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Phospho-S6 Ribosomal Protein (Ser235/236) (2F9) Rabbit mAb antibody

RRID:AB_2181037

Antibody ID

AB_2181037

Target Antigen

Phospho-S6 Ribosomal Protein (Ser235/236) (2F9) Rabbit mAb human, non-human primate, mouse, rat, h, m, r, mk

Proper Citation

(Cell Signaling Technology Cat# 4856, RRID:AB_2181037)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Applications: W, IF-IC, F

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Cell Signaling Technology

Acid Suspends the Circadian Clock in Hypoxia through Inhibition of mTOR.

  • Walton ZE
  • Cell
  • 2018 Jun 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Recent reports indicate that hypoxia influences the circadian clock through the transcriptional activities of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) at clock genes. Unexpectedly, we uncover a profound disruption of the circadian clock and diurnal transcriptome when hypoxic cells are permitted to acidify to recapitulate the tumor microenvironment. Buffering against acidification or inhibiting lactic acid production fully rescues circadian oscillation. Acidification of several human and murine cell lines, as well as primary murine T cells, suppresses mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, a key regulator of translation in response to metabolic status. We find that acid drives peripheral redistribution of normally perinuclear lysosomes away from perinuclear RHEB, thereby inhibiting the activity of lysosome-bound mTOR. Restoring mTORC1 signaling and the translation it governs rescues clock oscillation. Our findings thus reveal a model in which acid produced during the cellular metabolic response to hypoxia suppresses the circadian clock through diminished translation of clock constituents.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - L30 RR020478(United States)

Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling Impairs Protein Turnover Regulation in Hypoxia-Induced Muscle Atrophy in Male Mice.

  • de Theije CC
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hypoxemia may contribute to muscle wasting in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Muscle wasting develops when muscle proteolysis exceeds protein synthesis. Hypoxia induces skeletal muscle atrophy in mice, which can in part be attributed to reduced food intake. We hypothesized that hypoxia elevates circulating corticosterone concentrations by reduced food intake and enhances glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling in muscle, which causes elevated protein degradation signaling and dysregulates protein synthesis signaling during hypoxia-induced muscle atrophy. Muscle-specific GR knockout and control mice were subjected to normoxia, normobaric hypoxia (8% oxygen), or pair-feeding to the hypoxia group for 4 days. Plasma corticosterone and muscle GR signaling increased after hypoxia and pair-feeding. GR deficiency prevented muscle atrophy by pair-feeding but not by hypoxia. GR deficiency differentially affected activation of ubiquitin 26S-proteasome and autophagy proteolytic systems by pair-feeding and hypoxia. Reduced food intake suppressed mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity under normoxic but not hypoxic conditions, and this retained mTORC1 activity was mediated by GR. We conclude that GR signaling is required for muscle atrophy and increased expression of proteolysis-associated genes induced by decreased food intake under normoxic conditions. Under hypoxic conditions, muscle atrophy and elevated gene expression of the ubiquitin proteasomal system-associated E3 ligases Murf1 and Atrogin-1 are mostly independent of GR signaling. Furthermore, impaired inhibition of mTORC1 activity is GR-dependent in hypoxia-induced muscle atrophy.

AKT isoforms have distinct hippocampal expression and roles in synaptic plasticity.

  • Levenga J
  • Elife
  • 2017 Nov 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

AKT is a kinase regulating numerous cellular processes in the brain, and mutations in AKT are known to affect brain function. AKT is indirectly implicated in synaptic plasticity, but its direct role has not been studied. Moreover, three highly related AKT isoforms are expressed in the brain, but their individual roles are poorly understood. We find in Mus musculus, each AKT isoform has a unique expression pattern in the hippocampus, with AKT1 and AKT3 primarily in neurons but displaying local differences, while AKT2 is in astrocytes. We also find isoform-specific roles for AKT in multiple paradigms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity in area CA1. AKT1, but not AKT2 or AKT3, is required for L-LTP through regulating activity-induced protein synthesis. Interestingly, AKT activity inhibits mGluR-LTD, with overlapping functions for AKT1 and AKT3. In summary, our studies identify distinct expression patterns and roles in synaptic plasticity for AKT isoforms in the hippocampus.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01-CA106456(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - T32 MH019524()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F31 NS083277()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS086933()

Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A), Enriched in Ventral Hippocampus Neurons, is Required for Consolidation of Social but not Nonsocial Memories in Mice.

  • Hegde S
  • Neuropsychopharmacology
  • 2017 Sep 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

The capacity to form long-lasting social memories is critical to our health and survival. cAMP signaling in the ventral hippocampal formation (VHIPP) appears to be required for social memory formation, but the phosphodiesterase (PDE) involved remains unknown. Previously, we showed that PDE11A, which degrades cAMP and cGMP, is preferentially expressed in CA1 and subiculum of the VHIPP. Here, we determine whether PDE11A is expressed in neurons where it could directly influence synaptic plasticity and whether expression is required for the consolidation and/or retrieval of social memories. In CA1, and possibly CA2, PDE11A4 is expressed throughout neuronal cell bodies, dendrites (stratum radiatum), and axons (fimbria), but not astrocytes. Unlike PDE2A, PDE9A, or PDE10A, PDE11A4 expression begins very low at postnatal day 7 (P7) and dramatically increases until P28, at which time it stabilizes to young adult levels. This expression pattern is consistent with the fact that PDE11A is required for social long-term memory (LTM) formation during adolescence and adulthood. Male and female PDE11 knockout (KO) mice show normal short-term memory (STM) for social odor recognition (SOR) and social transmission of food preference (STFP), but no LTM 24 h post training. Importantly, PDE11A KO mice show normal LTM for nonsocial odor recognition. Deletion of PDE11A may impair memory consolidation by impairing requisite protein translation in the VHIPP. Relative to WT littermates, PDE11A KO mice show reduced expression of RSK2 and lowered phosphorylation of S6 (pS6-235/236). Together, these data suggest PDE11A is selectively required for the proper consolidation of recognition and associative social memories.

LARP1 functions as a molecular switch for mTORC1-mediated translation of an essential class of mRNAs.

  • Hong S
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

The RNA binding protein, LARP1, has been proposed to function downstream of mTORC1 to regulate the translation of 5'TOP mRNAs such as those encoding ribosome proteins (RP). However, the roles of LARP1 in the translation of 5'TOP mRNAs are controversial and its regulatory roles in mTORC1-mediated translation remain unclear. Here we show that LARP1 is a direct substrate of mTORC1 and Akt/S6K1. Deep sequencing of LARP1-bound mRNAs reveal that non-phosphorylated LARP1 interacts with both 5' and 3'UTRs of RP mRNAs and inhibits their translation. Importantly, phosphorylation of LARP1 by mTORC1 and Akt/S6K1 dissociates it from 5'UTRs and relieves its inhibitory activity on RP mRNA translation. Concomitantly, phosphorylated LARP1 scaffolds mTORC1 on the 3'UTRs of translationally-competent RP mRNAs to facilitate mTORC1-dependent induction of translation initiation. Thus, in response to cellular mTOR activity, LARP1 serves as a phosphorylation-sensitive molecular switch for turning off or on RP mRNA translation and subsequent ribosome biogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK083491()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM088565()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM110019()