Literature context: uz BiotechnologyFL-419/sc-8330; RRID: AB_2124846HRP-conjugated StreptavidinCST39
Several ubiquitin chain types have remained unstudied, mainly because tools and techniques to detect these posttranslational modifications are scarce. Linkage-specific antibodies have shaped our understanding of the roles and dynamics of polyubiquitin signals but are available for only five out of eight linkage types. We here characterize K6- and K33-linkage-specific "affimer" reagents as high-affinity ubiquitin interactors. Crystal structures of affimers bound to their cognate chain types reveal mechanisms of specificity and a K11 cross-reactivity in the K33 affimer. Structure-guided improvements yield superior affinity reagents suitable for western blotting, confocal fluorescence microscopy and pull-down applications. This allowed us to identify RNF144A and RNF144B as E3 ligases that assemble K6-, K11-, and K48-linked polyubiquitin in vitro. A protocol to enrich K6-ubiquitinated proteins from cells identifies HUWE1 as a main E3 ligase for this chain type, and we show that mitofusin-2 is modified with K6-linked polyubiquitin in a HUWE1-dependent manner.
Literature context: t#sc-8330 RRID:AB_2124846 MYCBP Prot
Intracellular signaling via the covalent attachment of different ubiquitin linkages to protein substrates is fundamental to many cellular processes. Although linkage-selective ubiquitin interactors have been studied on a case-by-case basis, proteome-wide analyses have not been conducted yet. Here, we present ubiquitin interactor affinity enrichment-mass spectrometry (UbIA-MS), a quantitative interaction proteomics method that makes use of chemically synthesized diubiquitin to enrich and identify ubiquitin linkage interactors from crude cell lysates. UbIA-MS reveals linkage-selective diubiquitin interactions in multiple cell types. For example, we identify TAB2 and TAB3 as novel K6 diubiquitin interactors and characterize UCHL3 as a K27-linkage selective interactor that regulates K27 polyubiquitin chain formation in cells. Additionally, we show a class of monoubiquitin and K6 diubiquitin interactors whose binding is induced by DNA damage. We expect that our proteome-wide diubiquitin interaction landscape and established workflows will have broad applications in the ongoing efforts to decipher the complex language of ubiquitin signaling.
Literature context: MYC (RRID:AB_627268), NEMO (RRID:AB_2124846), TRAF6 (RRID:AB_793346 (IP)),
The ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 is a key regulator of canonical IκB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB signaling in response to interleukin-1 (IL-1) stimulation. Here, we identified the deubiquitinating enzyme YOD1 (OTUD2) as a novel interactor of TRAF6 in human cells. YOD1 binds to the C-terminal TRAF homology domain of TRAF6 that also serves as the interaction surface for the adaptor p62/Sequestosome-1, which is required for IL-1 signaling to NF-κB. We show that YOD1 competes with p62 for TRAF6 association and abolishes the sequestration of TRAF6 to cytosolic p62 aggregates by a non-catalytic mechanism. YOD1 associates with TRAF6 in unstimulated cells but is released upon IL-1β stimulation, thereby facilitating TRAF6 auto-ubiquitination as well as NEMO/IKKγ substrate ubiquitination. Further, IL-1 triggered IKK/NF-κB signaling and induction of target genes is decreased by YOD1 overexpression and augmented after YOD1 depletion. Hence, our data define that YOD1 antagonizes TRAF6/p62-dependent IL-1 signaling to NF-κB.
Literature context: #sc-8330; RRID:AB_2124846 anti-OTULI
Methionine-1 (M1)-linked ubiquitin chains regulate the activity of NF-κB, immune homeostasis, and responses to infection. The importance of negative regulators of M1-linked chains in vivo remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the M1-specific deubiquitinase OTULIN is essential for preventing TNF-associated systemic inflammation in humans and mice. A homozygous hypomorphic mutation in human OTULIN causes a potentially fatal autoinflammatory condition termed OTULIN-related autoinflammatory syndrome (ORAS). Four independent OTULIN mouse models reveal that OTULIN deficiency in immune cells results in cell-type-specific effects, ranging from over-production of inflammatory cytokines and autoimmunity due to accumulation of M1-linked polyubiquitin and spontaneous NF-κB activation in myeloid cells to downregulation of M1-polyubiquitin signaling by degradation of LUBAC in B and T cells. Remarkably, treatment with anti-TNF neutralizing antibodies ameliorates inflammation in ORAS patients and rescues mouse phenotypes. Hence, OTULIN is critical for restraining life-threatening spontaneous inflammation and maintaining immune homeostasis.