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ENCODE Project Antibody validation Rad21


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

RAD21 human

Proper Citation

(Abcam Cat# ab992, RRID:AB_2176601)


polyclonal antibody


Rabbit polyclonal affinity purified. Antibody Target: RAD21

Host Organism



Abcam Go To Vendor

HMGB2 Loss upon Senescence Entry Disrupts Genomic Organization and Induces CTCF Clustering across Cell Types.

  • Zirkel A
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 May 17

Literature context:


Processes like cellular senescence are characterized by complex events giving rise to heterogeneous cell populations. However, the early molecular events driving this cascade remain elusive. We hypothesized that senescence entry is triggered by an early disruption of the cells' three-dimensional (3D) genome organization. To test this, we combined Hi-C, single-cell and population transcriptomics, imaging, and in silico modeling of three distinct cells types entering senescence. Genes involved in DNA conformation maintenance are suppressed upon senescence entry across all cell types. We show that nuclear depletion of the abundant HMGB2 protein occurs early on the path to senescence and coincides with the dramatic spatial clustering of CTCF. Knocking down HMGB2 suffices for senescence-induced CTCF clustering and for loop reshuffling, while ectopically expressing HMGB2 rescues these effects. Our data suggest that HMGB2-mediated genomic reorganization constitutes a primer for the ensuing senescent program.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK078897(United States)

Computational prediction of CTCF/cohesin-based intra-TAD loops that insulate chromatin contacts and gene expression in mouse liver.

  • Matthews BJ
  • Elife
  • 2018 May 14

Literature context:


CTCF and cohesin are key drivers of 3D-nuclear organization, anchoring the megabase-scale Topologically Associating Domains (TADs) that segment the genome. Here, we present and validate a computational method to predict cohesin-and-CTCF binding sites that form intra-TAD DNA loops. The intra-TAD loop anchors identified are structurally indistinguishable from TAD anchors regarding binding partners, sequence conservation, and resistance to cohesin knockdown; further, the intra-TAD loops retain key functional features of TADs, including chromatin contact insulation, blockage of repressive histone mark spread, and ubiquity across tissues. We propose that intra-TAD loops form by the same loop extrusion mechanism as the larger TAD loops, and that their shorter length enables finer regulatory control in restricting enhancer-promoter interactions, which enables selective, high-level expression of gene targets of super-enhancers and genes located within repressive nuclear compartments. These findings elucidate the role of intra-TAD cohesin-and-CTCF binding in nuclear organization associated with widespread insulation of distal enhancer activity.

Funding information:
  • National Institutes of Health - DK33765()
  • National Institutes of Health - ES024421()
  • National Science Foundation - DGE-1247312()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK033765()
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - R01 ES024421()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007197(United States)

Cohesin Loss Eliminates All Loop Domains.

  • Rao SSP
  • Cell
  • 2017 Oct 5

Literature context:


The human genome folds to create thousands of intervals, called "contact domains," that exhibit enhanced contact frequency within themselves. "Loop domains" form because of tethering between two loci-almost always bound by CTCF and cohesin-lying on the same chromosome. "Compartment domains" form when genomic intervals with similar histone marks co-segregate. Here, we explore the effects of degrading cohesin. All loop domains are eliminated, but neither compartment domains nor histone marks are affected. Loss of loop domains does not lead to widespread ectopic gene activation but does affect a significant minority of active genes. In particular, cohesin loss causes superenhancers to co-localize, forming hundreds of links within and across chromosomes and affecting the regulation of nearby genes. We then restore cohesin and monitor the re-formation of each loop. Although re-formation rates vary greatly, many megabase-sized loops recovered in under an hour, consistent with a model where loop extrusion is rapid.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008294()

Genome Organization Drives Chromosome Fragility.

  • Canela A
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jul 27

Literature context:


In this study, we show that evolutionarily conserved chromosome loop anchors bound by CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and cohesin are vulnerable to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) mediated by topoisomerase 2B (TOP2B). Polymorphisms in the genome that redistribute CTCF/cohesin occupancy rewire DNA cleavage sites to novel loop anchors. While transcription- and replication-coupled genomic rearrangements have been well documented, we demonstrate that DSBs formed at loop anchors are largely transcription-, replication-, and cell-type-independent. DSBs are continuously formed throughout interphase, are enriched on both sides of strong topological domain borders, and frequently occur at breakpoint clusters commonly translocated in cancer. Thus, loop anchors serve as fragile sites that generate DSBs and chromosomal rearrangements. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Multi-tiered Reorganization of the Genome during B Cell Affinity Maturation Anchored by a Germinal Center-Specific Locus Control Region.

  • Bunting KL
  • Immunity
  • 2016 Sep 20

Literature context:


During the humoral immune response, B cells undergo a dramatic change in phenotype to enable antibody affinity maturation in germinal centers (GCs). Using genome-wide chromosomal conformation capture (Hi-C), we found that GC B cells undergo massive reorganization of the genomic architecture that encodes the GC B cell transcriptome. Coordinate expression of genes that specify the GC B cell phenotype-most prominently BCL6-was achieved through a multilayered chromatin reorganization process involving (1) increased promoter connectivity, (2) formation of enhancer networks, (3) 5' to 3' gene looping, and (4) merging of gene neighborhoods that share active epigenetic marks. BCL6 was an anchor point for the formation of GC-specific gene and enhancer loops on chromosome 3. Deletion of a GC-specific, highly interactive locus control region upstream of Bcl6 abrogated GC formation in mice. Thus, large-scale and multi-tiered genomic three-dimensional reorganization is required for coordinate expression of phenotype-driving gene sets that determine the unique characteristics of GC B cells.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD050820(United States)