Literature context: +AR) Santa Cruz sc-81980; RRID:AB_2167543 rabbit anti-Prox1 (1:500) Chemi
Alternative splicing contributes to gene expression dynamics in many tissues, yet its role in auditory development remains unclear. We performed whole-exome sequencing in individuals with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and identified pathogenic mutations in Epithelial Splicing-Regulatory Protein 1 (ESRP1). Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells showed alternative splicing defects that were restored upon repair of an ESRP1 mutant allele. To determine how ESRP1 mutations cause hearing loss, we evaluated Esrp1-/- mouse embryos and uncovered alterations in cochlear morphogenesis, auditory hair cell differentiation, and cell fate specification. Transcriptome analysis revealed impaired expression and splicing of genes with essential roles in cochlea development and auditory function. Aberrant splicing of Fgfr2 blocked stria vascularis formation due to erroneous ligand usage, which was corrected by reducing Fgf9 gene dosage. These findings implicate mutations in ESRP1 as a cause of SNHL and demonstrate the complex interplay between alternative splicing, inner ear development, and auditory function.
Literature context: a Cruz Biotechnology, sc-81980, RRID:AB_2167543) and rabbit polyclonal anti-myo
Developmental remodeling of the sensory epithelium of the cochlea is required for the formation of an elongated, tonotopically organized auditory organ, but the cellular processes that mediate these events are largely unknown. We used both morphological assessments of cellular rearrangements and time-lapse imaging to visualize cochlear remodeling in mouse. Analysis of cell redistribution showed that the cochlea extends through a combination of radial intercalation and cell growth. Live imaging demonstrated that concomitant cellular intercalation results in a brief period of epithelial convergence, although subsequent changes in cell size lead to medial-lateral spreading. Supporting cells, which retain contact with the basement membrane, exhibit biased protrusive activity and directed movement along the axis of extension. By contrast, hair cells lose contact with the basement membrane, but contribute to continued outgrowth through increased cell size. Regulation of cellular protrusions, movement and intercalation within the cochlea all require myosin II. These results establish, for the first time, many of the cellular processes that drive the distribution of sensory cells along the tonotopic axis of the cochlea.
Literature context: 3 [1:500, RRID:AB_2167543, Santa Cru
Vestibular hair cells in the inner ear encode head movements and mediate the sense of balance. These cells undergo cell death and replacement (turnover) throughout life in non-mammalian vertebrates. However, there is no definitive evidence that this process occurs in mammals. We used fate-mapping and other methods to demonstrate that utricular type II vestibular hair cells undergo turnover in adult mice under normal conditions. We found that supporting cells phagocytose both type I and II hair cells. Plp1-CreERT2-expressing supporting cells replace type II hair cells. Type I hair cells are not restored by Plp1-CreERT2-expressing supporting cells or by Atoh1-CreERTM-expressing type II hair cells. Destruction of hair cells causes supporting cells to generate 6 times as many type II hair cells compared to normal conditions. These findings expand our understanding of sensorineural plasticity in adult vestibular organs and further elucidate the roles that supporting cells serve during homeostasis and after injury.
Several subtypes of melanopsin-expressing, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) have been reported. The M1 type of ipRGCs exhibit distinct properties compared with the remaining (non-M1) cells. They differ not only in their soma size and dendritic arbor, but also in their physiological properties, projection patterns, and functions. However, it is not known how these differences arise. We tested the hypothesis that M1 and non-M1 cells express Brn3 transcription factors differentially. The Brn3 family of class IV POU-domain transcription factors (Brn3a, Brn3b, and Brn3c) is involved in the regulation of differentiation, dendritic stratification, and axonal projection of retinal ganglion cells during development. By using double immunofluorescence for Brn3 transcription factors and melanopsin, and with elaborate morphometric analyses, we show in mouse retina that neither Brn3a nor Brn3c are expressed in ipRGCs. However, Brn3b is expressed in a subset of ipRGCs, particularly those with larger somas and lower melanopsin levels, suggesting that Brn3b is expressed preferentially in the non-M1 cells. By using dendritic stratification to distinguish M1 from non-M1 cells, we found that whereas nearly all non-M1 cells expressed Brn3b, a vast majority of the M1 cells were negative for Brn3b. Interestingly, in the small proportion of the M1 cells that did express Brn3b, the expression level of Brn3b was significantly lower than in the non-M1 cells. These results provide insights about how expression of specific molecules in a ganglion cell could be linked to its role in visual function.