Literature context: MAB5364, RRID:AB_2179313); Goat ant
The onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with subtle pathological changes including increased intracellular expression of amyloid-β (Aβ). A structure affected particularly early in the course of AD is the entorhinal cortex, where neuronal death in layer II is observed already at initial stages. Neurons in EC-layer II, particularly those that express the protein Reelin, give rise to projections to the hippocampal dentate gyrus and this projection shows severe loss of synaptic contacts during early-stage AD. Given this anatomical specificity, we sought to determine whether increased intracellular expression of Aβ is selectively associated with Reelin-immunoreactive neurons in layer II of the entorhinal cortex. Here we report that in a transgenic rat model, which mimics the onset and distribution of extracellular amyloid deposits seen in human AD subjects, expression of intracellular Aβ in entorhinal layer II selectively occurs in Reelin-immunoreactive neurons during the early, pre-plaque stage. This Reelin-Aβ association is also present in human subjects with AD-related pathological changes, even in early disease stages. These findings strongly indicate that Reelin-immunoreactive neurons in entorhinal layer II play a crucial role during the initial stages of AD, and may therefore lead to refined hypotheses concerning the origin of this devastating condition.
Literature context: se anti-reelin (abcam, ab78540, RRID:AB_2179313, directed against recombinant f
Inhibitory neurons are crucial for shaping and regulating the dynamics of the entire network, and disturbances in these neurons contribute to brain disorders. Despite the recent progress in genetic labeling techniques, the heterogeneity of inhibitory neurons requires the development of highly characterized tools that allow accurate, convenient, and versatile visualization of inhibitory neurons in the mouse brain. Here, we report a novel genetic technique to visualize the vast majority and/or sparse subsets of inhibitory neurons in the mouse brain without using techniques that require advanced skills. We developed several lines of Cre-dependent tdTomato reporter mice based on the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT)-BAC, named VGAT-stop-tdTomato mice. The most useful line (line #54) was selected for further analysis based on two characteristics: the inhibitory neuron-specificity of tdTomato expression and the transgene integration site, which confers efficient breeding and fewer adverse effects resulting from transgene integration-related genomic disruption. Robust and inhibitory neuron-specific expression of tdTomato was observed in a wide range of developmental and cellular contexts. By breeding the VGAT-stop-tdTomato mouse (line #54) with a novel Cre driver mouse line, Galntl4-CreER, sparse labeling of inhibitory neurons was achieved following tamoxifen administration. Furthermore, another interesting line (line #58) was generated through the unexpected integration of the transgene into the X-chromosome and will be used to map X-chromosome inactivation of inhibitory neurons. Taken together, our studies provide new, well-characterized tools with which multiple aspects of inhibitory neurons can be studied in the mouse.
Literature context: # MAB5364; RRID:AB_2179313 Chemicals, Peptides, and Recomb
Mitral and tufted (M/T) cells in the olfactory bulb produce rich temporal patterns of activity in response to different odors. However, it remains unknown how these temporal patterns are generated and how they are utilized in olfaction. Here we show that temporal patterning effectively discriminates between the two sensory modalities detected by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs): odor and airflow-driven mechanical signals. Sniff-induced mechanosensation generates glomerulus-specific oscillatory activity in M/T cells, whose phase was invariant across airflow speed. In contrast, odor stimulation caused phase shifts (phase coding). We also found that odor-evoked phase shifts are concentration invariant and stable across multiple sniff cycles, contrary to the labile nature of rate coding. The loss of oscillatory mechanosensation impaired the precision and stability of phase coding, demonstrating its role in olfaction. We propose that phase, not rate, coding is a robust encoding strategy of odor identity and is ensured by airflow-induced mechanosensation in OSNs.
Literature context: 72), and Reelin (EMD Millipore; RRID:AB_2179313). The pan-NF monoclonal antibod
Spectrins form a submembranous cytoskeleton proposed to confer strength and flexibility to neurons and to participate in ion channel clustering at axon initial segments (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier. Neuronal spectrin cytoskeletons consist of diverse β subunits and αII spectrin. Although αII spectrin is found in neurons in both axonal and somatodendritic domains, using proteomics, biochemistry, and superresolution microscopy, we show that αII and βIV spectrin interact and form a periodic AIS cytoskeleton. To determine the role of spectrins in the nervous system, we generated Sptan1f/f mice for deletion of CNS αII spectrin. We analyzed αII spectrin-deficient mice of both sexes and found that loss of αII spectrin causes profound reductions in all β spectrins. αII spectrin-deficient mice die before 1 month of age and have disrupted AIS and many other neurological impairments including seizures, disrupted cortical lamination, and widespread neurodegeneration. These results demonstrate the importance of the spectrin cytoskeleton both at the AIS and throughout the nervous system.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Spectrin cytoskeletons play diverse roles in neurons, including assembly of excitable domains such as the axon initial segment (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier. However, the molecular composition and structure of these cytoskeletons remain poorly understood. Here, we show that αII spectrin partners with βIV spectrin to form a periodic cytoskeleton at the AIS. Using a new αII spectrin conditional knock-out mouse, we show that αII spectrin is required for AIS assembly, neuronal excitability, cortical lamination, and to protect against neurodegeneration. These results demonstrate the broad importance of spectrin cytoskeletons for nervous system function and development and have important implications for nervous system injuries and diseases because disruption of the spectrin cytoskeleton is a common molecular pathology.
Literature context: AB_5364; RRID:AB_2179313) were purchased from EMD Millipo
BACE1 is validated as Alzheimer's β-secretase and a therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease. In examining BACE1-null mice, we discovered that BACE1 deficiency develops abnormal clusters of immature neurons, forming doublecortin-positive neuroblasts, in the developing dentate gyrus, mainly in the subpial zone (SPZ). Such clusters were rarely observed in wild-type SPZ and not reported in other mouse models. To understand their origins and fates, we examined how neuroblasts in BACE1-null SPZ mature and migrate during early postnatal development. We show that such neuroblasts are destined to form Prox1-positive granule cells in the dentate granule cell layer, and mainly mature to form excitatory neurons, but not inhibitory neurons. Mechanistically, higher levels of reelin potentially contribute to abnormal neurogenesis and timely migration in BACE1-null SPZ. Altogether, we demonstrate that BACE1 is a critical regulator in forming the dentate granule cell layer through timely maturation and migration of SPZ neuroblasts.
Literature context: e clone G-10 Cat# MAB5364, RRID:AB_2179313; diluted 1:2000, 48 hr, at 4Â°C)
BACKGROUND: Reelin expression and function have been extensively studied in the brain, although its expression has been also reported in other tissues including blood. This raises the possibility that reelin might be able to cross the blood-brain barrier, which could be functionally relevant. Up-to-date no studies have been conducted to assess if reelin is present in the blood-brain barrier, which is mainly constituted by tightly packed endothelial cells. In this report we assessed the expression of reelin in brain capillaries using immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. RESULTS: At the light microscope, reelin immunolabeling appeared in specific endothelial cells in brain areas that presented abundant diffuse labeling for this protein (e.g., layer I of the cortex, or the stratum lacunosum moleculare of the hippocampus), while it was mostly absent from capillaries in other brain areas (e.g., deeper cortical layers, or the CA1 layer of the hippocampus). As expected, at the electron microscope reelin labeling was observed in neurons of the cortex, where most of the labeling was associated with the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Importantly, reelin was also observed in some endothelial cells located in small capillaries, which confirmed the findings obtained at the light microscope. In these cells, reelin labeling was located primarily in caveolae (i.e., vesicles of transcytosis), and associated with the plasma membrane of the luminal side of endothelial cells. In addition, some scarce labeling was observed in the nuclear membrane. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of reelin immunolabeling in brain endothelial cells, and particularly in caveolar vesicles within these cells, suggests that reelin and/or reelin peptides may be able to cross the blood-brain barrier, which could have important physiological, pathological, and therapeutic implications.
Proper development of axonal connections is essential for brain function. A forward genetic screen for mice with defects in thalamocortical development previously isolated a mutant called baffled. Here we describe the axonal defects of baffled in further detail and identify a point mutation in the Hspa5 gene, encoding the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone BiP/GRP78. This hypomorphic mutation of BiP disrupts proper development of the thalamocortical axon projection and other forebrain axon tracts, as well as cortical lamination. In baffled mutant brains, a reduced number of thalamic axons innervate the cortex by the time of birth. Thalamocortical and corticothalamic axons are delayed, overfasciculated, and disorganized along their pathway through the ventral telencephalon. Furthermore, dissociated mutant neurons show reduced axon extension in vitro. Together, these findings demonstrate a sensitive requirement for the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone BiP/GRP78 during axon outgrowth and pathfinding in the developing mammalian brain.
GPR56, one of the adhesion G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), plays an important role in the development of the cerebral cortex. Mutations in GPR56 cause a severe human cortical malformation called bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria (BFPP), characterized by a global malformation of the cerebral cortex that most severely affects the frontal and parietal regions. To characterize the expression pattern of GPR56 in the developing cerebral cortex, we developed a mouse monoclonal antibody against mouse GPR56. We revealed that GPR56 is expressed in multiple cell types in the preplate, marginal zone, subventricular zone (SVZ), and ventricular zone (VZ). Most interestingly, the expression of GPR56 in preplate neurons showed an anterior-to-posterior gradient at embryonic day (E) 10.5-11.5. In contrast, the expression pattern of the GPR56 ligand, collagen III, revealed no visible gradient pattern. With the widespread expression of GPR56 in the developing cortex, it is difficult to draw a specific conclusion as to which of the GPR56-expressing cells are critical for human brain development. However, the correlation between GPR56 expression in neurons at E10.5-E11.5 and the anatomic distribution of the cortical malformation in both humans and mice suggests that its function in preplate neurons is indispensible.
Identification of two markers of neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC), the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) and somatostatin (Sst) peptide, has been of great utility in understanding the essential role of the pre-BötC in breathing. Recently, the transcription factor dbx1 was identified as a critical, but transient, determinant of glutamatergic pre-BötC neurons. Here, to identify additional markers, we constructed and screened a single-cell subtractive cDNA library from pre-BötC inspiratory neurons. We identified the glycoprotein reelin as a potentially useful marker, because it is expressed in distinct populations of pre-BötC and inspiratory bulbospinal ventral respiratory group (ibsVRG) neurons. Reelin ibsVRG neurons were larger (27.1 ± 3.8 μm in diameter) and located more caudally (>12.8 mm caudal to Bregma) than reelin pre-BötC neurons (15.5 ± 2.4 μm in diameter, <12.8 mm rostral to Bregma). Pre-BötC reelin neurons coexpress NK1R and Sst. Reelin neurons were also found in the parahypoglossal and dorsal parafacial regions, pontine respiratory group, and ventromedial medulla. Reelin-deficient (Reeler) mice exhibited impaired respones to hypoxia compared with littermate controls. We suggest that reelin is a useful molecular marker for pre-BötC neurons in adult rodents and may play a functional role in pre-BötC microcircuits.
To know the embryogenesis of the core and shell regions of the midbrain auditory nucleus, a single dose of [(3)H]-thymidine was injected into the turtle embryos at peak stages of neurogenesis in the shell and core of the torus semicircularis. Following sequential survival times, labeled neurons and the dynamics of cell proliferation were examined. The expression of vimentin (VM), reelin, calbindin, parvalbumin, and substance P were also studied. The results showed that: 1) progenitor cells for the core and shell regions were generated in different sites of the ventricular zone; 2) the length of the cell cycle or S-phase for the shell region were both longer than those for the core region (4.7 and 3.2 hours longer, respectively), suggesting that mitotic activity in the core region is higher than it is in the shell region; 3) the elongated cell bodies of the labeled core and shell cells had close apposition to VM fibers, suggesting that the migration of these cells is guided by VM fibers; 4) the germinal sites of the core and shell constructed by projecting the orientation of radial VM fibers back to the ventricular zone was consistent with those obtained by short and sequential survival [(3)H]-thymidine radiography; and 5) the beginning of positive staining for parvalbumin in the core region was interposed between those for calbindin and substance P in the shell regions. This study contributes to the understanding of how auditory nuclei are organized and how their components developed and evolved.
Feed-forward inhibition from molecular layer interneurons onto granule cells (GCs) in the dentate gyrus is thought to have major effects regulating entorhinal-hippocampal interactions, but the precise identity, properties, and functional connectivity of the GABAergic cells in the molecular layer are not well understood. We used single and paired intracellular patch clamp recordings from post-hoc-identified cells in acute rat hippocampal slices and identified a subpopulation of molecular layer interneurons that expressed immunocytochemical markers present in members of the neurogliaform cell (NGFC) class. Single NGFCs displayed small dendritic trees, and their characteristically dense axonal arborizations covered significant portions of the outer and middle one-thirds of the molecular layer, with frequent axonal projections across the fissure into the CA1 and subicular regions. Typical NGFCs exhibited a late firing pattern with a ramp in membrane potential prior to firing action potentials, and single spikes in NGFCs evoked biphasic, prolonged GABA(A) and GABA(B) postsynaptic responses in GCs. In addition to providing dendritic GABAergic inputs to GCs, NGFCs also formed chemical synapses and gap junctions with various molecular layer interneurons, including other NGFCs. NGFCs received low-frequency spontaneous synaptic events, and stimulation of perforant path fibers revealed direct, facilitating synaptic inputs from the entorhinal cortex. Taken together, these results indicate that NGFCs form an integral part of the local molecular layer microcircuitry generating feed-forward inhibition and provide a direct GABAergic pathway linking the dentate gyrus to the CA1 and subicular regions through the hippocampal fissure.
Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-3, a receptor for VEGF-C and VEGF-D, is expressed in neural progenitor cells, but there has been no comprehensive study of its distribution in the developing brain. Here, the temporal and cell-specific expression of VEGFR-3 mRNA was studied in the developing rat forebrain and eye. Expression appeared along the ventricular and subventricular zones of the lateral and third ventricles showing ongoing neurogenesis as early as embryonic day 13 but was progressively down-regulated during development and remained in the subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream of the adult forebrain. VEGFR-3 expression was also detectable in some differentiating and postmitotic neurons in the developing cerebral cortex, including Cajal-Retzius cells, cortical plate neurons, and subplate neurons. Expression in the subplate increased significantly during the early postnatal period but was absent by postnatal day 14. It was also highly expressed in nonneural tissues of the eye during development, including the retinal pigment epithelium, the retinal ciliary margin, and the lens, but persisted in a subset of cells in the pigmented ciliary epithelium of the adult eye. In contrast, there was weak or undetectable expression in the early neural retina, but a subset of retinal neurons in the postnatal and mature retina showed intense signals. These unique spatiotemporal mRNA expression patterns suggest that VEGFR-3 might mediate the regulation of both neurogenesis and adult neuronal function in the rat forebrain and eye.
The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) can activate a number of transcription factors to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis and cell-specific responses to cold, fasting, and exercise. Recent studies indicate that PGC-1alpha knockout mice exhibit behavioral abnormalities and progressive vacuolization in various brain regions. To investigate the roles for PGC-1alpha in the nervous system, we evaluated the temporal and cell-specific expression of PGC-1alpha in the normal developing rat brain. Western blot of whole brain homogenates with a PGC-1alpha-specific antibody revealed that PGC-1alpha protein was most abundant in the embryonic and early postnatal forebrain and cerebellum. Using quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we determined that PGC-1alpha mRNA expression increased most markedly between postnatal days 3 (P3) and 14 in the cortex, striatum, and hippocampus. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses of brain tissue indicated that while PGC-1alpha was found in most neuronal populations from embryonic day 15 to P3, it was specifically concentrated in GABAergic populations from P3 to adulthood. Interestingly, PGC-1alpha colocalized with the developmentally regulated chemoattractant reelin in the cortex and hippocampus, and the survival-promoting transcription factor myocyte enhancing factor 2 was highly concentrated in GABAergic populations in the striatum and cerebellum at times of PGC-1alpha expression. These results implicate PGC-1alpha as a regulator of metabolism and/or survival in GABAergic neurons during a phase of mitochondrial and synaptic changes in the developing brain and suggest that PGC-1alpha may be a good target for increasing metabolism in GABAergic populations in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders.
Neuronal overmigration is the underlying cellular mechanism of cerebral cortical malformations in syndromes of congenital muscular dystrophies caused by defects in O-mannosyl glycosylation. Overmigration involves multiple developmental abnormalities in the brain surface basement membrane, Cajal-Retzius cells, and radial glia. We tested the hypothesis that breaches in basement membrane and the underlying glia limitans are the key initial events of the cellular pathomechanisms by carrying out a detailed developmental study with a mouse model of muscle-eye-brain disease, mice deficient in O-mannose beta31,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 1 (POMGnT1). The pial basement membrane was normal in the knockout mouse at E11.5. It was breached during rapid cerebral cortical expansion at E13.5. Radial glial endfeet, which comprise glia limitans, grew out of the neural boundary. Neurons moved out of the neural boundary through these breaches. The overgrown radial glia and emigrated neurons disrupted the overlying pia mater. The overmigrated neurons did not participate in cortical plate (CP) development; rather they formed a diffuse cell zone (DCZ) outside the original cortical boundary. Together, the DCZ and the CP formed the knockout cerebral cortex, with disappearance of the basement membrane and the glia limitans. These results suggest that disappearance of the basement membrane and the glia limitans at the cerebral cortical surface during development underlies cortical lamination defects in congenital muscular dystrophies and a cellular mechanism of cortical malformation distinct from that of the reeler mouse, double cortex syndrome, and periventricular heterotopia.
The first layer that appears in the cortical neuroepithelium, the preplate, forms in the upper part of the cortex immediately below the pial surface. In mice, this layer exists between embryonic days (E) 10 and 13, and it hosts different cell populations. Here, we have studied the first cell population generated in the preplate, the Cajal-Retzius cells. There is considerable confusion regarding these cells with respect to both their site of generation and the migratory routes that they follow. This perhaps is due largely to the different opinions that exist regarding their characterization. We have studied the site of origin of these cells, their migratory routes, and the molecular markers that may distinguish them by injecting tracers into early embryos, culturing them in toto for 24 hours, and then performing immunohistochemistry. We found that the Cajal-Retzius cells are most likely generated in the cortical hem by comparing with other cortical or extracortical origins. These cells are generated mainly at E10 and E11, and they subsequently migrate tangentially to cover the whole cortical mantle in 24 hours. From their site of origin in the medial wall of the telencephalon, they spread in a caudorostral direction, following an oblique migratory path toward the lateral part of the neuroepithelium. Prior to the splitting of the preplate, a percentage of the Cajal-Retzius cells that can be distinguished by the expression of reelin do not contain calretinin. Furthermore, there were no early-migrating neurons that expressed calbindin.