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Anti-Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) antibody

RRID:AB_2109645

Antibody ID

AB_2109645

Target Antigen

Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) b, ca, h, r

Proper Citation

(Millipore Cat# AB5804, RRID:AB_2109645)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

seller recommendations: Immunohistochemistry; Immunocytochemistry; IC, IH, IH(P).
This entry has been consolidated with AB_2313842 by curator on 3/2018

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Millipore

APOE4 Causes Widespread Molecular and Cellular Alterations Associated with Alzheimer's Disease Phenotypes in Human iPSC-Derived Brain Cell Types.

  • Lin YT
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Jun 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

The apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) variant is the single greatest genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD). However, the cell-type-specific functions of APOE4 in relation to AD pathology remain understudied. Here, we utilize CRISPR/Cas9 and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to examine APOE4 effects on human brain cell types. Transcriptional profiling identified hundreds of differentially expressed genes in each cell type, with the most affected involving synaptic function (neurons), lipid metabolism (astrocytes), and immune response (microglia-like cells). APOE4 neurons exhibited increased synapse number and elevated Aβ42 secretion relative to isogenic APOE3 cells while APOE4 astrocytes displayed impaired Aβ uptake and cholesterol accumulation. Notably, APOE4 microglia-like cells exhibited altered morphologies, which correlated with reduced Aβ phagocytosis. Consistently, converting APOE4 to APOE3 in brain cell types from sAD iPSCs was sufficient to attenuate multiple AD-related pathologies. Our study establishes a reference for human cell-type-specific changes associated with the APOE4 variant. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - RC1 AG036106()
  • NIA NIH HHS - RF1 AG048029()
  • NIA NIH HHS - RF1 AG048056()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK070136(United States)

mfat-1 transgene protects cultured adult neural stem cells against cobalt chloride-mediated hypoxic injury by activating Nrf2/ARE pathways.

  • Yu J
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2018 Jun 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ischemic stroke is a devastating neurological disorder and one of the leading causes of death and serious disability in adults. Adult neural stem cell (NSC) replacement therapy is a promising treatment for both structural and functional neurological recovery. However, for the treatment to work, adult NSCs must be protected against hypoxic-ischemic damage in the ischemic penumbra. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of the mfat-1 transgene on cobalt chloride (CoCl2 )-induced hypoxic-ischemic injury in cultured adult NSCs as well as its underlying mechanisms. The results show that in the CoCl2 -induced hypoxic-ischemic injury model, the mfat-1 transgene enhanced the viability of adult NSCs and suppressed CoCl2 -mediated apoptosis of adult NSCs. Additionally, the mfat-1 transgene promoted the proliferation of NSCs as shown by increased bromodeoxyuridine labeling of adult NSCs. This process was related to the reduction of reactive oxygen species. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis revealed a much higher expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream genes (HO-1, NQO-1, GCLC). Taken together, our findings show that the mfat-1 transgene restored the CoCl2 -inhibited viability and proliferation of NSCs by activating nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response elements (ARE) signal pathway to inhibit oxidative stress injury. Further investigation of the function of the mfat-1 transgene in adult protective mechanisms may accelerate the development of adult NSC replacement therapy for ischemic stroke.

Ischemic Brain Injury Leads to Brain Edema via Hyperthermia-Induced TRPV4 Activation.

  • Hoshi Y
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jun 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Brain edema is characterized by an increase in net brain water content, which results in an increase in brain volume. Although brain edema is associated with a high fatality rate, the cellular and molecular processes of edema remain largely unclear. Here, we developed an in vitro model of ischemic stroke-induced edema in which male mouse brain slices were treated with oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) to mimic ischemia. We continuously measured the cross-sectional area of the brain slice for 150 min under macroscopic microscopy, finding that OGD induces swelling of brain slices. OGD-induced swelling was prevented by pharmacologically blocking or genetically knocking out the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), a member of the thermosensitive TRP channel family. Because TRPV4 is activated at around body temperature and its activation is enhanced by heating, we next elevated the temperature of the perfusate in the recording chamber, finding that hyperthermia induces swelling via TRPV4 activation. Furthermore, using the temperature-dependent fluorescence lifetime of a fluorescent-thermosensitive probe, we confirmed that OGD treatment increases the temperature of brain slices through the activation of glutamate receptors. Finally, we found that brain edema following traumatic brain injury was suppressed in TRPV4-deficient male mice in vivo Thus, our study proposes a novel mechanism: hyperthermia activates TRPV4 and induces brain edema after ischemia.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Brain edema is characterized by an increase in net brain water content, which results in an increase in brain volume. Although brain edema is associated with a high fatality rate, the cellular and molecular processes of edema remain unclear. Here, we developed an in vitro model of ischemic stroke-induced edema in which mouse brain slices were treated with oxygen-glucose deprivation. Using this system, we showed that the increase in brain temperature and the following activation of the thermosensitive cation channel TRPV4 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 4) are involved in the pathology of edema. Finally, we confirmed that TRPV4 is involved in brain edema in vivo using TRPV4-deficient mice, concluding that hyperthermia activates TRPV4 and induces brain edema after ischemia.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM58272(United States)

Abnormal Microglia and Enhanced Inflammation-Related Gene Transcription in Mice with Conditional Deletion of Ctcf in Camk2a-Cre-Expressing Neurons.

  • McGill BE
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jan 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is an 11 zinc finger DNA-binding domain protein that regulates gene expression by modifying 3D chromatin structure. Human mutations in CTCF cause intellectual disability and autistic features. Knocking out Ctcf in mouse embryonic neurons is lethal by neonatal age, but the effects of CTCF deficiency in postnatal neurons are less well studied. We knocked out Ctcf postnatally in glutamatergic forebrain neurons under the control of Camk2a-Cre. CtcfloxP/loxP;Camk2a-Cre+ (Ctcf CKO) mice of both sexes were viable and exhibited profound deficits in spatial learning/memory, impaired motor coordination, and decreased sociability by 4 months of age. Ctcf CKO mice also had reduced dendritic spine density in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Microarray analysis of mRNA from Ctcf CKO mouse hippocampus identified increased transcription of inflammation-related genes linked to microglia. Separate microarray analysis of mRNA isolated specifically from Ctcf CKO mouse hippocampal neurons by ribosomal affinity purification identified upregulation of chemokine signaling genes, suggesting crosstalk between neurons and microglia in Ctcf CKO hippocampus. Finally, we found that microglia in Ctcf CKO mouse hippocampus had abnormal morphology by Sholl analysis and increased immunostaining for CD68, a marker of microglial activation. Our findings confirm that Ctcf KO in postnatal neurons causes a neurobehavioral phenotype in mice and provide novel evidence that CTCF depletion leads to overexpression of inflammation-related genes and microglial dysfunction.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a DNA-binding protein that organizes nuclear chromatin topology. Mutations in CTCF cause intellectual disability and autistic features in humans. CTCF deficiency in embryonic neurons is lethal in mice, but mice with postnatal CTCF depletion are less well studied. We find that mice lacking Ctcf in Camk2a-expressing neurons (Ctcf CKO mice) have spatial learning/memory deficits, impaired fine motor skills, subtly altered social interactions, and decreased dendritic spine density. We demonstrate that Ctcf CKO mice overexpress inflammation-related genes in the brain and have microglia with abnormal morphology that label positive for CD68, a marker of microglial activation. Our findings suggest that inflammation and dysfunctional neuron-microglia interactions are factors in the pathology of CTCF deficiency.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD087011()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM007240(United States)

A role for autophagy in long-term spatial memory formation in male rodents.

  • Hylin MJ
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2017 Dec 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

A hallmark of long-term memory formation is the requirement for protein synthesis. Administration of protein synthesis inhibitors impairs long-term memory formation without influencing short-term memory. Rapamycin is a specific inhibitor of target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) that has been shown to block protein synthesis and impair long-term memory. In addition to regulating protein synthesis, TORC1 also phosphorylates Unc-51-like autophagy activating kinase-1 (Ulk-1) to suppress autophagy. As autophagy can be activated by rapamycin (and rapamycin inhibits long-term memory), our aim was to test the hypothesis that autophagy inhibitors would enhance long-term memory. To examine if learning alters autophagosome number, we used male reporter mice carrying the GFP-LC3 transgene. Using these mice, we observed that training in the Morris water maze task increases the number of autophagosomes, a finding contrary to our expectations. For learning and memory studies, male Long Evans rats were used due to their relatively larger size (compared to mice), making it easier to perform intrahippocampal infusions in awake, moving animals. When the autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or Spautin-1 were administered bilaterally into the hippocampii prior to training in the Morris water maze task, the drugs did not alter learning. In contrast, when memory was tested 24 hours later by a probe trial, significant impairments were observed. In addition, intrahippocampal infusion of an autophagy activator peptide (TAT-Beclin-1) improved long-term memory. These results indicate that autophagy is not necessary for learning, but is required for long-term memory formation.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - NF-SI-0611-10163(United Kingdom)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS087149()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS090935()

Alteration of sphingolipid metabolism as a putative mechanism underlying LPS-induced BBB disruption.

  • Vutukuri R
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Oct 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Septic encephalopathy with confusion and agitation occurs early during sepsis and contributes to the severity of the disease. A decrease in the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) blood levels has been shown in patients and in animal models of sepsis. The lipid mediator S1P is known to be involved in endothelial barrier function in a context-dependent manner. We utilized lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected mice as a model for septic encephalopathy and first performed tracer permeability assays to assess the blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown in vivo. At time points corresponding to the BBB breakdown post LPS injection, we aimed to characterize the regulation of the sphingolipid signaling pathway at the BBB during sepsis. We measured sphingolipid concentrations in blood, in mouse brain microvessels (MBMVs), and brain tissue. We also analyzed the expression of S1P receptors, transporters, and metabolizing enzymes in MBMVs and brain tissue. Primary mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (MBMECs) were isolated to evaluate the effects of LPS on transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) as a measure of permeability in vitro. We observed a relevant decrease in S1P levels after LPS injection in all three compartments (blood, MBMVs, brain tissue) that was accompanied by an increased expression of the S1P receptor type 1 and of sphingosine kinase 1 on one hand and of the S1P degrading enzymes lipid phosphate phosphatase 1 (LPP1) and S1P phosphatase 1 on the other hand, as well as a down-regulation of sphingosine kinase 2. Application of LPS to a monolayer of primary MBMECs did not alter TEER, but serum from LPS-treated mice lead to a breakdown of the barrier compared to serum from vehicle-treated mice. We observed profound alterations of the sphingolipid metabolism at the BBB after LPS injection that point toward a therapeutic potential of drugs interfering with this pathway as novel approach for the detrimental overwhelming immune response in sepsis. Read the Editorial Highlight for this article on page 115. Cover Image for this Issue: doi. 10.1111/jnc.14161.

Cytogenesis in the adult monkey motor cortex: perivascular NG2 cells are the major adult born cell type.

  • Stanton GB
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Apr 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

We used confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to look for new cells in the motor cortex of adult macaque monkeys that might form the cellular bases of improved brain function from exercise. Twenty-four female Macaca fascicularis monkeys divided into groups by age (10-12 years, 15-17 years), postexercise survival periods, and controls, received 10 weekly injections of the thymidine analog, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to mark new cells. Sixteen monkeys survived 15 weeks (5 weeks postexercise) and 8 monkeys survived 27 weeks (12 weeks postexercise) after initial BrdU injections. Additionally, five Macaca mulatta female monkeys (∼5.5-7 years) received single injections of BrdU and survived 2 days, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks after BrdU injections. Neural and glial antibodies were used to identify new cell phenotypes and to look for changes in proportions of these cells with respect to time and experimental conditions. No BrdU(+) /DCx(+) cells were found but about 7.5% of new cells were calretinin-positive (Cr(+) ). BrdU(+) /GABA(+) (gamma-aminobutyric acid) cells were also found but no new Cr(+) or GABA(+) cells colabeled with a mature neuron marker, NeuN or chondroitin sulfate antibody, NG2. The proportion of new cells that were NG2(+) was about 85% for short and long survival monkeys of which two, newly described perivascular phenotypes (Pldv and Elu) and a small percentage of pericytes (2.5%) comprised 44% and 51% of the new NG2(+) cells, respectively. Proportions of NG2(+) phenotypes were affected by post-BrdU survival periods, monkey age, and possibly a postexercise sedentary period but no direct effect of exercise was found.

Long-term effects of a lumbosacral ventral root avulsion injury on axotomized motor neurons and avulsed ventral roots in a non-human primate model of cauda equina injury.

  • Ohlsson M
  • Neuroscience
  • 2013 Oct 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Here, we have translated from the rat to the non-human primate a unilateral lumbosacral injury as a model for cauda equina injury. In this morphological study, we have investigated retrograde effects of a unilateral L6-S2 ventral root avulsion (VRA) injury as well as the long-term effects of Wallerian degeneration on avulsed ventral roots at 6-10 months post-operatively in four adult male rhesus monkeys. Immunohistochemistry for choline acetyl transferase and glial fibrillary acidic protein demonstrated a significant loss of the majority of the axotomized motoneurons in the affected L6-S2 segments and signs of an associated astrocytic glial response within the ventral horn of the L6 and S1 spinal cord segments. Quantitative analysis of the avulsed ventral roots showed that they exhibited normal size and were populated by a normal number of myelinated axons. However, the myelinated axons in the avulsed ventral roots were markedly smaller in caliber compared to the fibers of the intact contralateral ventral roots, which served as controls. Ultrastructural studies confirmed the presence of small myelinated axons and a population of unmyelinated axons within the avulsed roots. In addition, collagen fibers were readily identified within the endoneurium of the avulsed roots. In summary, a lumbosacral VRA injury resulted in retrograde motoneuron loss and astrocytic glial activation in the ventral horn. Surprisingly, the Wallerian degeneration of motor axons in the avulsed ventral roots was followed by a repopulation of the avulsed roots by small myelinated and unmyelinated fibers. We speculate that the small axons may represent sprouting or axonal regeneration by primary afferents or autonomic fibers.

Striatal oligodendrogliogenesis and neuroblast recruitment are increased in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease.

  • McCollum MH
  • Brain Res.
  • 2013 Jun 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

The subventricular zone (SVZ) is one of the two major neurogenic regions in the adult mammalian brain. Its close proximity to the striatum suggests that a cell-based therapeutic strategy for the treatment of Huntington's disease (HD) is possible. To achieve this, it is important to understand how adult cell production, migration and differentiation may be altered in the HD brain. In this study, we quantified the number of adult-born striatal cells and characterized their fate in the R6/2 transgenic mouse model of HD. We found that the number of new striatal cells was approximately two-fold greater in R6/2 vs. wild type mice, while SVZ cell proliferation was not affected. Using cell-type specific markers, we demonstrated that the majority of new striatal cells were mature oligodendrocytes or oligodendroglial precursors that were intrinsic to the striatum. We also detected a significant increase in the number of migrating neuroblasts that appeared to be recruited from the SVZ to the striatum. However, these neuroblasts did not mature into neurons and most were lost between 1 and 2 weeks of cell age. Crossing the R6/2 mice with mice the over-expressing brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the striatum increased the numbers of neuroblasts that survived to 2 weeks, but did not promote their differentiation. Together, our data indicate that the potential treatment of HD based on manipulating endogenous progenitor cells should take into consideration the apparent enhancement in striatal oligodendrogliogenesis and the limited ability of recruited SVZ neuroblasts to survive long-term and differentiate in the diseased striatum.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)

RANTES has a potential to play a neuroprotective role in an autocrine/paracrine manner after ischemic stroke.

  • Tokami H
  • Brain Res.
  • 2013 Jun 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Regulated upon Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed, and Secreted (RANTES) is a well-known pro-inflammatory chemokine and its role in ischemic stroke remains controversial. We examined the significance of RANTES in ischemic stroke and aimed to elucidate the direct effect of RANTES on neurons. Plasma concentrations of major C-C chemokines, including RANTES, and neurotrophic factors were examined in 171 ischemic stroke patients and age- and gender- matched healthy subjects. Plasma concentrations of RANTES at day 0 after onset were significantly elevated in stroke patients, compared with controls, and were highly correlated with those of BDNF, EGF, and VEGF. In a mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion model (MCAO), plasma RANTES was significantly elevated and the expression of RANTES was markedly upregulated in neurons particularly in peri-infarct areas. The expression of CCR3 and CCR5, receptors for RANTES, was also induced in neurons, while another receptor, CCR1, was observed in vascular cells, in peri-infarct areas after MCAO. We examined the effects of RANTES on differentiated PC12 cells, a model of neuronal cells. Treatment with RANTES induced the activation of Akt and Erk1/2, and attenuated the cleavage of caspase-3 in the cells. RANTES increased the expression of BDNF, EGF, and VEGF in the cells. Moreover, RANTES maintained the number of cells under serum free conditions. The RANTES-mediated upregulation of neurotrophic factors and cell survival were significantly attenuated by the inhibition of Akt or Erk1/2. Taken together, RANTES is an interesting chemokine that is produced from neurons after ischemic stroke and has the potential to protect neurons directly or indirectly through the production of neurotrophic factors in peri-infarct areas.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - 5R01DK069983-02(United States)

Neural reconnection in the transected spinal cord of the freshwater turtle Trachemys dorbignyi.

  • Rehermann MI
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Jul 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

This paper provides the first evidence that freshwater turtles are able to reconnect their completely transected spinal cords, leading to some degree of recovery of the motor functions lost after injury. Videographic analysis showed that some turtles (5 of 11) surviving more than 20 days after injury were able to initiate stepping locomotion. However, the stepping movements were slower than those of normal animals, and swimming patterns were not restored. Even though just 45% of the injured turtles recovered their stepping patterns, all showed axonal sprouting beyond the lesion site. Immunocytochemical and electron microscope images revealed the occurrence of regrowing axons crossing the severed region. A major contingent of the axons reconnecting the cord originated from sensory neurons lying in dorsal ganglia adjacent to the lesion site. The axons bridging the damaged region traveled on a cellular scaffold consisting of brain lipid-binding protein (BLBP)- and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells and processes. Serotonergic varicose nerve fibers and endings were found at early stages of the healing process at the epicenter of the lesion. Interestingly, the glial scar commonly found in the damaged central nervous system of mammals was absent. In contrast, GFAP- and BLBP-positive processes were found running parallel to the main axis of the cord accompanying the crossing axons.

Spatiotemporal characteristics of astroglial death in the rat hippocampo-entorhinal complex following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

  • Kim DS
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Dec 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Recently we reported that astroglial loss and subsequent gliogenesis in the dentate gyrus play a role in epileptogenesis following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). In the present study we investigated whether astroglial damages in the hippocampo-entorhinal complex following SE are relevant to pathological or electrophysiological properties of temporal lobe epilepsy. Astroglial loss/damage was observed in the entorhinal cortex and the CA1 region at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after SE, respectively. These astroglial responses in the hippocampo-entorhinal cortex were accompanied by hyperexcitability of the CA1 region (impairment of paired-pulse inhibition and increase in excitability ratio). Unlike the dentate gyrus and the entorhinal cortex, CA1 astroglial damage was protected by conventional anti-epileptic drugs. alpha-Aminoadipic acid (a specific astroglial toxin) infusion into the entorhinal cortex induced astroglial damage and changed the electrophysiological properties in the CA1 region. Astroglial regeneration in the dentate gyrus and the stratum oriens of the CA1 region was found to originate from gliogenesis, while that in the entorhinal cortex and stratum radiatum of the CA1 region originated from in situ proliferation. These findings suggest that regional specific astroglial death/regeneration patterns may play an important role in the pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P01 DK26741(United States)

Region-specific alterations in astroglial TWIK-related acid-sensitive K+-1 channel immunoreactivity in the rat hippocampal complex following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

  • Kim JE
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Oct 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the present study, we performed an analysis of tandem of P domains in a weak inwardly rectifying K+ channel (TWIK)-related acid-sensitive K+ (TASK)-1 channel immunoreactivity in the rat hippocampal complex following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). In control animals, TASK-1 immunoreactivity was strongly detected in astrocytes in the hippocampal complex. One day after SE, TASK-1 immunoreactivity in astrocytes was markedly reduced only in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. One week after SE, loss of astrocytes was observed in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. At this time point, TASK-1 immunoreactive cells were detected mainly in the subgranular region. These cells had bipolar, elongated cell bodies with fusiform-shaped nuclei and showed vimentin immunoreactivity. Four weeks after SE (when spontaneous seizure developed), typical reactive astrogliosis was observed in the dentate gyrus and the CA1 region. Almost no astrocytes in the molecular layer showed TASK-1 immunoreactivity, whereas astrocytes in the CA1 region showed strong TASK-1 immunoreactivity. These findings indicate that, after SE, TASK-1 immunoreactivity was differentially altered in astrocytes located in different regions of the hippocampal complex, and these changes were caused by astroglial degeneration/regeneration. Therefore, alteration in TASK-1 immunoreactivity may contribute to acquisition of the properties of the epileptic hippocampal complex.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC006070(United States)

Wolfram syndrome 1 (Wfs1) gene expression in the normal mouse visual system.

  • Kawano J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Wolfram syndrome (OMIM 222300) is a neurodegenerative disorder defined by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and progressive optic atrophy. This syndrome has been attributed to mutations in the WFS1 gene, which codes for a putative multi-spanning membrane glycoprotein of the endoplasmic reticulum. The function of WFS1 (wolframin), the distribution of this protein in the mammalian visual system, and the pathogenesis of optic atrophy in Wolfram syndrome are unclear. In this study we made a detailed analysis of the distribution of Wfs1 mRNA and protein in the normal mouse visual system by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. The mRNA and protein were observed in the retina, optic nerve, and brain. In the retina, Wfs1 expression was strong in amacrine and Müller cells, and moderate in photoreceptors and horizontal cells. In addition, it was detectable in bipolar and retinal ganglion cells. Interestingly, moderate Wfs1 expression was seen in the optic nerve, particularly in astrocytes, while little Wfs1 was expressed in the optic chiasm or optic tract. In the brain, moderate Wfs1 expression was observed in the zonal, superficial gray, and intermediate gray layers of the superior colliculus, in the dorsomedial part of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, and in layer II of the primary and secondary visual cortices. Thus, Wfs1 mRNA and protein were widely distributed in the normal mouse visual system. This evidence may provide clues as to the physiological role of Wfs1 protein in the biology of vision, and help to explain the selective vulnerability of the optic nerve to WFS1 loss-of-function.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH049428(United States)

Cellular and subcellular distribution of rat brain prolyl oligopeptidase and its association with specific neuronal neurotransmitters.

  • Myöhänen TT
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Apr 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) is a serine endopeptidase that hydrolyzes proline-containing peptides shorter than 30-mer. It has been suggested that POP is associated with cognitive functions and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP(3)) signaling. However, little is known about the distribution and physiological role of POP in the brain. We used immunohistochemistry to determine the cellular and subcellular distribution of POP in the rat brain. POP was specifically expressed in the glutamatergic pyramidal neurons of the cerebral cortex, particularly in the primary motor and somatosensory cortices, and also in the CA1 field of hippocampus. Purkinje cells of the cerebellum were also intensively immunostained for POP. Double immunofluorescence indicated that POP was present in the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic and cholinergic interneurons of the thalamus and cortex but not in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. POP did not colocalize with astrocytic markers in any part of the rat brain. We used postembedding immunoelectron microscopy to determine the distribution of POP at the subcellular level. POP was mainly present in neuronal cytosol and membranes, hardly at all in neuronal plasma membrane, but more extensively in intracellular membranes such as the rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Our findings point to a role for POP--evidently modifying neuropeptide levels--in excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the central nervous system via glutamatergic, GABAergic, and cholinergic neurotransmission systems. Furthermore, according to our results, POP may be involved in thalamocortical neurotransmission, memory and learning functions of the hippocampal formation, and GABAergic regulation of voluntary movements. Subcellular distribution of POP points to a role in protein processing and secretion.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - 1R01NS051561(United States)

Developmental regulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptor subunit expression in forebrain and relationship to regional susceptibility to hypoxic/ischemic injury. I. Rodent cerebral white matter and cortex.

  • Talos DM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

This is the first part of a two-part study to investigate the cellular distribution and temporal regulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) subunits in the developing white matter and cortex in rat (part I) and human (part II). Western blot and immunocytochemistry were used to evaluate the differential expression of AMPAR subunits on glial and neuronal subtypes during the first 3 postnatal weeks in the Long Evans and Sprague Dawley rat strains. In Long Evans rats during the first postnatal week, GluR2-lacking AMPARs were expressed predominantly on white matter cells, including radial glia, premyelinating oligodendrocytes, and subplate neurons, whereas, during the second postnatal week, these AMPARs were highly expressed on cortical neurons, coincident with decreased expression on white matter cells. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that cell-specific developmental changes in AMPAR expression occurred 2-3 days earlier by chronological age in Sprague Dawley rats compared with Long Evans rats, despite overall similar temporal sequencing. In both white and gray matter, the periods of high GluR2 deficiency correspond to those of regional susceptibility to hypoxic/ischemic injury in each of the two rat strains, supporting prior studies suggesting a critical role for Ca2+-permeable AMPARs in excitotoxic cellular injury and epileptogenesis. The developmental regulation of these receptor subunits strongly suggests that Ca2+ influx through GluR2-lacking AMPARs may play an important role in neuronal and glial development and injury in the immature brain. Moreover, as demonstrated in part II, there are striking similarities between rat and human in the regional and temporal maturational regulation of neuronal and glial AMPAR expression.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - MH074118(United States)