Literature context: Biotechnologies, Cat# sc14363, RRID:AB_2158332). The retinas were washed (6 Ã—
Functionally distinct retinal ganglion cells have density and size gradients across the mouse retina, and some degenerative eye diseases follow topographic-specific gradients of cell death. Hence, the anatomical orientation of the retina with respect to the orbit and head is important for understanding the functional anatomy of the retina in both health and disease. However, different research groups use different anatomical landmarks to determine retinal orientation (dorsal, ventral, temporal, nasal poles). Variations in the accuracy and reliability in marking these landmarks during dissection may lead to discrepancies in the identification and reporting of retinal topography. The goal of this study was to compare the accuracy and reliability of the canthus, rectus muscle, and choroid fissure landmarks in reporting retinal orientation. The retinal relieving cut angle made from each landmark during dissection was calculated based on its relationship to the opsin transition zone (OTZ), determined via a custom MATLAB script that aligns retinas from immunostained s-opsin. The choroid fissure and rectus muscle landmarks were the most accurate and reliable, while burn marks using the canthus as a reference were the least. These values were used to build an anatomical map that plots various ocular landmarks in relationship to one another, to the horizontal semicircular canals, to lambda-bregma, and to the earth's horizon. Surprisingly, during normal locomotion, the mouse's opsin gradient and the horizontal semicircular canals make equivalent 6° angles aligning the OTZ near the earth's horizon, a feature which may enhance the mouse's ability to visually navigate through its environment.
Literature context: ta Cruz Biotechnology sc-14363; RRID:AB_2158332 Goat polyclonal anti-iGluR5 San
Proper function of the central nervous system (CNS) depends on the specificity of synaptic connections between cells of various types. Cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the establishment and refinement of these connections during development are the subject of an active area of research [1-6]. However, it is unknown if the adult mammalian CNS can form new type-selective synapses following neural injury or disease. Here, we assess whether selective synaptic connections can be reestablished after circuit disruption in the adult mammalian retina. The stereotyped circuitry at the first synapse in the retina, as well as the relatively short distances new neurites must travel compared to other areas of the CNS, make the retina well suited to probing for synaptic specificity during circuit reassembly. Selective connections between short-wavelength sensitive cone photoreceptors (S-cones) and S-cone bipolar cells provides the foundation of the primordial blue-yellow vision, common to all mammals [7-18]. We take advantage of the ground squirrel retina, which has a one-to-one S-cone-to-S-cone-bipolar-cell connection, to test if this connectivity can be reestablished following local photoreceptor loss [8, 19]. We find that after in vivo selective photoreceptor ablation, deafferented S-cone bipolar cells expand their dendritic trees. The new dendrites randomly explore the proper synaptic layer, bypass medium-wavelength sensitive cone photoreceptors (M-cones), and selectively synapse with S-cones. However, non-connected dendrites are not pruned back to resemble unperturbed S-cone bipolar cells. We show, for the first time, that circuit repair in the adult mammalian retina can recreate stereotypic selective wiring.
Literature context: Cruz Biotechnology CAT#SC14363; RRID:AB_2158332 Mouse monoclonal anti-Lim1/2 DS
Screens for genes that orchestrate neural circuit formation in mammals have been hindered by practical constraints of germline mutagenesis. To overcome these limitations, we combined RNA-seq with somatic CRISPR mutagenesis to study synapse development in the mouse retina. Here synapses occur between cellular layers, forming two multilayered neuropils. The outer neuropil, the outer plexiform layer (OPL), contains synapses made by rod and cone photoreceptor axons on rod and cone bipolar dendrites, respectively. We used RNA-seq to identify selectively expressed genes encoding cell surface and secreted proteins and CRISPR-Cas9 electroporation with cell-specific promoters to assess their roles in OPL development. Among the genes identified in this way are Wnt5a and Wnt5b. They are produced by rod bipolars and activate a non-canonical signaling pathway in rods to regulate early OPL patterning. The approach we use here can be applied to other parts of the brain.
Silent voltage-gated potassium channel subunits (KVS) interact selectively with members of the KV2 channel family to modify their functional properties. The localization and functional roles of these silent subunits remain poorly understood. Mutations in the KVS subunit, KV8.2 (KCNV2), lead to severe visual impairment in humans, but the basis of these deficits remains unclear. Here, we examined the localization, native interactions, and functional properties of KV8.2-containing channels in mouse, macaque, and human photoreceptors of either sex. In human retina, KV8.2 colocalized with KV2.1 and KV2.2 in cone inner segments and with KV2.1 in rod inner segments. KV2.1 and KV2.2 could be coimmunoprecipitated with KV8.2 in retinal lysates indicating that these subunits likely interact directly. Retinal KV2.1 was less phosphorylated than cortical KV2.1, a difference expected to alter the biophysical properties of these channels. Using voltage-clamp recordings and pharmacology, we provide functional evidence for Kv2-containing channels in primate rods and cones. We propose that the presence of KV8.2, and low levels of KV2.1 phosphorylation shift the activation range of KV2 channels to align with the operating range of rod and cone photoreceptors. Our data indicate a role for KV2/KV8.2 channels in human photoreceptor function and suggest that the visual deficits in patients with KCNV2 mutations arise from inadequate resting activation of KV channels in rod and cone inner segments.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Mutations in a voltage-gated potassium channel subunit, KV8.2, underlie a blinding inherited photoreceptor dystrophy, indicating an important role for these channels in human vision. Here, we have defined the localization and subunit interactions of KV8.2 channels in primate photoreceptors. We show that the KV8.2 subunit interacts with different Kv2 channels in rods and cones, giving rise to potassium currents with distinct functional properties. Our results provide a molecular basis for retinal dysfunction in patients with mutations in the KCNV2 gene encoding KV8.2.
Literature context: 1SW (N-20) Santa Cruz sc-14363; RRID:AB_2158332 OTX2 R&D Systems BAF1979; RRID:
Clinical and genetic heterogeneity associated with retinal diseases makes stem-cell-based therapies an attractive strategy for personalized medicine. However, we have limited understanding of the timing of key events in the developing human retina, and in particular the factors critical for generating the unique architecture of the fovea and surrounding macula. Here we define three key epochs in the transcriptome dynamics of human retina from fetal day (D) 52 to 136. Coincident histological analyses confirmed the cellular basis of transcriptional changes and highlighted the dramatic acceleration of development in the fovea compared with peripheral retina. Human and mouse retinal transcriptomes show remarkable similarity in developmental stages, although morphogenesis was greatly expanded in humans. Integration of DNA accessibility data allowed us to reconstruct transcriptional networks controlling photoreceptor differentiation. Our studies provide insights into human retinal development and serve as a resource for molecular staging of human stem-cell-derived retinal organoids.
Literature context: RRID:AB_2158332
A small population of retinal ganglion cells expresses the photopigment melanopsin and function as autonomous photoreceptors. They encode global luminance levels critical for light-mediated non-image forming visual processes including circadian rhythms and the pupillary light reflex. There are five melanopsin ganglion cell subtypes (M1-M5). M1 and displaced M1 (M1d) cells have dendrites that ramify within the outermost layer of the inner plexiform layer. It was recently discovered that some melanopsin ganglion cells extend dendrites into the outer retina. Outer Retinal Dendrites (ORDs) either ramify within the outer plexiform layer (OPL) or the inner nuclear layer, and while present in the mature retina, are most abundant postnatally. Anatomical evidence for synaptic transmission between cone photoreceptor terminals and ORDs suggests a novel photoreceptor to ganglion cell connection in the mammalian retina. While it is known that the number of ORDs in the retina is developmentally regulated, little is known about the morphology, the cells from which they originate, or their spatial distribution throughout the retina. We analyzed the morphology of melanopsin-immunopositive ORDs in the OPL at different developmental time points in the mouse retina and identified five types of ORDs originating from either M1 or M1d cells. However, a pattern emerges within these: ORDs from M1d cells are generally longer and more highly branched than ORDs from conventional M1 cells. Additionally, we found ORDs asymmetrically distributed to the dorsal retina. This morphological analysis provides the first step in identifying a potential role for biplexiform melanopsin ganglion cell ORDs.
Literature context: otechnology SC-14363; RRID:AB_2158332 donkey anti-rabbit conjugated t
The mouse retina contains a single type of horizontal cell, a GABAergic interneuron that samples from all cone photoreceptors within reach and modulates their glutamatergic output via parallel feedback mechanisms. Because horizontal cells form an electrically coupled network, they have been implicated in global signal processing, such as large-scale contrast enhancement. Recently, it has been proposed that horizontal cells can also act locally at the level of individual cone photoreceptors. To test this possibility physiologically, we used two-photon microscopy to record light stimulus-evoked Ca2+ signals in cone axon terminals and horizontal cell dendrites as well as glutamate release in the outer plexiform layer. By selectively stimulating the two mouse cone opsins with green and UV light, we assessed whether signals from individual cones remain isolated within horizontal cell dendritic tips or whether they spread across the dendritic arbor. Consistent with the mouse's opsin expression gradient, we found that the Ca2+ signals recorded from dendrites of dorsal horizontal cells were dominated by M-opsin and those of ventral horizontal cells by S-opsin activation. The signals measured in neighboring horizontal cell dendritic tips varied markedly in their chromatic preference, arguing against global processing. Rather, our experimental data and results from biophysically realistic modeling support the idea that horizontal cells can process cone input locally, extending the classical view of horizontal cell function. Pharmacologically removing horizontal cells from the circuitry reduced the sensitivity of the cone signal to low frequencies, suggesting that local horizontal cell feedback shapes the temporal properties of cone output.
Literature context: goat polyclonal SCBT Sc-14363; RRID:AB_2158332 1:400
Regulation of rod gene expression has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy to treat retinal degenerative diseases like retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We previously reported on a small molecule modulator of the rod transcription factor Nr2e3, Photoregulin1 (PR1), that regulates the expression of photoreceptor-specific genes. Although PR1 slows the progression of retinal degeneration in models of RP in vitro, in vivo analyses were not possible with PR1. We now report a structurally unrelated compound, Photoregulin3 (PR3) that also inhibits rod photoreceptor gene expression, potentially though Nr2e3 modulation. To determine the effectiveness of PR3 as a potential therapy for RP, we treated RhoP23H mice with PR3 and assessed retinal structure and function. PR3-treated RhoP23H mice showed significant structural and functional photoreceptor rescue compared with vehicle-treated littermate control mice. These results provide further support that pharmacological modulation of rod gene expression provides a potential strategy for the treatment of RP.
Literature context: z Biotechnology Cat#: SC14-363; RRID:AB_2158332 Bacterial and Virus Strains
Environmental illumination spans many log units of intensity and is tracked for essential functions that include regulation of the circadian clock, arousal state, and hormone levels. Little is known about the neural representation of light intensity and how it covers the necessary range. This question became accessible with the discovery of mammalian photoreceptors that are required for intensity-driven functions, the M1 ipRGCs. The spike outputs of M1s are thought to uniformly track intensity over a wide range. We provide a different understanding: individual cells operate over a narrow range, but the population covers irradiances from moonlight to full daylight. The range of most M1s is limited by depolarization block, which is generally considered pathological but is produced intrinsically by these cells. The dynamics of block allow the population to code stimulus intensity with flexibility and efficiency. Moreover, although spikes are distorted by block, they are regularized during axonal propagation.
Literature context: z BiotechnologyÂ Sc-14363Â 1:1000Â AB_2158332Â Antiâ€“M opsinÂ M opsinÂ RabbitÂ Pol
Type 2 deiodinase amplifies and type 3 deiodinase depletes levels of the active form of thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine. Given the opposing activities of these enzymes, we tested the hypothesis that they counteract each other's developmental functions by investigating whether deletion of type 2 deiodinase (encoded by Dio2) modifies sensory phenotypes in type 3 deiodinase-deficient (Dio3-/-) mice. Dio3-/- mice display degeneration of retinal cones, the photoreceptors that mediate daylight and color vision. In Dio2-/- mice, cone function was largely normal but deletion of Dio2 in Dio3-/- mice markedly recovered cone numbers and electroretinogram responses, suggesting counterbalancing roles for both enzymes in cone survival. Both Dio3-/- and Dio2-/- strains exhibit deafness with cochlear abnormalities. In Dio3-/-;Dio2-/- mice, deafness was exacerbated rather than alleviated, suggesting unevenly balanced actions by these enzymes during auditory development. Dio3-/- mice also exhibit an atrophic thyroid gland, low thyroxine, and high triiodothyronine levels, but this phenotype was ameliorated in Dio3-/-;Dio2-/- mice, indicating counterbalancing roles for the enzymes in determining the thyroid hormone status. The results suggest that the composite action of these two enzymes is a critical determinant in visual and auditory development and in setting the systemic thyroid hormone status.
Literature context: nta Cruz, RRID:AB_2158332), which wa
The retinae of many bird species contain a depression with high photoreceptor density known as the fovea. Many species of raptors have two foveae, a deep central fovea and a shallower temporal fovea. Birds have six types of photoreceptors: rods, active in dim light, double cones that are thought to mediate achromatic discrimination, and four types of single cones mediating color vision. To maximize visual acuity, the fovea should only contain photoreceptors contributing to high-resolution vision. Interestingly, it has been suggested that raptors might lack double cones in the fovea. We used transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry to evaluate this claim in five raptor species: the common buzzard (Buteo buteo), the honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus), the Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), the red kite (Milvus milvus), and the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). We found that all species, except the Eurasian sparrowhawk, lack double cones in the center of the central fovea. The size of the double cone-free zone differed between species. Only the common buzzard had a double cone-free zone in the temporal fovea. In three species, we examined opsin expression in the central fovea and found evidence that rod opsin positive cells were absent and violet-sensitive cone and green-sensitive cone opsin positive cells were present. We conclude that not only double cones, but also single cones may contribute to high-resolution vision in birds, and that raptors may in fact possess high-resolution tetrachromatic vision in the central fovea.
Literature context: sc-14363, RRID:AB_2158332 1:500 Sant
The lemurs of Madagascar (Primates: Lemuriformes) are a monophyletic group that has lived in isolation from other primates for about 50 million years. Lemurs have diversified into species with diverse daily activity patterns and correspondingly different visual adaptations. We assessed the arrangements of retinal cone and rod photoreceptors in six nocturnal, three cathemeral and two diurnal lemur species and quantified different parameters in six of the species. The analysis revealed lower cone densities and higher rod densities in the nocturnal than in the cathemeral and diurnal species. The photoreceptor densities in the diurnal Propithecus verreauxi indicate a less "diurnal" retina than found in other diurnal primates. Immunolabeling for cone opsins showed the presence of both middle-to-longwave sensitive (M/L) and shortwave sensitive (S) cones in most species, indicating at least dichromatic color vision. S cones were absent in Allocebus trichotis and Cheirogaleus medius, indicating cone monochromacy. In the Microcebus species, the S cones had an inverse topography with very low densities in the central retina and highest densities in the peripheral retina. The S cones in the other species and the M/L cones in all species had a conventional topography with peak densities in the central area. With the exception of the cathemeral Eulemur species, the eyes of all studied taxa, including the diurnal Propithecus, possessed a tapetum lucidum, a feature only found among nocturnal and crepuscular mammals.
Literature context: ruz Biotechnology Cat# sc-14363 RRID:AB_2158332Goat1:200THMAB318Millipore Cat#
The blind mole rat, Spalax ehrenbergi, can, despite severely degenerated eyes covered by fur, entrain to the daily light/dark cycle and adapt to seasonal changes due to an intact circadian timing system. The present study demonstrates that the Spalax retina contains a photoreceptor layer, an outer nuclear layer (ONL), an outer plexiform layer (OPL), an inner nuclear layer (INL), an inner plexiform layer (IPL), and a ganglion cell layer (GCL). By immunohistochemistry, the number of melanopsin (mRGCs) and non-melanopsin bearing retinal ganglion cells was analyzed in detail. Using the ganglion cell marker RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS) it was shown that the Spalax eye contains 890 ± 62 RGCs. Of these, 87% (752 ± 40) contain melanopsin (cell density 788 melanopsin RGCs/mm(2)). The remaining RGCs were shown to co-store Brn3a and calretinin. The melanopsin cells were located mainly in the GCL with projections forming two dendritic plexuses located in the inner part of the IPL and in the OPL. Few melanopsin dendrites were also found in the ONL. The Spalax retina is rich in rhodopsin and long/middle wave (L/M) cone opsin bearing photoreceptor cells. By using Ctbp2 as a marker for ribbon synapses, both rods and L/M cone ribbons containing pedicles in the OPL were found in close apposition with melanopsin dendrites in the outer plexus suggesting direct synaptic contact. A subset of cone bipolar cells and all photoreceptor cells contain recoverin while a subset of bipolar and amacrine cells contain calretinin. The calretinin expressing amacrine cells seemed to form synaptic contacts with rhodopsin containing photoreceptor cells in the OPL and contacts with melanopsin cell bodies and dendrites in the IPL. The study demonstrates the complex retinal circuitry used by the Spalax to detect light, and provides evidence for both melanopsin and non-melanopsin projecting pathways to the brain.
In retinitis pigmentosa (RP), the death of cones normally follows some time after the degeneration of rods. Recently, surviving cones in RP have been studied and reported in detail. These cones undergo extensive remodeling in their morphology. Here we report an extension of the remodeling study to consider possible modifications of spatial-distribution patterns. For this purpose we used S334ter-line-3 transgenic rats, a transgenic model developed to express a rhodopsin mutation causing RP. In this study, retinas were collected at postnatal (P) days P5-30, 90, 180, and P600. We then immunostained the retinas to examine the morphology and distribution of cones and to quantify the total cone numbers. Our results indicate that cones undergo extensive changes in their spatial distribution to give rise to a mosaic comprising an orderly array of rings. These rings first begin to appear at P15 at random regions of the retina and become ubiquitous throughout the entire tissue by P90. Such distribution pattern loses its clarity by P180 and mostly disappears at P600, at which time the cones are almost all dead. In contrast, the numbers of cones in RP and normal conditions do not show significant differences at stages as late as P180. Therefore, rings do not form by cell death at their centers, but by cone migration. We discuss its possible mechanisms and suggest a role for hot spots of rod death and the remodeling of Müller cell process into zones of low density of photoreceptors.
Protocadherins (Pcdhs) are thought to be key features of cell-type-specific synapse formation. Here we analyzed the expression pattern of Pcdh subunit β16 (β16) in the primate retina by applying antibodies against β16, different subunits of ionotropic glutamate receptors (GluRs), and cell-type-specific markers as well as by coimmunoprecipitation and Western blots. Immunocytochemical localization was analyzed by confocal microscopy and preembedding electron microscopy. In the outer plexiform layer (OPL) H1, but not H2, horizontal cells expressed β16 as revealed by the strong reduction of β16 at short-wavelength-sensitive cones. β16 colocalized with the GluR subunits GluR2-4 at horizontal cell dendritic tips and with GluR2-4 and GluR6/7 at the desmosome-like junctions. At the latter, these AMPA and kainate receptor subunits were found to be clustered within single synaptic hot spots. Additionally, β16-labeled dendritic tips of OFF cone bipolar cells appeared in triad-associated positions at the cone pedicle base, pointing to β16 expression by OFF midget or DB3 bipolar cells. In the inner plexiform layer, β16 was localized also postsynaptically at most of the glutamatergic synapses. Overall, we provide evidence for a cell-type-specific localization of β16 together with GluRs at defined postsynaptic sites and a coexistence of AMPA and kainate receptors within single synaptic hot spots. This study supports the hypothesis that β16 plays an important role in the formation and/or stabilization of specific glutamatergic synapses, whereas our in vivo protein biochemical results argue against the existence of protein complexes formed by β16 and GluRs.
Traditionally, vision was thought to be useless for animals living in dark underground habitats, but recent studies in a range of subterranean rodent species have shown a large diversity of eye features, from small subcutaneous eyes to normal-sized functional eyes. We analyzed the retinal photoreceptors in the subterranean hystricomorph rodents Ctenomys talarum and Ctenomys magellanicus to elucidate whether adaptation was to their near-lightless burrows or rather to their occasional diurnal surface activity. Both species had normally developed eyes. Overall photoreceptor densities were comparatively low (95,000-150,000/mm(2) in C. magellanicus, 110,000-200,000/mm(2) in C. talarum), and cone proportions were rather high (10-31% and 14-31%, respectively). The majority of cones expressed the middle-to-longwave-sensitive (L) opsin, and a 6-16% minority expressed the shortwave-sensitive (S) opsin. In both species the densities of L and S cones were higher in ventral than in dorsal retina. In both species the tuning-relevant amino acids of the S opsin indicate sensitivity in the near UV rather than the blue/violet range. Photopic spectral electroretinograms were recorded. Unexpectedly, their sensitivity profiles were best fitted by the linear summation of three visual pigment templates with lambda(max) at 370 nm (S pigment, UV), at 510 nm (L pigment), and at 450 nm (an as-yet unexplained mechanism). Avoiding predators and selecting food during the brief aboveground excursions may have exerted pressure to retain robust cone-based vision in Ctenomys. UV tuning of the S cone pigment is shared with a number of other hystricomorphs.
Purkinje cell protein 2 (PCP2), a member of the family of guanine dissociation inhibitors and a strong interactor with the G-protein subunit G alpha(o), localizes to retinal ON bipolar cells. The retina-specific splice variant of PCP2, Ret-PCP2, accelerates the light response of rod bipolar cells by modulating the mGluR6 transduction cascade. All ON cone bipolar cells express mGluR6 and G alpha(o), but only a subset expresses Ret-PCP2. Here we test the hypothesis that Ret-PCP2 contributes to shaping the various temporal bandwidths of ON cone bipolar cells in monkey retina. We found that the retinal splice variants in monkey and mouse are similar and longer than the cerebellar variants. Ret-PCP2 is strongly expressed by diffuse cone bipolar type 4 cells (DB4; marked with anti-PKCalpha) and weakly expressed by midget bipolar dendrites (labeled by antibodies against G alpha(o), G gamma 13, or mGluR6). Ret-PCP2 is absent from diffuse cone bipolar type 6 (DB6; marked with anti-CD15) and blue cone bipolar cells (marked with anti-CCK precursor). Thus, cone bipolar cells that terminate in stratum 3 of the inner plexiform layer (DB4) express more Ret-PCP2 than those that terminate in strata 3 + 4 (midget bipolar cells), and these in turn express more than those that terminate in stratum 5 (DB6 and blue cone bipolar cells). This expression pattern approximates the arborization of ganglion cells (GC) with different temporal bandwidths: parasol GCs stratifying near stratum 3 are faster than midget GCs stratifying in strata 3 + 4, and these are probably faster than the sluggish GCs that arborize in stratum 5.
This study addresses the correlation of retinal topography with factors such as the visual environment, life style, and behavior for a major mammalian group, the artiodactyls. To provide a broader basis for semiquantitative comparison, short-wavelength-sensitive (S)- and middle-to-long-wavelength-sensitive (M)-opsin cone receptor populations from 25 species from five artiodactyl families and of the African elephant were labeled and sampled. The resulting topographic maps were analyzed with respect to the position and extension of high-density regions. For better parameter differentiation, systematic relationships were statistically normalized. In all species examined, two classes of cones have been detected. In most species, the S-cone maxima were located in the temporodorsal retina, but there are exceptions such as the roe deer with accumulation in the ventral retina. For M-cones, as a consequence of their role in terrain/food assessment and predator detection, the standard topography is L-shaped: a horizontal visual streak including a temporal area centralis is extended by a temporal rim. Its extension is correlated with the animal's body height (P = 0.0017): small species (pudu, mouse deer) tend to have a visual streak only, whereas the giraffe shows a complete dorsal arch of elevated densities. Furthermore, a size-independent habitat correlation was revealed for a similar M-cone pattern (P < 0.0001): mountainous species show a striking specialization around the dorsal retina, pointing to the importance of the inferior visual field in precipitous terrain.
The biocytin wide-field bipolar cell in rabbit retina has a broad axonal arbor in layer 5 of the inner plexiform layer and a wide dendritic arbor that does not contact all cones in its dendritic field. The purpose of our study was to identify the types of cones that this cell contacts. We identified the bipolar cells by selective uptake of biocytin, labeled the cones with peanut agglutinin, and then used antibodies against blue cone opsin and red-green cone opsin to identify the individual cone types. The biocytin-labeled cells selectively contacted cones whose outer segments stained for blue cone opsin and avoided cones that did not. We conclude that the biocytin wide-field bipolar cell is an ON blue cone bipolar cell in the rabbit retina and is homologous to the blue cone bipolar cells that have been previously described in primate, mouse, and ground squirrel retinas.