Literature context: Rabbit anti-RFP Rockland Inc. RRID:AB_2209751 Chicken anti-vimentin Abcam RRI
Classical mechanisms through which brain-derived molecules influence behavior include neuronal synaptic communication and neuroendocrine signaling. Here we provide evidence for an alternative neural communication mechanism that is relevant for food intake control involving cerebroventricular volume transmission of the neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH). Results reveal that the cerebral ventricles receive input from approximately one-third of MCH-producing neurons. Moreover, MCH cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels increase prior to nocturnal feeding and following chemogenetic activation of MCH-producing neurons. Utilizing a dual viral vector approach, additional results reveal that selective activation of putative CSF-projecting MCH neurons increases food intake. In contrast, food intake was reduced following immunosequestration of MCH endogenously present in CSF, indicating that neuropeptide transmission through the cerebral ventricles is a physiologically relevant signaling pathway for energy balance control. Collectively these results suggest that neural-CSF volume transmission signaling may be a common neurobiological mechanism for the control of fundamental behaviors.
Literature context: AB_141725rabbit anti-RFPRockland600-401-379anti-rabbit-D2UltivueN/Arabbit a
In neurons, microtubules form dense bundles and run along the length of axons and dendrites. Occasionally, dendritic microtubules can grow from the shaft directly into dendritic spines. Microtubules target dendritic spines that are undergoing activity-dependent changes, but the mechanism by which microtubules enter spines has remained poorly understood. Using live-cell imaging, high-resolution microscopy, and local glutamate uncaging, we show that local actin remodeling at the base of a spine promotes microtubule spine targeting. Microtubule spine entry is triggered by activation of N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors and calcium influx and requires dynamic actin remodeling. Activity-dependent translocation of the actin remodeling protein cortactin out of the spine correlates with increased microtubule targeting at a single spine level. Our data show that the structural changes in the actin cytoskeleton at the base of the spine are directly involved in microtubule entry and emphasize the importance of actin-microtubule crosstalk in orchestrating synapse function and plasticity.
Literature context: 1-379, RRID:AB_2209751 Mouse anti-RFP (clone RF5R) The
Paneth cells are post-mitotic intestinal epithelial cells supporting the stem cell niche and mucosal immunity. Paneth cell pathologies are observed in various gastrointestinal diseases, but their plasticity and response to genomic and environmental challenges remain unclear. Using a knockin allele engineered at the mouse Lyz1 locus, we performed detailed Paneth cell-lineage tracing. Irradiation induced a subset of Paneth cells to proliferate and differentiate into villus epithelial cells. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed that Paneth cells sorted from irradiated mice acquired a stem cell-like transcriptome; when cultured in vitro, these individual Paneth cells formed organoids. Irradiation activated Notch signaling, and forced expression of Notch intracellular domain (NICD) in Paneth cells, but not Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation, induced their dedifferentiation. This study documents Paneth cell plasticity, particularly their ability to participate in epithelial replenishment following stem cell loss, adding to a growing body of knowledge detailing the molecular pathways controlling injury-induced regeneration.
Literature context: bit anti-RFP (1:2000, Rockland, RRID:AB_2209751) primary antibodies followed by
The vagus nerve is the primary means of neural communication between the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the brain. Vagally mediated GI signals activate the hippocampus (HPC), a brain region classically linked with memory function. However, the endogenous relevance of GI-derived vagal HPC communication is unknown. Here we utilize a saporin (SAP)-based lesioning procedure to reveal that selective GI vagal sensory/afferent ablation in rats impairs HPC-dependent episodic and spatial memory, effects associated with reduced HPC neurotrophic and neurogenesis markers. To determine the neural pathways connecting the gut to the HPC, we utilize monosynaptic and multisynaptic virus-based tracing methods to identify the medial septum as a relay connecting the medial nucleus tractus solitarius (where GI vagal afferents synapse) to dorsal HPC glutamatergic neurons. We conclude that endogenous GI-derived vagal sensory signaling promotes HPC-dependent memory function via a multi-order brainstem-septal pathway, thereby identifying a previously unknown role for the gut-brain axis in memory control.
Literature context: 0-401-379, RRID:AB_2209751), goat anti-Perilipin (Abcam #a
OBJECTIVE: The vascular system is central to sustaining tissue survival and homeostasis. Blood vessels are densely present in adipose tissues and exert essential roles in their metabolism. However, conventional immunohistochemistry methods have intrinsic limitations in examining the 3D vascular network in adipose tissues as well as other organs in general. METHODS: We established a 3D volume fluorescence-imaging technique to visualize the vasculatures in mouse adipose tissues by combining the optimized steps of whole-mount immunolabeling, tissue optical clearing, and lightsheet volume fluorescence-imaging. To demonstrate the strength of this novel imaging procedure, we comprehensively assessed the intra-adipose vasculatures under obese conditions or in response to a cold challenge. RESULTS: We show the entirety of the vascular network in mouse adipose tissues on the whole-tissue level at a single-capillary resolution for the first time in the field. We accurately quantify the pathological changes of vasculatures in adipose tissues in wild-type or obese mice (ob/ob, db/db, or diet-induced obesity). In addition, we identify significant and reversible changes of the intra-adipose vasculatures in the mice subjected to cold challenge (i.e., 4°). Furthermore, we demonstrate that the cold-induced vascular plasticity depends on the sympathetic-derived catecholamine signal and is involved in the beiging process of white adipose tissues. CONCLUSIONS: We report a 3D volume fluorescence-imaging procedure that is compatible with many areas of vascular research and is poised to serve the field in future investigations of the vascular system in adipose tissues or other research scenarios.
Literature context: 1:150, Rockland, 600-401-379, RRID:AB_2209751), anti-Albumin, goat polyclonal
ATRX is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler required for the maintenance of genomic integrity. We previously reported that conditional Atrx ablation in the mouse embryonic forebrain and anterior pituitary using the Foxg1cre driver causes reduced health and lifespan. In these mice, premature aging-like phenotypes were accompanied by low circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and thyroxine (T4), hormones that maintain stem cell pools and normal metabolic profiles, respectively. Based on emerging evidence that T4 stimulates expression of IGF-1 in pre-pubertal mice, we tested whether T4 supplementation in Atrx Foxg1cre mice could restore IGF-1 levels and ameliorate premature aging-like phenotypes. Despite restoration of normal serum T4 levels, we did not observe improvements in circulating IGF-1. In the liver, thyroid hormone target genes were differentially affected upon T4 treatment, with Igf1 and several other thyroid hormone responsive genes failing to recover normal expression levels. These findings hinted at Cre-mediated Atrx inactivation in the liver of Atrx Foxg1cre mice, which we confirmed. We conclude that the phenotypes observed in the Atrx Foxg1cre mice can be explained in part by a role of ATRX in the liver to promote T4-mediated Igf1 expression, thus explaining the inefficacy of T4 therapy observed in this study.
Literature context: and Cat# 600-401-379, RRID:AB_2209751, 1:2000); Rabbit anti-GFP Alexa
Retrogradely transported neurotropic viruses enable genetic access to neurons based on their long-range projections and have become indispensable tools for linking neural connectivity with function. A major limitation of viral techniques is that they rely on cell-type-specific molecules for uptake and transport. Consequently, viruses fail to infect variable subsets of neurons depending on the complement of surface receptors expressed (viral tropism). We report a receptor complementation strategy to overcome this by potentiating neurons for the infection of the virus of interest-in this case, canine adenovirus type-2 (CAV-2). We designed AAV vectors for expressing the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) throughout candidate projection neurons. CAR expression greatly increased retrograde-labeling rates, which we demonstrate for several long-range projections, including some resistant to other retrograde-labeling techniques. Our results demonstrate a receptor complementation strategy to abrogate endogenous viral tropism and thereby facilitate efficient retrograde targeting for functional analysis of neural circuits.
Literature context: antibody, Rockland 600-401-379, RRID:AB_2209751, Rabbit polyclonal, detects RFP
The thalamostriatal system is a major network in the mammalian brain, originating principally from the intralaminar nuclei of thalamus. Its functions remain unclear, but a subset of these projections provides a pathway through which the cerebellum communicates with the basal ganglia. Both the cerebellum and basal ganglia play crucial roles in motor control. Although songbirds have yielded key insights into the neural basis of vocal learning, it is unknown whether a thalamostriatal system exists in the songbird brain. Thalamic nucleus DLM is an important part of the song system, the network of nuclei required for learning and producing song. DLM receives output from song system basal ganglia nucleus Area X and sits within dorsal thalamus, the proposed avian homolog of the mammalian intralaminar nuclei that also receives projections from the cerebellar nuclei. Using a viral vector that specifically labels presynaptic axon segments, we show in Bengalese finches that dorsal thalamus projects to Area X, the basal ganglia nucleus of the song system, and to surrounding medial striatum. To identify the sources of thalamic input to Area X, we map DLM and cerebellar-recipient dorsal thalamus (DTCbN ). Surprisingly, we find both DLM and dorsal anterior DTCbN adjacent to DLM project to Area X. In contrast, the ventral medial subregion of DTCbN projects to medial striatum outside Area X. Our results suggest the basal ganglia in the song system, like the mammalian basal ganglia, integrate feedback from the thalamic region to which they project as well as thalamic regions that receive cerebellar output.
Literature context: 0-401-379; RRID:AB_2209751 Guinea pig anti-MAP2 Synaptic s
Defects in nucleocytoplasmic transport have been identified as a key pathogenic event in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) mediated by a GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9ORF72, the most common genetic cause of ALS/FTD. Furthermore, nucleocytoplasmic transport disruption has also been implicated in other neurodegenerative diseases with protein aggregation, suggesting a shared mechanism by which protein stress disrupts nucleocytoplasmic transport. Here, we show that cellular stress disrupts nucleocytoplasmic transport by localizing critical nucleocytoplasmic transport factors into stress granules, RNA/protein complexes that play a crucial role in ALS pathogenesis. Importantly, inhibiting stress granule assembly, such as by knocking down Ataxin-2, suppresses nucleocytoplasmic transport defects as well as neurodegeneration in C9ORF72-mediated ALS/FTD. Our findings identify a link between stress granule assembly and nucleocytoplasmic transport, two fundamental cellular processes implicated in the pathogenesis of C9ORF72-mediated ALS/FTD and other neurodegenerative diseases.
Literature context: ody Rockland Cat#: 600-401-379; RRID:AB_2209751 Mouse anti-GAD67 monoclonal ant
Sensory perception depends on interactions among cortical areas. These interactions are mediated by canonical patterns of connectivity in which higher areas send feedback projections to lower areas via neurons in superficial and deep layers. Here, we probed the circuit basis of interactions among two areas critical for touch perception in mice, whisker primary (wS1) and secondary (wS2) somatosensory cortices. Neurons in layer 4 of wS2 (S2L4) formed a major feedback pathway to wS1. Feedback from wS2 to wS1 was organized somatotopically. Spikes evoked by whisker deflections occurred nearly as rapidly in wS2 as in wS1, including among putative S2L4 → S1 feedback neurons. Axons from S2L4 → S1 neurons sent stimulus orientation-specific activity to wS1. Optogenetic excitation of S2L4 neurons modulated activity across both wS2 and wS1, while inhibition of S2L4 reduced orientation tuning among wS1 neurons. Thus, a non-canonical feedback circuit, originating in layer 4 of S2, rapidly modulates early tactile processing.
Literature context: land 600-401-379; RRID:AB_2209751 Rabbit polyclonal anti-DsRed Cl
Little is known about the organizational and functional connectivity of the corticospinal (CS) circuits that are essential for voluntary movement. Here, we map the connectivity between CS neurons in the forelimb motor and sensory cortices and various spinal interneurons, demonstrating that distinct CS-interneuron circuits control specific aspects of skilled movements. CS fibers originating in the mouse motor cortex directly synapse onto premotor interneurons, including those expressing Chx10. Lesions of the motor cortex or silencing of spinal Chx10+ interneurons produces deficits in skilled reaching. In contrast, CS neurons in the sensory cortex do not synapse directly onto premotor interneurons, and they preferentially connect to Vglut3+ spinal interneurons. Lesions to the sensory cortex or inhibition of Vglut3+ interneurons cause deficits in food pellet release movements in goal-oriented tasks. These findings reveal that CS neurons in the motor and sensory cortices differentially control skilled movements through distinct CS-spinal interneuron circuits.
Literature context: 00-401-379; RRID:AB_2209751 Rabbit anti-S100Î² Abcam Cat# ab
Astrocytes are complex bushy cells that serve important functions through close contacts between their processes and synapses. However, the spatial interactions and dynamics of astrocyte processes relative to synapses have proven problematic to study in adult living brain tissue. Here, we report a genetically targeted neuron-astrocyte proximity assay (NAPA) to measure astrocyte-synapse spatial interactions within intact brain preparations and at synaptic distance scales. The method exploits resonance energy transfer between extracellularly displayed fluorescent proteins targeted to synapses and astrocyte processes. We validated the method in the striatal microcircuitry following in vivo expression. We determined the proximity of striatal astrocyte processes to distinct neuronal input pathways, to D1 and D2 medium spiny neuron synapses, and we evaluated how astrocyte-to-excitatory synapse proximity changed following cortical afferent stimulation, during ischemia and in a model of Huntington's disease. NAPA provides a simple approach to measure astrocyte-synapse spatial interactions in a variety of experimental scenarios. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
Literature context: RRID:AB_2209751 Goat DyLight-488 anti-chicken I
To interpret visual-motion events, the underlying computation must involve internal reference to the motion status of the observer's head. We show here that layer 6 (L6) principal neurons in mouse primary visual cortex (V1) receive a diffuse, vestibular-mediated synaptic input that signals the angular velocity of horizontal rotation. Behavioral and theoretical experiments indicate that these inputs, distributed over a network of 100 L6 neurons, provide both a reliable estimate and, therefore, physiological separation of head-velocity signals. During head rotation in the presence of visual stimuli, L6 neurons exhibit postsynaptic responses that approximate the arithmetic sum of the vestibular and visual-motion response. Functional input mapping reveals that these internal motion signals arrive into L6 via a direct projection from the retrosplenial cortex. We therefore propose that visual-motion processing in V1 L6 is multisensory and contextually dependent on the motion status of the animal's head.
Literature context: i-RFP Rockland Cat#600-401-379; RRID:AB_2209751 Anti-RFP biotin Rockland Cat#60
Protective immunity against pathogens depends on the efficient generation of functionally diverse effector and memory T lymphocytes. However, whether plasticity during effector-to-memory CD8+ T cell differentiation affects memory lineage specification and functional versatility remains unclear. Using genetic fate mapping analysis of highly cytotoxic KLRG1+ effector CD8+ T cells, we demonstrated that KLRG1+ cells receiving intermediate amounts of activating and inflammatory signals downregulated KLRG1 during the contraction phase in a Bach2-dependent manner and differentiated into all memory T cell linages, including CX3CR1int peripheral memory cells and tissue-resident memory cells. "ExKLRG1" memory cells retained high cytotoxic and proliferative capacity distinct from other populations, which contributed to effective anti-influenza and anti-tumor immunity. Our work demonstrates that developmental plasticity of KLRG1+ effector CD8+ T cells is important in promoting functionally versatile memory cells and long-term protective immunity.
Literature context: ne 600-401-379; RRID:AB_2209751 Rabbit anti-phospho-SMAD2/3 (1:
Germ cells develop in a microenvironment created by the somatic cells of the gonad [1-3]. Although in males, the germ and somatic support cells lie in direct contact, in females, a thick extracellular coat surrounds the oocyte, physically separating it from the somatic follicle cells . To bypass this barrier to communication, narrow cytoplasmic extensions of the follicle cells traverse the extracellular coat to reach the oocyte plasma membrane [5-9]. These delicate structures provide the sole platform for the contact-mediated communication between the oocyte and its follicular environment that is indispensable for production of a fertilizable egg [8, 10-15]. Identifying the mechanisms underlying their formation should uncover conserved regulators of fertility. We show here in mice that these structures, termed transzonal projections (TZPs), are specialized filopodia whose number amplifies enormously as oocytes grow, enabling increased germ-soma communication. By creating chimeric complexes of genetically tagged oocytes and follicle cells, we demonstrate that follicle cells elaborate new TZPs that push through the extracellular coat to reach the oocyte surface. We further show that growth-differentiation factor 9, produced by the oocyte, drives the formation of new TZPs, uncovering a key yet unanticipated role for the germ cell in building these essential bridges of communication. Moreover, TZP number and germline-soma communication are strikingly reduced in reproductively aged females. Thus, the growing oocyte locally remodels follicular architecture to ensure that its developmental needs are met, and an inability of somatic follicle cells to respond appropriately to oocyte-derived cues may contribute to human infertility.
Literature context: 00, Rockland, Cat# 600-401-379, RRID:AB_2209751), followed by an anti-goat seco
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha2 subunit (Chrna2) is a specific marker for oriens lacunosum-moleculare (OLM) interneurons in the dorsal CA1 region of the hippocampus. It was recently shown using a Chrna2-cre mice line that OLM interneurons can modulate entorhinal cortex and CA3 inputs and may therefore have an important role in gating, encoding, and recall of memory. In this study, we have used a combination of electrophysiology and optogenetics using Chrna2-cre mice to determine the role of Chrna2 interneurons in the subiculum area, the main output region of the hippocampus. We aimed to assess the similarities between Chrna2 subiculum and CA1 neurons in terms of the expression of interneuron markers, their membrane properties, and their inhibitory input to pyramidal neurons. We found that subiculum and CA1 dorsal Chrna2 cells similarly expressed the marker somatostatin and had comparable membrane and firing properties. The somas of Chrna2 cells in both regions were found in the deepest layer with axons projecting superficially. However, subiculum Chrna2 cells displayed more extensive projections with dendrites which occupied a significantly larger area than in CA1. The post-synaptic responses elicited by Chrna2 cells in pyramidal cells of both regions revealed comparable inhibitory responses elicited by GABAA receptors and, interestingly, GABAB receptor mediated components. This study provides the first in-depth characterization of Chrna2 cells in the subiculum, and suggests that subiculum and CA1 Chrna2 cells are generally similar and may play comparable roles in both sub-regions.
Literature context: land Antibody & Assays RRID:AB_2209751 Bacterial and Virus Strains
Synaptic connections between hippocampal mossy fibers (MFs) and CA3 pyramidal neurons are essential for contextual memory encoding, but the molecular mechanisms regulating MF-CA3 synapses during memory formation and the exact nature of this regulation are poorly understood. Here we report that the activity-dependent transcription factor Npas4 selectively regulates the structure and strength of MF-CA3 synapses by restricting the number of their functional synaptic contacts without affecting the other synaptic inputs onto CA3 pyramidal neurons. Using an activity-dependent reporter, we identified CA3 pyramidal cells that were activated by contextual learning and found that MF inputs on these cells were selectively strengthened. Deletion of Npas4 prevented both contextual memory formation and this learning-induced synaptic modification. We further show that Npas4 regulates MF-CA3 synapses by controlling the expression of the polo-like kinase Plk2. Thus, Npas4 is a critical regulator of experience-dependent, structural, and functional plasticity at MF-CA3 synapses during contextual memory formation.
Literature context: ntibody (Rockland, 600-401-379, RRID:AB_2209751), FEA2-Myc was detected using a
Meristems contain groups of indeterminate stem cells, which are maintained by a feedback loop between CLAVATA (CLV) and WUSCHEL (WUS) signaling. CLV signaling involves the secretion of the CLV3 peptide and its perception by a number of Leucine-Rich-Repeat (LRR) receptors, including the receptor-like kinase CLV1 and the receptor-like protein CLV2 coupled with the CORYNE (CRN) pseudokinase. CLV2, and its maize ortholog FASCIATED EAR2 (FEA2) appear to function in signaling by CLV3 and several related CLV3/EMBRYO-SURROUNDING REGION (CLE) peptide ligands. Nevertheless, how signaling specificity is achieved remains unknown. Here we show that FEA2 transmits signaling from two distinct CLE peptides, the maize CLV3 ortholog ZmCLE7 and ZmFON2-LIKE CLE PROTEIN1 (ZmFCP1) through two different candidate downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the maize heterotrimeric G protein COMPACT PLANT2 (CT2), and ZmCRN. Our data provide a novel framework to understand how diverse signaling peptides can activate different downstream pathways through common receptor proteins.
Literature context: land 600-401-379, RRID:AB_2209751 Rabbit monoclonal anti-OLFM4 Ce
Genetic lineage tracing has revealed that Lgr5+ murine colon stem cells (CoSCs) rapidly proliferate at the crypt bottom. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics of human CoSCs in vivo have remained experimentally intractable. Here we established an orthotopic xenograft system for normal human colon organoids, enabling stable reconstruction of the human colon epithelium in vivo. Xenografted organoids were prone to displacement by the remaining murine crypts, and this could be overcome by complete removal of the mouse epithelium. Xenografted organoids formed crypt structures distinctively different from surrounding mouse crypts, reflecting their human origin. Lineage tracing using CRISPR-Cas9 to engineer an LGR5-CreER knockin allele demonstrated self-renewal and multipotency of LGR5+ CoSCs. In contrast to the rapidly cycling properties of mouse Lgr5+ CoSCs, human LGR5+ CoSCs were slow-cycling in vivo. This organoid-based orthotopic xenograft model enables investigation of the functional behaviors of human CoSCs in vivo, with potential therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine.
Literature context: RRID:AB_2209751 Goat polyclonal anti-tDTomato L
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a pediatric soft tissue sarcoma that histologically resembles embryonic skeletal muscle. RMS occurs throughout the body and an exclusively myogenic origin does not account for RMS occurring in sites devoid of skeletal muscle. We previously described an RMS model activating a conditional constitutively active Smoothened mutant (SmoM2) with aP2-Cre. Using genetic fate mapping, we show SmoM2 expression in Cre-expressing endothelial progenitors results in myogenic transdifferentiation and RMS. We show that endothelium and skeletal muscle within the head and neck arise from Kdr-expressing progenitors, and that hedgehog pathway activation results in aberrant expression of myogenic specification factors as a potential mechanism driving RMS genesis. These findings suggest that RMS can originate from aberrant development of non-myogenic cells.
Literature context: i-RFP) primary antibody (1:200, RRID:AB_2209751) diluted in 5% NDS and 0.4% Tri
Deletion of the phosphatase and tensin (PTEN) gene in neonatal mice leads to enlargement of the cell bodies of cortical motoneurons (CMNs) in adulthood (Gutilla et al., 2016). Here, we assessed whether PTEN deletion in adult mice would trigger growth of mature neurons. PTEN was deleted by injecting AAV-Cre into the sensorimotor cortex of adult transgenic mice with a lox-P flanked exon 5 of the PTEN gene and Cre-dependent reporter gene tdTomato. PTEN-deleted CMN's identified by tdT expression and retrograde labeling with fluorogold (FG) were significantly enlarged four months following PTEN deletion, and continued to increase in size through the latest time intervals examined (12-15 months post-deletion). Sholl analyses of tdT-positive pyramidal neurons revealed increases in dendritic branches at 6 months following adult PTEN deletion, and greater increases at 12 months. 12 months after adult PTEN deletion, axons in the medullary pyramids were significantly larger and G-ratios were higher. Mice with PTEN deletion exhibited no overt neurological symptoms and no seizures. Assessment of motor function on the rotarod and cylinder test revealed slight impairment of coordination with unilateral deletion; however, mice with bilateral PTEN deletion in the motor cortex performed better than controls on the rotarod at 8 and 10 months post-deletion. Our findings demonstrate that robust neuronal growth can be induced in fully mature cortical neurons long after the developmental period has ended and that this continuous growth occurs without obvious functional impairments.
Literature context: nd Immunochemicals 600-401-379; RRID:AB_2209751 Chicken anti-GFP polyclonal Roc
Preservation of a balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition is critical for normal brain function. A number of homeostatic cellular mechanisms have been suggested to play a role in maintaining this balance, including long-term plasticity of GABAergic inhibitory synapses. Many previous studies have demonstrated a coupling of postsynaptic spiking with modification of perisomatic inhibition. Here, we demonstrate that activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors leads to input-specific long-term potentiation of dendritic inhibition mediated by somatostatin-expressing interneurons. This form of plasticity is expressed postsynaptically and requires both CaMKIIα and the β2 subunit of the GABA-A receptor. Importantly, this process may function to preserve dendritic inhibition, as genetic deletion of NMDAR signaling results in a selective weakening of dendritic inhibition. Overall, our results reveal a new mechanism for linking excitatory and inhibitory input in neuronal dendrites and provide novel insight into the homeostatic regulation of synaptic transmission in cortical circuits.
Literature context: munochemicals Cat#: 600-401-379 RRID:AB_2209751 Anti-Laminin 1+2 antibody Abcam
Myeloid-biased hematopoietic stem cells (MB-HSCs) play critical roles in recovery from injury, but little is known about how they are regulated within the bone marrow niche. Here we describe an auto-/paracrine physiologic circuit that controls quiescence of MB-HSCs and hematopoietic progenitors marked by histidine decarboxylase (Hdc). Committed Hdc+ myeloid cells lie in close anatomical proximity to MB-HSCs and produce histamine, which activates the H2 receptor on MB-HSCs to promote their quiescence and self-renewal. Depleting histamine-producing cells enforces cell cycle entry, induces loss of serial transplant capacity, and sensitizes animals to chemotherapeutic injury. Increasing demand for myeloid cells via lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment specifically recruits MB-HSCs and progenitors into the cell cycle; cycling MB-HSCs fail to revert into quiescence in the absence of histamine feedback, leading to their depletion, while an H2 agonist protects MB-HSCs from depletion after sepsis. Thus, histamine couples lineage-specific physiological demands to intrinsically primed MB-HSCs to enforce homeostasis.
Literature context: (RRID:AB_2209751) 1:1000, in blocker solution.
Microglia play important roles in perinatal neuro- and synapto-genesis. To test the role of microglia in these processes during adulthood, we examined the effects of microglia depletion, via treatment of mice with the CSF-1 receptor antagonist PLX5622, and abrogated neuronal-microglial communication in CX3C receptor-1 deficient (Cx3cr1-/-) mice. Microglia depletion significantly lowered spine density in young (developing) but not mature adult-born-granule-cells (abGCs) in the olfactory bulb. Two-photon time-lapse imaging indicated that microglia depletion reduced spine formation and elimination. Functionally, odor-evoked responses of mitral cells, which are normally inhibited by abGCs, were increased in microglia-depleted mice. In Cx3cr1-/- mice, abGCs exhibited reduced spine density, dynamics and size, concomitantly with reduced contacts between Cx3cr1-deficient microglia and abGCs' dendritic shafts, along with increased proportion of microglia-contacted spines. Thus, during adult neurogenesis, microglia regulate the elimination (pruning), formation, and maintenance of synapses on newborn neurons, contributing to the functional integrity of the olfactory bulb circuitry.
Literature context: bÎ±mCherry Rockland 600-401-379/ RRID:AB_2209751 GtÎ±mCherry Sicgen AB0040-500/ A
Adult neurogenesis in the olfactory epithelium is often depicted as a unidirectional pathway during homeostasis and repair. We challenge the unidirectionality of this model by showing that epithelial injury unlocks the potential for Ascl1+ progenitors and Neurog1+ specified neuronal precursors to dedifferentiate into multipotent stem/progenitor cells that contribute significantly to tissue regeneration in the murine olfactory epithelium (OE). We characterize these dedifferentiating cells using several lineage-tracing strains and single-cell mRNA-seq, and we show that Sox2 is required for initiating dedifferentiation and that inhibition of Ezh2 promotes multipotent progenitor expansion. These results suggest that the apparent hierarchy of neuronal differentiation is not irreversible and that lineage commitment can be overridden following severe tissue injury. We elucidate a previously unappreciated pathway for endogenous tissue repair by a highly regenerative neuroepithelium and introduce a system to study the mechanisms underlying plasticity in the OE that can be adapted for other tissues.
Literature context: RRID:AB_2209751 Goat anti-KLF4 R&D Systems CAT#
Hemodynamic forces play an essential epigenetic role in heart valve development, but how they do so is not known. Here, we show that the shear-responsive transcription factor KLF2 is required in endocardial cells to regulate the mesenchymal cell responses that remodel cardiac cushions to mature valves. Endocardial Klf2 deficiency results in defective valve formation associated with loss of Wnt9b expression and reduced canonical WNT signaling in neighboring mesenchymal cells, a phenotype reproduced by endocardial-specific loss of Wnt9b. Studies in zebrafish embryos reveal that wnt9b expression is similarly restricted to the endocardial cells overlying the developing heart valves and is dependent upon both hemodynamic shear forces and klf2a expression. These studies identify KLF2-WNT9B signaling as a conserved molecular mechanism by which fluid forces sensed by endothelial cells direct the complex cellular process of heart valve development and suggest that congenital valve defects may arise due to subtle defects in this mechanotransduction pathway.
Literature context: t polyclonal, cat #600-401-379, RRID:AB_2209751 1:200 directly conjugated (5 mi
Neurons in the olfactory epithelium (OE) each express a single dominant olfactory receptor (OR) allele from among roughly 1,000 different OR genes. While monogenic and monoallelic OR expression has been appreciated for over two decades, regulators of this process are still being described; most recently, epigenetic modifiers have been of high interest as silent OR genes are decorated with transcriptionally repressive trimethylated histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3) whereas active OR genes are decorated with transcriptionally activating trimethylated histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3). The lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) demethylates at both of these lysine residues and has been shown to disrupt neuronal maturation and OR expression in the developing embryonic OE. Despite the growing literature on LSD1 expression in the OE, a complete characterization of the timing of LSD1 expression relative to neuronal maturation and of the function of LSD1 in the adult OE have yet to be reported. To fill this gap, the present study determined that LSD1 (1) is expressed in early dividing cells before OR expression and neuronal maturation and decreases at the time of OR stabilization; (2) colocalizes with the repressor CoREST (also known as RCOR1) and histone deacetylase 2 in these early dividing cells; and (3) is required for neuronal maturation during a distinct time window between activating reserve stem cells (horizontal basal cells) and Neurogenin1 (+) immediate neuronal precursors. Thus, this study clarifies the role of LSD1 in olfactory neuronal maturation.
Literature context: hemicals Inc. Cat# 600-401-379; RRID:AB_2209751 rabbit anti-Sftpc Seven hills b
The lung harbors its basal stem/progenitor cells (BSCs) in the protected environment of the cartilaginous airways. After major lung injuries, BSCs are activated and recruited to sites of injury. Here, we show that during homeostasis, BSCs in cartilaginous airways maintain their stem cell state by downregulating the Hippo pathway (resulting in increased nuclear Yap), which generates a localized Fgf10-expressing stromal niche; in contrast, differentiated epithelial cells in non-cartilaginous airways maintain quiescence by activating the Hippo pathway and inhibiting Fgf10 expression in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). However, upon injury, surviving differentiated epithelial cells spread to maintain barrier function and recruit integrin-linked kinase to adhesion sites, which leads to Merlin degradation, downregulation of the Hippo pathway, nuclear Yap translocation, and expression and secretion of Wnt7b. Epithelial-derived Wnt7b, then in turn, induces Fgf10 expression in ASMCs, which extends the BSC niche to promote regeneration.
Literature context: t# 600-401-379; RRID:AB_2209751 IF: anti-CASPR (Clone K65/35) E
Understanding the organizational logic of neural circuits requires deciphering the biological basis of neuronal diversity and identity, but there is no consensus on how neuron types should be defined. We analyzed single-cell transcriptomes of a set of anatomically and physiologically characterized cortical GABAergic neurons and conducted a computational genomic screen for transcriptional profiles that distinguish them from one another. We discovered that cardinal GABAergic neuron types are delineated by a transcriptional architecture that encodes their synaptic communication patterns. This architecture comprises 6 categories of ∼40 gene families, including cell-adhesion molecules, transmitter-modulator receptors, ion channels, signaling proteins, neuropeptides and vesicular release components, and transcription factors. Combinatorial expression of select members across families shapes a multi-layered molecular scaffold along the cell membrane that may customize synaptic connectivity patterns and input-output signaling properties. This molecular genetic framework of neuronal identity integrates cell phenotypes along multiple axes and provides a foundation for discovering and classifying neuron types.
Literature context: 1-379; RRID:AB_2209751 PDGFRa (rab) Cell Signaling cat
The lung is an architecturally complex organ comprising a heterogeneous mixture of various epithelial and mesenchymal lineages. We use single-cell RNA sequencing and signaling lineage reporters to generate a spatial and transcriptional map of the lung mesenchyme. We find that each mesenchymal lineage has a distinct spatial address and transcriptional profile leading to unique niche regulatory functions. The mesenchymal alveolar niche cell is Wnt responsive, expresses Pdgfrα, and is critical for alveolar epithelial cell growth and self-renewal. In contrast, the Axin2+ myofibrogenic progenitor cell preferentially generates pathologically deleterious myofibroblasts after injury. Analysis of the secretome and receptome of the alveolar niche reveals functional pathways that mediate growth and self-renewal of alveolar type 2 progenitor cells, including IL-6/Stat3, Bmp, and Fgf signaling. These studies define the cellular and molecular framework of lung mesenchymal niches and reveal the functional importance of developmental pathways in promoting self-renewal versus a pathological response to tissue injury.
Literature context: 401-379; RRID:AB_2209751 Î±-Smooth Muscle Actin (mouse) S
The diversity of mesenchymal cell types in the lung that influence epithelial homeostasis and regeneration is poorly defined. We used genetic lineage tracing, single-cell RNA sequencing, and organoid culture approaches to show that Lgr5 and Lgr6, well-known markers of stem cells in epithelial tissues, are markers of mesenchymal cells in the adult lung. Lgr6+ cells comprise a subpopulation of smooth muscle cells surrounding airway epithelia and promote airway differentiation of epithelial progenitors via Wnt-Fgf10 cooperation. Genetic ablation of Lgr6+ cells impairs airway injury repair in vivo. Distinct Lgr5+ cells are located in alveolar compartments and are sufficient to promote alveolar differentiation of epithelial progenitors through Wnt activation. Modulating Wnt activity altered differentiation outcomes specified by mesenchymal cells. This identification of region- and lineage-specific crosstalk between epithelium and their neighboring mesenchymal partners provides new understanding of how different cell types are maintained in the adult lung.
Literature context: Rockland, RRID:AB_2209751); and rat
How experiences during development cause long-lasting changes in sensory circuits and affect behavior in mature animals are poorly understood. Here we establish a novel system for mechanistic analysis of the plasticity of developing neural circuits by showing that sensory experience during development alters nociceptive behavior and circuit physiology in Drosophila larvae. Despite the convergence of nociceptive and mechanosensory inputs on common second-order neurons (SONs), developmental noxious input modifies transmission from nociceptors to their SONs, but not from mechanosensors to the same SONs, which suggests striking sensory pathway specificity. These SONs activate serotonergic neurons to inhibit nociceptor-to-SON transmission; stimulation of nociceptors during development sensitizes nociceptor presynapses to this feedback inhibition. Our results demonstrate that, unlike associative learning, which involves inputs from two sensory pathways, sensory pathway-specific plasticity in the Drosophila nociceptive circuit is in part established through feedback modulation. This study elucidates a novel mechanism that enables pathway-specific plasticity in sensory systems. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
Literature context: Assays (through Sanova Pharma); RRID:AB_2209751]. The antibodies were character
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most frequent form of focal epilepsies and is generally associated with malfunctioning of the hippocampal formation. Recently, a preferential loss of parvalbumin (PV) neurons has been observed in the subiculum of TLE patients and in animal models of TLE. To demonstrate a possible causative role of defunct PV neurons in the generation of TLE, we permanently inhibited GABA release selectively from PV neurons of the ventral subiculum by injecting a viral vector expressing tetanus toxin light chain in male mice. Subsequently, mice were subjected to telemetric EEG recording and video monitoring. Eighty-eight percent of the mice presented clusters of spike-wave discharges (C-SWDs; 40.0 ± 9.07/month), and 64% showed spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs; 5.3 ± 0.83/month). Mice injected with a control vector presented with neither C-SWDs nor SRSs. No neurodegeneration was observed due to vector injection or SRS. Interestingly, mice that presented with only C-SWDs but no SRSs, developed SRSs upon injection of a subconvulsive dose of pentylenetetrazole after 6 weeks. The initial frequency of SRSs declined by ∼30% after 5 weeks. In contrast to permanent silencing of PV neurons, transient inhibition of GABA release from PV neurons through the designer receptor hM4Di selectively expressed in PV-containing neurons transiently reduced the seizure threshold of the mice but induced neither acute nor recurrent seizures. Our data demonstrate a critical role for perisomatic inhibition mediated by PV-containing interneurons, suggesting that their sustained silencing could be causally involved in the development of TLE.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Development of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) generally takes years after an initial insult during which maladaptation of hippocampal circuitries takes place. In human TLE and in animal models of TLE, parvalbumin neurons are selectively lost in the subiculum, the major output area of the hippocampus. The present experiments demonstrate that specific and sustained inhibition of GABA release from parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (mostly basket cells) in sector CA1/subiculum is sufficient to induce hyperexcitability and spontaneous recurrent seizures in mice. As in patients with nonlesional TLE, these mice developed epilepsy without signs of neurodegeneration. The experiments highlight the importance of the potent inhibitory action mediated by parvalbumin cells in the hippocampus and identify a potential mechanism in the development of TLE.
Literature context: land Cat# 600-401-379; RRID:AB_2209751 Rabbit polyclonal anti-Caspase
Appropriate growth and synaptic integration of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons are essential for functional neural circuits in the brain. Here, we demonstrate that disruption of primary cilia function following the selective loss of ciliary GTPase Arl13b in interneurons impairs interneuronal morphology and synaptic connectivity, leading to altered excitatory/inhibitory activity balance. The altered morphology and connectivity of cilia mutant interneurons and the functional deficits are rescued by either chemogenetic activation of ciliary G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling or the selective induction of Sstr3, a ciliary GPCR, in Arl13b-deficient cilia. Our results thus define a specific requirement for primary cilia-mediated GPCR signaling in interneuronal connectivity and inhibitory circuit formation.
Literature context: -401-379; RRID:AB_2209751 Donkey ant
Animals employ active touch to optimize the acuity of their tactile sensors. Prior experimental results and models lead to the hypothesis that sensory inputs are used in a recurrent manner to tune the position of the sensors. A combination of electrophysiology, intersectional genetic viral labeling and manipulation, and classical tracing allowed us to identify second-order sensorimotor loops that control vibrissa movements by rodents. Facial motoneurons that drive intrinsic muscles to protract the vibrissae receive a short latency inhibitory input, followed by synaptic excitation, from neurons located in the oralis division of the trigeminal sensory complex. In contrast, motoneurons that retract the mystacial pad and indirectly retract the vibrissae receive only excitatory input from interpolaris cells that further project to the thalamus. Silencing this feedback alters retraction. The observed pull-push circuit at the lowest-level sensorimotor loop provides a mechanism for the rapid modulation of vibrissa touch during exploration of peri-personal space.
Literature context: -401-379; RRID:AB_2209751 Rabbit mon
Dietary excess triggers accumulation of pro-inflammatory microglia in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH), but the components of this microgliosis and its metabolic consequences remain uncertain. Here, we show that microglial inflammatory signaling determines the immunologic response of the MBH to dietary excess and regulates hypothalamic control of energy homeostasis in mice. Either pharmacologically depleting microglia or selectively restraining microglial NF-κB-dependent signaling sharply reduced microgliosis, an effect that includes prevention of MBH entry by bone-marrow-derived myeloid cells, and greatly limited diet-induced hyperphagia and weight gain. Conversely, forcing microglial activation through cell-specific deletion of the negative NF-κB regulator A20 induced spontaneous MBH microgliosis and cellular infiltration, reduced energy expenditure, and increased both food intake and weight gain even in absence of a dietary challenge. Thus, microglial inflammatory activation, stimulated by dietary excess, orchestrates a multicellular hypothalamic response that mediates obesity susceptibility, providing a mechanistic rationale for non-neuronal approaches to treat metabolic diseases.
Literature context: -401-379; RRID:AB_2209751 Mouse mono
Neural networks are emerging as the fundamental computational unit of the brain and it is becoming progressively clearer that network dysfunction is at the core of a number of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Yet, our ability to target specific networks for functional or genetic manipulations remains limited. Monosynaptically restricted rabies virus facilitates the anatomical investigation of neural circuits. However, the inherent cytotoxicity of the rabies largely prevents its implementation in long-term functional studies and the genetic manipulation of neural networks. To overcome this limitation, we developed a self-inactivating ΔG-rabies virus (SiR) that transcriptionally disappears from the infected neurons while leaving permanent genetic access to the traced network. SiR provides a virtually unlimited temporal window for the study of network dynamics and for the genetic and functional manipulation of neural circuits in vivo without adverse effects on neuronal physiology and circuit function.
Literature context: -RFP (Rockland Cat# 600-401-379 RRID:AB_2209751) at 1:500); goat anti-RFP (SICG
Hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs) integrate inputs from multiple sources to balance quiescence and activation. Notch signaling plays a key role during this process. Here, we report that Lunatic fringe (Lfng), a key modifier of the Notch receptor, is selectively expressed in NSCs. Further, Lfng in NSCs and Notch ligands Delta1 and Jagged1, expressed by their progeny, together influence NSC recruitment, cell cycle duration, and terminal fate. We propose a new model in which Lfng-mediated Notch signaling enables direct communication between a NSC and its descendants, so that progeny can send feedback signals to the 'mother' cell to modify its cell cycle status. Lfng-mediated Notch signaling appears to be a key factor governing NSC quiescence, division, and fate.
Literature context: -401-379; RRID:AB_2209751 Chicken po
To investigate the role of immune cells in lung regeneration, we used a unilateral pneumonectomy model that promotes the formation of new alveoli in the remaining lobes. Immunofluorescence and single-cell RNA sequencing found CD115+ and CCR2+ monocytes and M2-like macrophages accumulating in the lung during the peak of type 2 alveolar epithelial stem cell (AEC2) proliferation. Genetic loss of function in mice and adoptive transfer studies revealed that bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) traffic to the lung through a CCL2-CCR2 chemokine axis and are required for optimal lung regeneration, along with Il4ra-expressing leukocytes. Our data suggest that these cells modulate AEC2 proliferation and differentiation. Finally, we provide evidence that group 2 innate lymphoid cells are a source of IL-13, which promotes lung regeneration. Together, our data highlight the potential for immunomodulatory therapies to stimulate alveologenesis in adults.
Literature context: -401-379; RRID:AB_2209751 Rabbit ant
Highly proliferative Lgr5+ stem cells maintain the intestinal epithelium and are thought to be largely homogeneous. Although quiescent intestinal stem cell (ISC) populations have been described, the identity and features of such a population remain controversial. Here we report unanticipated heterogeneity within the Lgr5+ ISC pool. We found that expression of the RNA-binding protein Mex3a labels a slowly cycling subpopulation of Lgr5+ ISCs that contribute to all intestinal lineages with distinct kinetics. Single-cell transcriptome profiling revealed that Lgr5+ cells adopt two discrete states, one of which is defined by a Mex3a expression program and relatively low levels of proliferation genes. During homeostasis, Mex3a+ cells continually shift into the rapidly dividing, self-renewing ISC pool. Chemotherapy and radiation preferentially target rapidly dividing Lgr5+ cells but spare the Mex3a-high/Lgr5+ population, helping to promote regeneration of the intestinal epithelium following toxic insults. Thus, Mex3a defines a reserve-like ISC population within the Lgr5+ compartment.
Literature context: 0-401-379 RRID:AB_2209751); chicken
Attenuating the strength of fearful memories could benefit people disabled by memories of past trauma. Pavlovian conditioning experiments indicate that a retrieval cue can return a conditioned aversive memory to a labile state. However, means to enhance retrieval and render a memory more labile are unknown. We hypothesized that augmenting synaptic signaling during retrieval would increase memory lability. To enhance synaptic transmission, mice inhaled CO2 to induce an acidosis and activate acid sensing ion channels. Transient acidification increased the retrieval-induced lability of an aversive memory. The labile memory could then be weakened by an extinction protocol or strengthened by reconditioning. Coupling CO2 inhalation to retrieval increased activation of amygdala neurons bearing the memory trace and increased the synaptic exchange from Ca2+-impermeable to Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors. The results suggest that transient acidosis during retrieval renders the memory of an aversive event more labile and suggest a strategy to modify debilitating memories.
Literature context: -401-379; RRID:AB_2209751 Donkey pol
Navigation, finding food sources, and avoiding danger critically depend on the identification and spatial localization of airborne chemicals. When monitoring the olfactory environment, rodents spontaneously engage in active olfactory sampling behavior, also referred to as exploratory sniffing . Exploratory sniffing is characterized by stereotypical high-frequency respiration, which is also reliably evoked by novel odorant stimuli [2, 3]. To study novelty-induced exploratory sniffing, we developed a novel, non-contact method for measuring respiration by infrared (IR) thermography in a behavioral paradigm in which novel and familiar stimuli are presented to head-restrained mice. We validated the method by simultaneously performing nasal pressure measurements, a commonly used invasive approach [2, 4], and confirmed highly reliable detection of inhalation onsets. We further discovered that mice actively orient their nostrils toward novel, previously unexperienced, smells. In line with the remarkable speed of olfactory processing reported previously [3, 5, 6], we find that mice initiate their response already within the first sniff after odor onset. Moreover, transecting the anterior commissure (AC) disrupted orienting, indicating that the orienting response requires interhemispheric transfer of information. This suggests that mice compare odorant information obtained from the two bilaterally symmetric nostrils to locate the source of the novel odorant. We further demonstrate that asymmetric activation of the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) is both necessary and sufficient for eliciting orienting responses. These findings support the view that the AON plays an important role in the internostril difference comparison underlying rapid odor source localization.
Literature context: -401-379, RRID:AB_2209751) at 1:500,
Molecular and circuit mechanisms for balancing competing drives are not well understood. While circadian and homeostatic mechanisms generally ensure sufficient sleep at night, other pressing needs can overcome sleep drive. Here, we demonstrate that the balance between sleep and sex drives determines whether male flies sleep or court, and identify a subset of octopaminergic neurons (MS1) that regulate sleep specifically in males. When MS1 neurons are activated, isolated males sleep less, and when MS1 neurons are silenced, the normal male sleep suppression in female presence is attenuated and mating behavior is impaired. MS1 neurons do not express the sexually dimorphic FRUITLESS (FRU) transcription factor, but form male-specific contacts with FRU-expressing neurons; calcium imaging experiments reveal bidirectional functional connectivity between MS1 and FRU neurons. We propose octopaminergic MS1 neurons interact with the FRU network to mediate sleep suppression by male sex drive.
Literature context: ille, PA, RRID:AB_2209751) to red fl
Amacrine cells are a heterogeneous group of interneurons that form microcircuits with bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cells to process visual information in the inner retina. This study has characterized the morphology, neurochemistry and major cell types of a VIP-ires-Cre amacrine cell population. VIP-tdTomato and -Confetti (Brainbow2.1) mouse lines were generated by crossing a VIP-ires-Cre line with either a Cre-dependent tdTomato or Brainbow2.1 reporter line. Retinal sections and whole-mounts were evaluated by quantitative, immunohistochemical, and intracellular labeling approaches. The majority of tdTomato and Confetti fluorescent cell bodies were in the inner nuclear layer (INL) and a few cell bodies were in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). Fluorescent processes ramified in strata 1, 3, 4, and 5 of the inner plexiform layer (IPL). All tdTomato fluorescent cells expressed syntaxin 1A and GABA-immunoreactivity indicating they were amacrine cells. The average VIP-tdTomato fluorescent cell density in the INL and GCL was 535 and 24 cells/mm2 , respectively. TdTomato fluorescent cells in the INL and GCL contained VIP-immunoreactivity. The VIP-ires-Cre amacrine cell types were identified in VIP-Brainbow2.1 retinas or by intracellular labeling in VIP-tdTomato retinas. VIP-1 amacrine cells are bistratified, wide-field cells that ramify in strata 1, 4, and 5, VIP-2A and 2B amacrine cells are medium-field cells that mainly ramify in strata 3 and 4, and VIP-3 displaced amacrine cells are medium-field cells that ramify in strata 4 and 5 of the IPL. VIP-ires-Cre amacrine cells form a neuropeptide-expressing cell population with multiple cell types, which are likely to have distinct roles in visual processing.
Literature context: -401-379, RRID:AB_2209751 Mouse mono
Whether new neurons are added in the postnatal cerebral cortex is still debated. Here, we report that the meninges of perinatal mice contain a population of neurogenic progenitors formed during embryonic development that migrate to the caudal cortex and differentiate into Satb2+ neurons in cortical layers II-IV. The resulting neurons are electrically functional and integrated into local microcircuits. Single-cell RNA sequencing identified meningeal cells with distinct transcriptome signatures characteristic of (1) neurogenic radial glia-like cells (resembling neural stem cells in the SVZ), (2) neuronal cells, and (3) a cell type with an intermediate phenotype, possibly representing radial glia-like meningeal cells differentiating to neuronal cells. Thus, we have identified a pool of embryonically derived radial glia-like cells present in the meninges that migrate and differentiate into functional neurons in the neonatal cerebral cortex.
Literature context: ckland4% Donkey serum600-401-379AB_2209751RNA in situ hybridizationCandida
Each of the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) chooses to express a single G protein-coupled olfactory receptor (OR) from a pool of hundreds. Here, we show the receptor transporting protein (RTP) family members play a dual role in both normal OR trafficking and determining OR gene choice probabilities. Rtp1 and Rtp2 double knockout mice (RTP1,2DKO) show OR trafficking defects and decreased OSN activation. Surprisingly, we discovered a small subset of the ORs are expressed in larger numbers of OSNs despite the presence of fewer total OSNs in RTP1,2DKO. Unlike typical ORs, some overrepresented ORs show robust cell surface expression in heterologous cells without the co-expression of RTPs. We present a model in which developing OSNs exhibit unstable OR expression until they choose to express an OR that exits the ER or undergo cell death. Our study sheds light on the new link between OR protein trafficking and OR transcriptional regulation.
Literature context: -401-379, RRID:AB_2209751), which wa
Collateral branches from axons are key components of functional neural circuits that allow neurons to connect with multiple synaptic targets. Like axon growth and guidance, formation of collateral branches depends on the regulation of microtubules, but how such regulation is coordinated to ensure proper circuit development is not known. Based on microarray analysis, we have identified a role for microtubule-associated protein 7 (MAP7) during collateral branch development of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons. We show that MAP7 is expressed at the onset of collateral branch formation. Perturbation of its expression by overexpression or shRNA knockdown alters axon branching in cultured DRG neurons. Localization and time-lapse imaging analysis reveals that MAP7 is enriched at branch points and colocalizes with stable microtubules, but enters the new branch with a delay, suggesting a role in branch maturation. We have also investigated a spontaneous mutant mouse that expresses a truncated MAP7 and found a gain-of-function phenotype both in vitro and in vivo Further domain analysis suggests that the amino half of MAP7 is responsible for branch formation, suggesting a mechanism that is independent of its known interaction with kinesin. Moreover, this mouse exhibits increased pain sensitivity, a phenotype that is consistent with increased collateral branch formation. Therefore, our study not only uncovers the first neuronal function of MAP7, but also demonstrates the importance of proper microtubule regulation in neural circuit development. Furthermore, our data provide new insights into microtubule regulation during axonal morphogenesis and may shed light on MAP7 function in neurological disorders.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neurons communicate with multiple targets by forming axonal branches. In search of intrinsic factors that control collateral branch development, we identified a role for microtubule-associated protein 7 (MAP7) in dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons. We show that MAP7 expression is developmentally regulated and perturbation of this expression alters branch formation. Cell biological analysis indicates that MAP7 promotes branch maturation. Analysis of a spontaneous mouse mutant suggests a molecular mechanism for branch regulation and the potential influence of collateral branches on pain sensitivity. Our studies thus establish the first neuronal function of MAP7 and demonstrate its role in branch morphogenesis and neural circuit function. These findings may help in our understanding of the contribution of MAP7 to neurological disorders and nerve regeneration.
Literature context: -401-379; RRID:AB_2209751 Rabbit ant
How the developmental potential of differentiating stem cell progeny becomes rapidly and stably restricted following asymmetric stem cell division is unclear. In the fly larval brain, earmuff (erm) uniquely functions to restrict the developmental potential of intermediate neural progenitors (INPs) generated by asymmetrically dividing neural stem cells (neuroblasts). Here we demonstrate that the histone deacetylase Hdac1/Rpd3 functions together with self-renewal transcriptional repressors to maintain the erm immature INP enhancer in an inactive but poised state in neuroblasts. Within 2 hr of immature INP birth, downregulation of repressor activities alleviates Rpd3-mediated repression on the erm enhancer, enabling acetylation of multiple histone proteins and activating Erm expression. Erm restricts the developmental potential in immature INPs by repressing genes encoding neuroblast transcriptional activators. We propose that poising the fast-activating enhancers of master regulators of differentiation through continual histone deacetylation in stem cells enables self-renewal and rapid restriction of developmental potential following asymmetric division.
Literature context: -401-379; RRID:AB_2209751 goat anti-
The thalamus receives sensory input from different circuits in the periphery. How these sensory channels are integrated at the level of single thalamic cells is not well understood. We performed targeted single-cell-initiated transsynaptic tracing to label the retinal ganglion cells that provide input to individual principal cells in the mouse lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). We identified three modes of sensory integration by single LGN cells. In the first, 1-5 ganglion cells of mostly the same type converged from one eye, indicating a relay mode. In the second, 6-36 ganglion cells of different types converged from one eye, revealing a combination mode. In the third, up to 91 ganglion cells converged from both eyes, revealing a binocular combination mode in which functionally specialized ipsilateral inputs joined broadly distributed contralateral inputs. Thus, the LGN employs at least three modes of visual input integration, each exhibiting different degrees of specialization.
Literature context: anti-RFP (RRID:AB_2209751 Rockland).
Locomotion is an essential animal behavior used for translocation. The spinal cord acts as key executing center, but how it coordinates many body parts located across distance remains poorly understood. Here we employed mouse genetic and viral approaches to reveal organizational principles of long-projecting spinal circuits and their role in quadrupedal locomotion. Using neurotransmitter identity, developmental origin, and projection patterns as criteria, we uncover that spinal segments controlling forelimbs and hindlimbs are bidirectionally connected by symmetrically organized direct synaptic pathways that encompass multiple genetically tractable neuronal subpopulations. We demonstrate that selective ablation of descending spinal neurons linking cervical to lumbar segments impairs coherent locomotion, by reducing postural stability and speed during exploratory locomotion, as well as perturbing interlimb coordination during reinforced high-speed stepping. Together, our results implicate a highly organized long-distance projection system of spinal origin in the control of postural body stabilization and reliability during quadrupedal locomotion.
Literature context: ody;1:1000;Rockland 600-401-379;RRID:AB_2209751); GFP (chicken polyclonal antib
Systematic genetic access to GABAergic cell types will facilitate studying the function and development of inhibitory circuitry. However, single gene-driven recombinase lines mark relatively broad and heterogeneous cell populations. Although intersectional approaches improve precision, it remains unclear whether they can capture cell types defined by multiple features. Here we demonstrate that combinatorial genetic and viral approaches target restricted GABAergic subpopulations and cell types characterized by distinct laminar location, morphology, axonal projection, and electrophysiological properties. Intersectional embryonic transcription factor drivers allow finer fate mapping of progenitor pools that give rise to distinct GABAergic populations, including laminar cohorts. Conversion of progenitor fate restriction signals to constitutive recombinase expression enables viral targeting of cell types based on their lineage and birth time. Properly designed intersection, subtraction, conversion, and multi-color reporters enhance the precision and versatility of drivers and viral vectors. These strategies and tools will facilitate studying GABAergic neurons throughout the mouse brain.
Literature context: anti-RFP (RRID:AB_2209751; Rockland)
The most commonly used locomotor strategy in rodents is left-right limb alternation. Mutation of the axon guidance molecule EphA4 profoundly alters this basic locomotor pattern to synchrony. Here we report that conditional mutation of EphA4 in spinal interneurons expressing the transcription factor Lbx1 degrades the robustness in the expression of left-right alternating gait during development. Lbx1 EphA4 conditional mice exhibit alternating gait when walking on ground, but synchronous gait in environments with decreased weight-load, like swimming and airstepping. Using cell-type-specific, transient pharmacogenetic silencing approaches, we attribute this behavioral gait switch to neuronal activity of dorsal Lbx1 spinal interneurons. We also found that in Lbx1 EphA4 conditional mice these dorsal interneurons form aberrant bilateral connections to motor neurons, thereby indirectly transmitting received unilateral proprioceptive sensory information to both spinal sides. Together, our findings reveal the behavioral and circuit-level impact of conditional EphA4 mutation in a transcriptionally defined spinal interneuron subpopulation.
Type 1 diabetes is caused by autoimmune destruction of β-cells. Although immunotherapy can restore self-tolerance thereby halting continued immune-mediated β-cell loss, residual β-cell mass and function is often insufficient for normoglycemia. Using a growth factor to boost β-cell mass can potentially overcome this barrier and prolactin (PRL) may fill this role. Previous studies have shown that PRL can stimulate β-cell proliferation and up-regulate insulin synthesis and secretion while reducing lymphocytic infiltration of islets, suggesting that it may restore normoglycemia through complementary mechanisms. Here, we test the hypothesis that PRL can improve the efficacy of an immune modulator, the anticluster of differentiation 3 monoclonal antibody (aCD3), in inducing diabetes remission by up-regulating β-cell mass and function. Diabetic nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice were treated with a 5-day course of aCD3 with or without a concurrent 3-week course of PRL. We found that a higher proportion of diabetic mice treated with the aCD3 and PRL combined therapy achieved diabetes reversal than those treated with aCD3 alone. The aCD3 and PRL combined group had a higher β-cell proliferation rate, an increased β-cell fraction, larger islets, higher pancreatic insulin content, and greater glucose-stimulated insulin release. Lineage-tracing analysis found minimal contribution of β-cell neogenesis to the formation of new β-cells. Although we did not detect a significant difference in the number or proliferative capacity of T cells, we observed a higher proportion of insulitis-free islets in the aCD3 and PRL group. These results suggest that combining a growth factor with an immunotherapy may be an effective treatment paradigm for autoimmune diabetes.
Literature context: -401-379, RRID:AB_2209751), mouse an
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of a poly-glutamine (poly-Q) stretch in the huntingtin (Htt) protein. Gain-of-function effects of mutant Htt have been extensively investigated as the major driver of neurodegeneration in HD. However, loss-of-function effects of poly-Q mutations recently emerged as potential drivers of disease pathophysiology. Early synaptic problems in the excitatory cortical and striatal connections have been reported in HD, but the role of Htt protein in synaptic connectivity was unknown. Therefore, we investigated the role of Htt in synaptic connectivity in vivo by conditionally silencing Htt in the developing mouse cortex. When cortical Htt function was silenced, cortical and striatal excitatory synapses formed and matured at an accelerated pace through postnatal day 21 (P21). This exuberant synaptic connectivity was lost over time in the cortex, resulting in the deterioration of synapses by 5 weeks. Synaptic decline in the cortex was accompanied with layer- and region-specific reactive gliosis without cell loss. To determine whether the disease-causing poly-Q mutation in Htt affects synapse development, we next investigated the synaptic connectivity in a full-length knock-in mouse model of HD, the zQ175 mouse. Similar to the cortical conditional knock-outs, we found excessive excitatory synapse formation and maturation in the cortices of P21 zQ175, which was lost by 5 weeks. Together, our findings reveal that cortical Htt is required for the correct establishment of cortical and striatal excitatory circuits, and this function of Htt is lost when the mutant Htt is present.