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Mcl-1 (S-19) antibody


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

MCL1 human, mouse, rat

Proper Citation

(Santa Cruz Biotechnology Cat# sc-819, RRID:AB_2144105)


polyclonal antibody


Discontinued: 2016; validation status unknown check with seller; recommendations: ELISA; Immunocytochemistry; Immunofluorescence; Immunoprecipitation; Western Blot; Western Blotting, Immunoprecipitation, Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry(P), ELISA

Clone ID


Host Organism



Santa Cruz Biotechnology

Cat Num


SYK Inhibition Induces Apoptosis in Germinal Center-Like B Cells by Modulating the Antiapoptotic Protein Myeloid Cell Leukemia-1, Affecting B-Cell Activation and Antibody Production.

  • Roders N
  • Front Immunol
  • 2018 May 10

Literature context:


B cells play a major role in the antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) of solid organ transplants, a major public health concern. The germinal center (GC) is involved in the generation of donor-specific antibody-producing plasma cells and memory B cells, which are often poorly controlled by current treatments. Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1), an antiapoptotic member of the B-cell lymphoma-2 family, is essential for maintenance of the GC reaction and B-cell differentiation. During chronic AMR (cAMR), tertiary lymphoid structures resembling GCs appear in the rejected organ, suggesting local lymphoid neogenesis. We report the infiltration of the kidneys with B cells expressing Mcl-1 in patients with cAMR. We modulated GC viability by impairing B-cell receptor signaling, by spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) inhibition. SYK inhibition lowers viability and Mcl-1 protein levels in Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines. This downregulation of Mcl-1 is coordinated at the transcriptional level, possibly by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), as shown by (1) the impaired translocation of STAT3 to the nucleus following SYK inhibition, and (2) the lower levels of Mcl-1 transcription upon STAT3 inhibition. Mcl-1 overproduction prevented cells from entering apoptosis following SYK inhibition. In vitro studies with primary tonsillar B cells confirmed that SYK inhibition impaired cell survival and decreased Mcl-1 protein levels. It also impaired B-cell activation and immunoglobulin G secretion by tonsillar B cells. These findings suggest that the SYK-Mcl-1 pathway could be targeted, to improve graft survival by manipulating the humoral immune response.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS-1080 55195(United States)

Synthetic Lethality of Combined Bcl-2 Inhibition and p53 Activation in AML: Mechanisms and Superior Antileukemic Efficacy.

  • Pan R
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Dec 11

Literature context:


Evasion of apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer. Bcl-2 and p53 represent two important nodes in apoptosis signaling pathways. We find that concomitant p53 activation and Bcl-2 inhibition overcome apoptosis resistance and markedly prolong survival in three mouse models of resistant acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Mechanistically, p53 activation negatively regulates the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway and activates GSK3 to modulate Mcl-1 phosphorylation and promote its degradation, thus overcoming AML resistance to Bcl-2 inhibition. Moreover, Bcl-2 inhibition reciprocally overcomes apoptosis resistance to p53 activation by switching cellular response from G1 arrest to apoptosis. The efficacy, together with the mechanistic findings, reveals the potential of simultaneously targeting these two apoptosis regulators and provides a rational basis for clinical testing of this therapeutic approach.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MC_U120061476(United Kingdom)
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01 CA055164()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA016672()

MYC and MCL1 Cooperatively Promote Chemotherapy-Resistant Breast Cancer Stem Cells via Regulation of Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation.

  • Lee KM
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Oct 3

Literature context:


Most patients with advanced triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) develop drug resistance. MYC and MCL1 are frequently co-amplified in drug-resistant TNBC after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Herein, we demonstrate that MYC and MCL1 cooperate in the maintenance of chemotherapy-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs) in TNBC. MYC and MCL1 increased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (mtOXPHOS) and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), processes involved in maintenance of CSCs. A mutant of MCL1 that cannot localize in mitochondria reduced mtOXPHOS, ROS levels, and drug-resistant CSCs without affecting the anti-apoptotic function of MCL1. Increased levels of ROS, a by-product of activated mtOXPHOS, led to the accumulation of HIF-1α. Pharmacological inhibition of HIF-1α attenuated CSC enrichment and tumor initiation in vivo. These data suggest that (1) MYC and MCL1 confer resistance to chemotherapy by expanding CSCs via mtOXPHOS and (2) targeting mitochondrial respiration and HIF-1α may reverse chemotherapy resistance in TNBC.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P50 CA098131()

Chlamydia trachomatis-containing vacuole serves as deubiquitination platform to stabilize Mcl-1 and to interfere with host defense.

  • Fischer A
  • Elife
  • 2017 Mar 28

Literature context:


Obligate intracellular Chlamydia trachomatis replicate in a membrane-bound vacuole called inclusion, which serves as a signaling interface with the host cell. Here, we show that the chlamydial deubiquitinating enzyme (Cdu) 1 localizes in the inclusion membrane and faces the cytosol with the active deubiquitinating enzyme domain. The structure of this domain revealed high similarity to mammalian deubiquitinases with a unique α-helix close to the substrate-binding pocket. We identified the apoptosis regulator Mcl-1 as a target that interacts with Cdu1 and is stabilized by deubiquitination at the chlamydial inclusion. A chlamydial transposon insertion mutant in the Cdu1-encoding gene exhibited increased Mcl-1 and inclusion ubiquitination and reduced Mcl-1 stabilization. Additionally, inactivation of Cdu1 led to increased sensitivity of C. trachomatis for IFNγ and impaired infection in mice. Thus, the chlamydial inclusion serves as an enriched site for a deubiquitinating activity exerting a function in selective stabilization of host proteins and protection from host defense.

A conformational switch regulates the ubiquitin ligase HUWE1.

  • Sander B
  • Elife
  • 2017 Feb 14

Literature context:


The human ubiquitin ligase HUWE1 has key roles in tumorigenesis, yet it is unkown how its activity is regulated. We present the crystal structure of a C-terminal part of HUWE1, including the catalytic domain, and reveal an asymmetric auto-inhibited dimer. We show that HUWE1 dimerizes in solution and self-associates in cells, and that both occurs through the crystallographic dimer interface. We demonstrate that HUWE1 is inhibited in cells and that it can be activated by disruption of the dimer interface. We identify a conserved segment in HUWE1 that counteracts dimer formation by associating with the dimerization region intramolecularly. Our studies reveal, intriguingly, that the tumor suppressor p14ARF binds to this segment and may thus shift the conformational equilibrium of HUWE1 toward the inactive state. We propose a model, in which the activity of HUWE1 underlies conformational control in response to physiological cues-a mechanism that may be exploited for cancer therapy.

Regulation of LH receptor mRNA binding protein by miR-122 in rat ovaries.

  • Menon B
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Dec 25

Literature context:


LH receptor (LHR) expression in the ovary is regulated by the RNA binding protein, (LHR mRNA binding protein [LRBP]), which has been identified as being mevalonate kinase. This study examined the role of microRNA miR-122 in LRBP-mediated LHR mRNA expression. Real-time PCR analysis of ovaries from pregnant mare serum gonadotropin/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-primed female rats treated with hCG to down-regulate LHR expression showed that an increase in miR-122 expression preceded LHR mRNA down-regulation. The expression of miR-122 and its regulation was confirmed using fluorescent in situ hybridization of the frozen ovary sections using 5'-fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled miR-122 locked nucleic acid probe. The increased expression of miR-122 preceded increased expression of LRBP mRNA and protein, and these increases were followed by LHR mRNA down-regulation. Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) and ERK1/2 signaling pathways by H89 and UO126, respectively, attenuated the hCG-mediated up-regulation of miR-122 levels. This was also confirmed in vitro using human granulosa cells. These results suggest the possibility that hCG-mediated miR-122 expression is mediated by the activation of cAMP/PKA/ERK signaling pathways. Inhibition of miR-122 by injection of the locked nucleic acid-conjugated antagomir of miR-122 abrogated the hCG-mediated increases in LRBP protein expression. Because it has been previously shown that miR-122 regulates sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) and SREBPs, in turn, regulate LRBP expression, the role of SREBPs in miR-122-mediated increase in LRBP expression was then examined. The levels of active forms of both SREBP-1a and SREBP-2 were increased in response to hCG treatment, and the stimulatory effect was sustained up to 4 hours. Taken together, our results suggest that hCG-induced down-regulation of LHR mRNA expression is mediated by activation of cAMP/PKA/ERK pathways to increase miR-122 expression, which then increases LRBP expression through the activation of SREBPs.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY019051(United States)