends at mitosis.

  • Hueschen CL
  • Elife
  • 2017 Nov 29

Literature context:


To build the spindle at mitosis, motors exert spatially regulated forces on microtubules. We know that dynein pulls on mammalian spindle microtubule minus-ends, and this localized activity at ends is predicted to allow dynein to cluster microtubules into poles. How dynein becomes enriched at minus-ends is not known. Here, we use quantitative imaging and laser ablation to show that NuMA targets dynactin to minus-ends, localizing dynein activity there. NuMA is recruited to new minus-ends independently of dynein and more quickly than dynactin; both NuMA and dynactin display specific, steady-state binding at minus-ends. NuMA localization to minus-ends involves a C-terminal region outside NuMA's canonical microtubule-binding domain and is independent of minus-end binders γ-TuRC, CAMSAP1, and KANSL1/3. Both NuMA's minus-end-binding and dynein-dynactin-binding modules are required to rescue focused, bipolar spindle organization. Thus, NuMA may serve as a mitosis-specific minus-end cargo adaptor, targeting dynein activity to minus-ends to cluster spindle microtubules into poles.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - U01 AI82226(United States)

MLL/WDR5 Complex Regulates Kif2A Localization to Ensure Chromosome Congression and Proper Spindle Assembly during Mitosis.

  • Ali A
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Jun 19

Literature context:


Mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL), along with multisubunit (WDR5, RbBP5, ASH2L, and DPY30) complex catalyzes the trimethylation of H3K4, leading to gene activation. Here, we characterize a chromatin-independent role for MLL during mitosis. MLL and WDR5 localize to the mitotic spindle apparatus, and loss of function of MLL complex by RNAi results in defects in chromosome congression and compromised spindle formation. We report interaction of MLL complex with several kinesin and dynein motors. We further show that the MLL complex associates with Kif2A, a member of the Kinesin-13 family of microtubule depolymerase, and regulates the spindle localization of Kif2A during mitosis. We have identified a conserved WDR5 interaction (Win) motif, so far unique to the MLL family, in Kif2A. The Win motif of Kif2A engages in direct interactions with WDR5 for its spindle localization. Our findings highlight a non-canonical mitotic function of MLL complex, which may have a direct impact on chromosomal stability, frequently compromised in cancer.

SMYD2-Mediated Histone Methylation Contributes to HIV-1 Latency.

  • Boehm D
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 May 10

Literature context:


Transcriptional latency of HIV is a last barrier to viral eradication. Chromatin-remodeling complexes and post-translational histone modifications likely play key roles in HIV-1 reactivation, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. We performed an RNAi-based screen of human lysine methyltransferases and identified the SET and MYND domain-containing protein 2 (SMYD2) as an enzyme that regulates HIV-1 latency. Knockdown of SMYD2 or its pharmacological inhibition reactivated latent HIV-1 in T cell lines and in primary CD4+ T cells. SMYD2 associated with latent HIV-1 promoter chromatin, which was enriched in monomethylated lysine 20 at histone H4 (H4K20me1), a mark lost in cells lacking SMYD2. Further, we find that lethal 3 malignant brain tumor 1 (L3MBTL1), a reader protein with chromatin-compacting properties that recognizes H4K20me1, was recruited to the latent HIV-1 promoter in a SMYD2-dependent manner. We propose that a SMYD2-H4K20me1-L3MBTL1 axis contributes to HIV-1 latency and can be targeted with small-molecule SMYD2 inhibitors.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - P30 AI027763()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI083139()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - U19 AI096113()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA043142()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P50 GM082250()

MAP7 Regulates Axon Collateral Branch Development in Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons.

  • Tymanskyj SR
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Feb 8

Literature context:


Collateral branches from axons are key components of functional neural circuits that allow neurons to connect with multiple synaptic targets. Like axon growth and guidance, formation of collateral branches depends on the regulation of microtubules, but how such regulation is coordinated to ensure proper circuit development is not known. Based on microarray analysis, we have identified a role for microtubule-associated protein 7 (MAP7) during collateral branch development of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons. We show that MAP7 is expressed at the onset of collateral branch formation. Perturbation of its expression by overexpression or shRNA knockdown alters axon branching in cultured DRG neurons. Localization and time-lapse imaging analysis reveals that MAP7 is enriched at branch points and colocalizes with stable microtubules, but enters the new branch with a delay, suggesting a role in branch maturation. We have also investigated a spontaneous mutant mouse that expresses a truncated MAP7 and found a gain-of-function phenotype both in vitro and in vivo Further domain analysis suggests that the amino half of MAP7 is responsible for branch formation, suggesting a mechanism that is independent of its known interaction with kinesin. Moreover, this mouse exhibits increased pain sensitivity, a phenotype that is consistent with increased collateral branch formation. Therefore, our study not only uncovers the first neuronal function of MAP7, but also demonstrates the importance of proper microtubule regulation in neural circuit development. Furthermore, our data provide new insights into microtubule regulation during axonal morphogenesis and may shed light on MAP7 function in neurological disorders.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neurons communicate with multiple targets by forming axonal branches. In search of intrinsic factors that control collateral branch development, we identified a role for microtubule-associated protein 7 (MAP7) in dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons. We show that MAP7 expression is developmentally regulated and perturbation of this expression alters branch formation. Cell biological analysis indicates that MAP7 promotes branch maturation. Analysis of a spontaneous mouse mutant suggests a molecular mechanism for branch regulation and the potential influence of collateral branches on pain sensitivity. Our studies thus establish the first neuronal function of MAP7 and demonstrate its role in branch morphogenesis and neural circuit function. These findings may help in our understanding of the contribution of MAP7 to neurological disorders and nerve regeneration.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS062047()

Vimentin Intermediate Filaments Template Microtubule Networks to Enhance Persistence in Cell Polarity and Directed Migration.

  • Gan Z
  • Cell Syst
  • 2016 Sep 28

Literature context:


Increased expression of vimentin intermediate filaments (VIFs) enhances directed cell migration, but the mechanism behind VIFs' effect on motility is not understood. VIFs interact with microtubules, whose organization contributes to polarity maintenance in migrating cells. Here, we characterize the dynamic coordination of VIF and microtubule networks in wounded monolayers of retinal pigment epithelial cells. By genome editing, we fluorescently labeled endogenous vimentin and α-tubulin, and we developed computational image analysis to delineate architecture and interactions of the two networks. Our results show that VIFs assemble an ultrastructural copy of the previously polarized microtubule network. Because the VIF network is long-lived compared to the microtubule network, VIFs template future microtubule growth along previous microtubule tracks, thus providing a feedback mechanism that maintains cell polarity. VIF knockdown prevents cells from polarizing and migrating properly during wound healing. We suggest that VIFs' templating function establishes a memory in microtubule organization that enhances persistence in cell polarization in general and migration in particular.

Erratum to: Rectocutaneous fistula with transmigration of the suture: a rare delayed complication of vault fixation with the sacrospinous ligament.

  • Kadam PD
  • Int Urogynecol J
  • 2016 Mar 25

Literature context:


There was an oversight in the Authorship of a recent Images in Urogynecology article titled: Rectocutaneous fistula with transmigration of the suture: a rare delayed complication of vault fixation with the sacrospinous ligament (DOI 10.1007/ s00192-015-2823-5). We would like to include Adj A/P Han How Chuan’s name in the list of authors. Adj A/P Han is a Senior Consultant and Department Head of Urogynaecology at the KK Hospital for Women and Children, Singapore.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01HG005855(United States)