The COPI coat forms transport vesicles from the Golgi complex and plays a poorly defined role in endocytic trafficking. Here we show that COPI binds K63-linked polyubiquitin and this interaction is crucial for trafficking of a ubiquitinated yeast SNARE (Snc1). Snc1 is a v-SNARE that drives fusion of exocytic vesicles with the plasma membrane, and then recycles through the endocytic pathway to the Golgi for reuse in exocytosis. Removal of ubiquitin from Snc1, or deletion of a β'-COP subunit propeller domain that binds K63-linked polyubiquitin, disrupts Snc1 recycling causing aberrant accumulation in internal compartments. Moreover, replacement of the β'-COP propeller domain with unrelated ubiquitin-binding domains restores Snc1 recycling. These results indicate that ubiquitination, a modification well known to target membrane proteins to the lysosome or vacuole for degradation, can also function as recycling signal to sort a SNARE into COPI vesicles in a non-degradative pathway.
Ribosomes that experience terminal stalls during translation are resolved by ribosome-associated quality control (QC) pathways that oversee mRNA and nascent chain destruction and recycle ribosomal subunits. The proximal factors that sense stalled ribosomes and initiate mammalian ribosome-associated QC events remain undefined. We demonstrate that the ZNF598 ubiquitin ligase and the 40S ribosomal protein RACK1 help to resolve poly(A)-induced stalled ribosomes. They accomplish this by regulating distinct and overlapping regulatory 40S ribosomal ubiquitylation events. ZNF598 primarily mediates regulatory ubiquitylation of RPS10 and RPS20, whereas RACK1 regulates RPS2, RPS3, and RPS20 ubiquitylation. Gain or loss of ZNF598 function or mutations that block RPS10 or RPS20 ubiquitylation result in defective resolution of stalled ribosomes and subsequent readthrough of poly(A)-containing stall sequences. Together, our results indicate that ZNF598, RACK1, and 40S regulatory ubiquitylation plays a pivotal role in mammalian ribosome-associated QC pathways.
The alpha(3) isoform of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase is uniquely expressed in afferent and efferent neurons innervating muscle spindles in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) of adult rats, but the distribution pattern of this isoform in other species has not been investigated. We compared expression of alpha(3) Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG), spinal roots, and skeletal muscle samples of amphibian (frog), reptilian (turtle), avian (pigeon and chicken), and mammalian (mouse and human) species. In all species studied, the alpha(3) Na(+),K(+)-ATPase isoform was nonuniformly expressed in peripheral ganglia and nerves. In spinal ganglia, only 5-20% of neurons expressed this isoform, and, in avian and mammalian species, these alpha(3) Na(+),K(+)-ATPase-expressing neurons belonged to a subpopulation of large DRG neurons. In ventral root fibers of pigeons, mice, and humans, the alpha(3) Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was abundantly expressed predominantly in small myelinated axons. In skeletal muscle samples from turtles, pigeons, mice, and humans, alpha(3) Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was detected in intramuscular myelinated axons and in profiles of nerve terminals associated with the equatorial and polar regions of muscle spindle intrafusal fibers. These results show that the expression profiles for alpha(3) Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in the peripheral nervous system of a wide variety of vertebrate species are similar to the profile of rats and suggest that stretch receptor-associated expression of alpha(3) Na(+),K(+)-ATPase is preserved through vertebrate evolution.