Literature context: Technology, catalog #9165, RRID:AB_2130165, 1:1000), phospho-AktT308 (Cell
Schwann cells (SCs) are endowed with a remarkable plasticity. When peripheral nerves are injured, SCs dedifferentiate and acquire new functions to coordinate nerve repair as so-called repair SCs. Subsequently, SCs redifferentiate to remyelinate regenerated axons. Given the similarities between SC dedifferentiation/redifferentiation in injured nerves and in demyelinating neuropathies, elucidating the signals involved in SC plasticity after nerve injury has potentially wider implications. c-Jun has emerged as a key transcription factor regulating SC dedifferentiation and the acquisition of repair SC features. However, the upstream pathways that control c-Jun activity after nerve injury are largely unknown. We report that the mTORC1 pathway is transiently but robustly reactivated in dedifferentiating SCs. By inducible genetic deletion of the functionally crucial mTORC1-subunit Raptor in mouse SCs (including male and female animals), we found that mTORC1 reactivation is necessary for proper myelin clearance, SC dedifferentiation, and consequently remyelination, without major alterations in the inflammatory response. In the absence of mTORC1 signaling, c-Jun failed to be upregulated correctly. Accordingly, a c-Jun binding motif was found to be enriched in promoters of genes with reduced expression in injured mutants. Furthermore, using cultured SCs, we found that mTORC1 is involved in c-Jun regulation by promoting its translation, possibly via the eIF4F-subunit eIF4A. These results provide evidence that proper c-Jun elevation after nerve injury involves also mTORC1-dependent post-transcriptional regulation to ensure timely dedifferentiation of SCs.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A crucial evolutionary acquisition of vertebrates is the envelopment of axons in myelin sheaths produced by oligodendrocytes in the CNS and Schwann cells (SCs) in the PNS. When myelin is damaged, conduction of action potentials along axons slows down or is blocked, leading to debilitating diseases. Unlike oligodendrocytes, SCs have a high regenerative potential, granted by their remarkable plasticity. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying SC plasticity may uncover new therapeutic targets in nerve regeneration and demyelinating diseases. Our work reveals that reactivation of the mTORC1 pathway in SCs is essential for efficient SC dedifferentiation after nerve injury. Accordingly, modulating this signaling pathway might be of therapeutic relevance in peripheral nerve injury and other diseases.
Literature context: Rabbit monoclonal anti-cJun (RRID:AB_2130165) Cell Signaling Technology Cat#
Altered metabolism is a hallmark of cancer growth, forming the conceptual basis for development of metabolic therapies as cancer treatments. We performed in vivo metabolic profiling and molecular analysis of lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) to identify metabolic nodes for therapeutic targeting. Lung SCCs adapt to chronic mTOR inhibition and suppression of glycolysis through the GSK3α/β signaling pathway, which upregulates glutaminolysis. Phospho-GSK3α/β protein levels are predictive of response to single-therapy mTOR inhibition while combinatorial treatment with the glutaminase inhibitor CB-839 effectively overcomes therapy resistance. In addition, we identified a conserved metabolic signature in a broad spectrum of hypermetabolic human tumors that may be predictive of patient outcome and response to combined metabolic therapies targeting mTOR and glutaminase.
Literature context: ll Signaling Technology, 9165, RRID:AB_2130165), rabbit anti-c-Jun Phospho(S63
Schwann cell differentiation and myelination in the PNS are the result of fine-tuning of positive and negative transcriptional regulators. As myelination starts, negative regulators are downregulated, whereas positive ones are upregulated. Fully differentiated Schwann cells maintain an extraordinary plasticity and can transdifferentiate into "repair" Schwann cells after nerve injury. Reactivation of negative regulators of myelination is essential to generate repair Schwann cells. Negative regulators have also been implicated in demyelinating neuropathies, although their role in disease remains elusive. Here, we used a mouse model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 1B (CMT1B), the P0S63del mouse characterized by ER stress and the activation of the unfolded protein response, to show that adult Schwann cells are in a partial differentiation state because they overexpress transcription factors that are normally expressed only before myelination. We provide evidence that two of these factors, Sox2 and Id2, act as negative regulators of myelination in vivo However, their sustained expression in neuropathy is protective because ablation of Sox2 or/and Id2 from S63del mice of both sexes results in worsening of the dysmyelinating phenotype. This is accompanied by increased levels of mutant P0 expression and exacerbation of ER stress, suggesting that limited differentiation may represent a novel adaptive mechanism through which Schwann cells counter the toxic effect of a mutant terminal differentiation protein.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In many neuropathies, Schwann cells express high levels of early differentiation genes, but the significance of these altered expression remained unclear. Because many of these factors may act as negative regulators of myelination, it was suggested that their misexpression could contribute to dysmyelination. Here, we show that the transcription factors Sox2 and Id2 act as negative regulators of myelination in vivo, but that their sustained expression in Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1B (CMT1B) represents an adaptive response activated by the Schwann cells to reduce mutant protein toxicity and prevent demyelination.
Literature context: g Technology Cat: 9165; RRID:AB_2130165 Rabbit anti-c-Fos Cell Signalin
Cells decode information of signaling activation at a scale of tens of minutes by downstream gene expression with a scale of hours to days, leading to cell fate decisions such as cell differentiation. However, no system identification method with such different time scales exists. Here we used compressed sensing technology and developed a system identification method using data of different time scales by recovering signals of missing time points. We measured phosphorylation of ERK and CREB, immediate early gene expression products, and mRNAs of decoder genes for neurite elongation in PC12 cell differentiation and performed system identification, revealing the input-output relationships between signaling and gene expression with sensitivity such as graded or switch-like response and with time delay and gain, representing signal transfer efficiency. We predicted and validated the identified system using pharmacological perturbation. Thus, we provide a versatile method for system identification using data with different time scales.
Literature context: Technology, rabbit 1:800, 9165, RRID:AB_2130165), Ki67 (Abcam, rabbit 1:100, ab
Schwann cell c-Jun is implicated in adaptive and maladaptive functions in peripheral nerves. In injured nerves, this transcription factor promotes the repair Schwann cell phenotype and regeneration and promotes Schwann-cell-mediated neurotrophic support in models of peripheral neuropathies. However, c-Jun is associated with tumor formation in some systems, potentially suppresses myelin genes, and has been implicated in demyelinating neuropathies. To clarify these issues and to determine how c-Jun levels determine its function, we have generated c-Jun OE/+ and c-Jun OE/OE mice with graded expression of c-Jun in Schwann cells and examined these lines during development, in adulthood, and after injury using RNA sequencing analysis, quantitative electron microscopic morphometry, Western blotting, and functional tests. Schwann cells are remarkably tolerant of elevated c-Jun because the nerves of c-Jun OE/+ mice, in which c-Jun is elevated ∼6-fold, are normal with the exception of modestly reduced myelin thickness. The stronger elevation of c-Jun in c-Jun OE/OE mice is, however, sufficient to induce significant hypomyelination pathology, implicating c-Jun as a potential player in demyelinating neuropathies. The tumor suppressor P19ARF is strongly activated in the nerves of these mice and, even in aged c-Jun OE/OE mice, there is no evidence of tumors. This is consistent with the fact that tumors do not form in injured nerves, although they contain proliferating Schwann cells with strikingly elevated c-Jun. Furthermore, in crushed nerves of c-Jun OE/+ mice, where c-Jun levels are overexpressed sufficiently to accelerate axonal regeneration, myelination and function are restored after injury.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In injured and diseased nerves, the transcription factor c-Jun in Schwann cells is elevated and variously implicated in controlling beneficial or adverse functions, including trophic Schwann cell support for neurons, promotion of regeneration, tumorigenesis, and suppression of myelination. To analyze the functions of c-Jun, we have used transgenic mice with graded elevation of Schwann cell c-Jun. We show that high c-Jun elevation is a potential pathogenic mechanism because it inhibits myelination. Conversely, we did not find a link between c-Jun elevation and tumorigenesis. Modest c-Jun elevation, which is beneficial for regeneration, is well tolerated during Schwann cell development and in the adult and is compatible with restoration of myelination and nerve function after injury.
Literature context: Signaling Technology Cat#9165; RRID:AB_2130165 HRP antibody anti-GAPDH (1:4000
Cell-fate decisions remain poorly understood at the chromatin level. Here, we map chromatin remodeling dynamics during induction of pluripotent stem cells. ATAC-seq profiling of MEFs expressing Oct4-Sox2-Klf4 (OSK) reveals dynamic changes in chromatin states shifting from open to closed (OC) and closed to open (CO), with an initial burst of OC and an ending surge of CO. The OC loci are largely composed of genes associated with a somatic fate, while the CO loci are associated with pluripotency. Factors/conditions known to impede reprogramming prevent OSK-driven OC and skew OC-CO dynamics. While the CO loci are enriched for OSK motifs, the OC loci are not, suggesting alternative mechanisms for chromatin closing. Sap30, a Sin3A corepressor complex component, is required for the OC shift and facilitates reduced H3K27ac deposition at OC loci. These results reveal a chromatin accessibility logic during reprogramming that may apply to other cell-fate decisions.
Literature context: RRID:AB_2130165 Rabbit polyclonal anti-JUND (32
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive and heterogeneous carcinoma in which various tumor-suppressor genes are lost by mutation, deletion, or silencing. Here we report a tumor-suppressive mode of action for growth-differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) and an unusual mechanism of its inactivation in TNBC. GDF11 promotes an epithelial, anti-invasive phenotype in 3D triple-negative cultures and intraductal xenografts by sustaining expression of E-cadherin and inhibitor of differentiation 2 (ID2). Surprisingly, clinical TNBCs retain the GDF11 locus and expression of the protein itself. GDF11 bioactivity is instead lost because of deficiencies in its convertase, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 5 (PCSK5), causing inactive GDF11 precursor to accumulate intracellularly. PCSK5 reconstitution mobilizes the latent TNBC reservoir of GDF11 in vitro and suppresses triple-negative mammary cancer metastasis to the lung of syngeneic hosts. Intracellular GDF11 retention adds to the concept of tumor-suppressor inactivation and reveals a cell-biological vulnerability for TNBCs lacking therapeutically actionable mutations.
Literature context: Technology Cat# 9165 RRID:AB_2130165, 1:1,000), phospho-ErbB2Y1248 (
Myelination is a biosynthetically demanding process in which mTORC1, the gatekeeper of anabolism, occupies a privileged regulatory position. We have shown previously that loss of mTORC1 function in Schwann cells (SCs) hampers myelination. Here, we genetically disrupted key inhibitory components upstream of mTORC1, TSC1 or PTEN, in mouse SC development, adult homeostasis, and nerve injury. Surprisingly, the resulting mTORC1 hyperactivity led to markedly delayed onset of both developmental myelination and remyelination after injury. However, if mTORC1 was hyperactivated after myelination onset, radial hypermyelination was observed. At early developmental stages, physiologically high PI3K-Akt-mTORC1 signaling suppresses expression of Krox20 (Egr2), the master regulator of PNS myelination. This effect is mediated by S6K and contributes to control mechanisms that keep SCs in a not-fully differentiated state to ensure proper timing of myelination initiation. An ensuing decline in mTORC1 activity is crucial to allow myelination to start, while remaining mTORC1 activity drives myelin growth.
Literature context: ogy 9165, RRID:AB_2130165), P-JUN Se
Dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) has been implicated in cell death signaling secondary to axonal damage in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and other neurons. To better understand the pathway through which DLK acts, we developed enhanced functional genomic screens in primary RGCs, including use of arrayed, whole-genome, small interfering RNA libraries. Explaining why DLK inhibition is only partially protective, we identify leucine zipper kinase (LZK) as cooperating with DLK to activate downstream signaling and cell death in RGCs, including in a mouse model of optic nerve injury, and show that the same pathway is active in human stem cell-derived RGCs. Moreover, we identify four transcription factors, JUN, activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2), myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A), and SRY-Box 11 (SOX11), as being the major downstream mediators through which DLK/LZK activation leads to RGC cell death. Increased understanding of the DLK pathway has implications for understanding and treating neurodegenerative diseases.
The retina is highly sensitive to oxidative stress because of its high consumption of oxygen associated with the phototransductional processes. Recent findings have suggested that oxidative stress is involved in the pathology of age-related macular degeneration, a progressive degeneration of the central retina. A well-known environmental risk factor is light exposure, as excessive and continuous light exposure can damage photoreceptors. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcriptional factor that controls antioxidative responses and phase 2 enzymes. Thus, we hypothesized that RS9, a specific activator of Nrf2, decreases light-induced retinal cell death in vivo and in vitro. Nrf2 was detected in the nucleus of the 661W cells exposed to RS9 and also after light exposure, and the Nrf2-antioxidant response element binding was increased in 661W cells after exposure to RS9. Consequentially, the expression of the phase 2 enzyme's mRNAs of Ho-1, Nqo-1, and Gclm genes was increased in 661W cells after exposure to RS9. Furthermore, RS9 decreased the light-induced death of 661W cells (2500 lux, 24 h), and also reduced the functional damages and the histological degeneration of the nuclei in the outer nuclear layer or the retina in the in vivo studies (8000 lux, 3 h). Heme oxygenase-1 was increased after light exposure, and Nrf2 was translocated into the nucleus after light exposure in vivo. Silencing of Ho-1 reduced the protective effects of RS9 against light-induced death of 661W cells. These findings indicate that RS9 has therapeutic potential for retinal diseases that are aggravated by light exposure.
Literature context: rabbit monoclonalCell Signaling9165SAnti-FOS, rabbit polyclonalAbcam
Tissue stem cells contribute to tissue regeneration and wound repair through cellular programs that can be hijacked by cancer cells. Here, we investigate such a phenomenon in skin, where during homeostasis, stem cells of the epidermis and hair follicle fuel their respective tissues. We find that breakdown of stem cell lineage confinement-granting privileges associated with both fates-is not only hallmark but also functional in cancer development. We show that lineage plasticity is critical in wound repair, where it operates transiently to redirect fates. Investigating mechanism, we discover that irrespective of cellular origin, lineage infidelity occurs in wounding when stress-responsive enhancers become activated and override homeostatic enhancers that govern lineage specificity. In cancer, stress-responsive transcription factor levels rise, causing lineage commanders to reach excess. When lineage and stress factors collaborate, they activate oncogenic enhancers that distinguish cancers from wounds.
Literature context: at# 9165, RRID:AB_2130165, 1:500) as
The axon initial segment (AIS) is a neuronal compartment defined by ankyrin-G expression. We here demonstrate that the IKK-complex co-localizes and interacts with the cytoskeletal anchor protein ankyrin-G in immunoprecipitation and proximity-ligation experiments in cortical neurons. Overexpression of the 270 kDa variant of ankyrin-G suppressed, while gene-silencing of ankyrin-G expression increased nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity in primary neurons, suggesting that ankyrin-G sequesters the transcription factor in the AIS. We also found that p65 bound to the ank3 (ankyrin-G) promoter sequence in chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses thereby increasing ank3 expression and ankyrin-G levels at the AIS. Gene-silencing of p65 or ankyrin-G overexpression suppressed ank3 reporter activity. Collectively these data demonstrate that p65/NF-κB controls ankyrin-G levels via a negative feedback loop, thereby linking NF-κB signaling with neuronal polarity and axonal plasticity.
Literature context: t# 9165L, RRID:AB_2129578), pSer63-c
Alternative pre-mRNA splicing expands the complexity of the transcriptome and controls isoform-specific gene expression. Whether alternative splicing contributes to metabolic regulation is largely unknown. Here we investigated the contribution of alternative splicing to the development of diet-induced obesity. We found that obesity-induced changes in adipocyte gene expression include alternative pre-mRNA splicing. Bioinformatics analysis associated part of this alternative splicing program with sequence specific NOVA splicing factors. This conclusion was confirmed by studies of mice with NOVA deficiency in adipocytes. Phenotypic analysis of the NOVA-deficient mice demonstrated increased adipose tissue thermogenesis and improved glycemia. We show that NOVA proteins mediate a splicing program that suppresses adipose tissue thermogenesis. Together, these data provide quantitative analysis of gene expression at exon-level resolution in obesity and identify a novel mechanism that contributes to the regulation of adipose tissue function and the maintenance of normal glycemia.
Literature context: t. #9165; RRID:AB_2130165), rabbit a
Successful regeneration of injured peripheral nerves is mainly attributed to the plastic behavior of Schwann cells. Upon loss of axons, these cells trans-differentiate into regeneration promoting repair cells which provide trophic support to regrowing axons. Among others, activation of cJun was revealed to be involved in this process, initiating the stereotypic pattern of Schwann cell phenotype alterations during Wallerian degeneration. Nevertheless, the ability of Schwann cells to adapt and therefore the nerve's potential to regenerate can be limited in particular after long term denervation or in neuropathies leading to incomplete regeneration only and thus emphasizing the need for novel therapeutic approaches. Here we stimulated primary neonatal and adult rat Schwann cells with Fingolimod/FTY720P and investigated its impact on the regeneration promoting phenotype. FTY720P activated a number of de-differentiation markers including cJun and interfered with maturation marker and myelin expression. Functionally, FTY720P treated Schwann cells upregulated growth factor expression and these cells enhanced dorsal root ganglion neurite outgrowth on inhibitory substrates. Our results therefore provide strong evidence that FTY720P application supports the generation of a repair promoting cellular phenotype and suggest that Fingolimod could be used as treatment for peripheral nerve injuries and diseases.
GnRH is expressed in first-trimester human placenta and increases cell invasion in extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVTs). Invasive phenotypes have been reported to be regulated by transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1) and mesenchymal cadherin-11. The aim of our study was to investigate the roles of AP-1 components (c-FOS/c-JUN) and cadherin-11 in GnRH-induced cell invasion in human EVT cells. Phosphorylated c-FOS and phosphorylated c-JUN were detected in the cell column regions of human first-trimester placental villi by immunohistochemistry. GnRH treatment increased c-FOS, c-JUN, and cadherin-11 mRNA and protein levels in immortalized EVT (HTR-8/SVneo) cells. Moreover, GnRH treatment induced c-FOS and c-JUN protein phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation. Pretreatment with antide, a GnRH antagonist, attenuated GnRH-induced cadherin-11 expression. Importantly, basal and GnRH-induced cadherin-11 expression and cell invasion were reduced by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of c-FOS, c-JUN, and cadherin-11 in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Our results suggest that GnRH induces the expression and phosphorylation of the AP-1 transcription factors c-FOS and c-JUN in trophoblast cells, which contributes to GnRH-induced elevation of cadherin-11 expression and cell invasion.
Literature context: at# 9165, RRID:AB_2130165) and rabbi
Molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the peripheral conditioning lesion remain unsolved. We show here that injection of a chemical demyelinating agent, ethidium bromide, into the sciatic nerve induces a similar set of regeneration-associated genes and promotes a 2.7-fold greater extent of sensory axon regeneration in the spinal cord than sciatic nerve crush. We found that more severe peripheral demyelination correlates with more severe functional and electrophysiological deficits, but more robust central regeneration. Ethidium bromide injection does not activate macrophages at the demyelinated sciatic nerve site, as observed after nerve crush, but briefly activates macrophages in the dorsal root ganglion. This study provides a new method for investigating the underlying mechanisms of the conditioning response and suggests that loss of the peripheral myelin may be a major signal to change the intrinsic growth state of adult sensory neurons and promote regeneration.
Literature context: at# 9165, RRID:AB_2130165), rabbit p
Drugs that inhibit RAF/MEK signaling, such as vemurafenib, elicit profound but often temporary anti-tumor responses in patients with BRAF(V) (600E) melanoma. Adaptive responses to RAF/MEK inhibition occur on a timescale of hours to days, involve homeostatic responses that reactivate MAP kinase signaling and compensatory mitogenic pathways, and attenuate the anti-tumor effects of RAF/MEK inhibitors. We profile adaptive responses across a panel of melanoma cell lines using multiplex biochemical measurement, single-cell assays, and statistical modeling and show that adaptation involves at least six signaling cascades that act to reduce drug potency (IC50) and maximal effect (i.e., Emax ≪ 1). Among these cascades, we identify a role for JNK/c-Jun signaling in vemurafenib adaptation and show that RAF and JNK inhibitors synergize in cell killing. This arises because JNK inhibition prevents a subset of cells in a cycling population from becoming quiescent upon vemurafenib treatment, thereby reducing drug Emax. Our findings demonstrate the breadth and diversity of adaptive responses to RAF/MEK inhibition and a means to identify which steps in a signaling cascade are most predictive of phenotypic response.