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Mouse Anti-Rabbit GADPH Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 6C5


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

Rabbit GADPH canine, chicken, fish, frog, human, mouse, porcine, rabbit, rat

Proper Citation

(Millipore Cat# CB1001, RRID:AB_2107426)


monoclonal antibody


seller recommendations: ELISA, Immunoblotting, Immunocytochemistry Consolidated with AB_10696843 and AB_212754 on 09/19/16

Clone ID

Clone 6C5

Host Organism


A Mild PUM1 Mutation Is Associated with Adult-Onset Ataxia, whereas Haploinsufficiency Causes Developmental Delay and Seizures.

  • Gennarino VA
  • Cell
  • 2018 Feb 22

Literature context:


Certain mutations can cause proteins to accumulate in neurons, leading to neurodegeneration. We recently showed, however, that upregulation of a wild-type protein, Ataxin1, caused by haploinsufficiency of its repressor, the RNA-binding protein Pumilio1 (PUM1), also causes neurodegeneration in mice. We therefore searched for human patients with PUM1 mutations. We identified eleven individuals with either PUM1 deletions or de novo missense variants who suffer a developmental syndrome (Pumilio1-associated developmental disability, ataxia, and seizure; PADDAS). We also identified a milder missense mutation in a family with adult-onset ataxia with incomplete penetrance (Pumilio1-related cerebellar ataxia, PRCA). Studies in patient-derived cells revealed that the missense mutations reduced PUM1 protein levels by ∼25% in the adult-onset cases and by ∼50% in the infantile-onset cases; levels of known PUM1 targets increased accordingly. Changes in protein levels thus track with phenotypic severity, and identifying posttranscriptional modulators of protein expression should identify new candidate disease genes.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY013315(United States)
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD083092()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM066099()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM079656()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - K08 NS091381()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS027699()

Reversible Conformational Conversion of α-Synuclein into Toxic Assemblies by Glucosylceramide.

  • Zunke F
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Dec 20

Literature context:


α-Synuclein (α-syn) aggregation is a key event in Parkinson's disease (PD). Mutations in glycosphingolipid (GSL)-degrading glucocerebrosidase are risk factors for PD, indicating that disrupted GSL clearance plays a key role in α-syn aggregation. However, the mechanisms of GSL-induced aggregation are not completely understood. We document the presence of physiological α-syn conformers in human midbrain dopamine neurons and tested their contribution to the aggregation process. Pathological α-syn assembly mainly occurred through the conversion of high molecular weight (HMW) physiological α-syn conformers into compact, assembly-state intermediates by glucosylceramide (GluCer), without apparent disassembly into free monomers. This process was reversible in vitro through GluCer depletion. Reducing GSLs in PD patient neurons with and without GBA1 mutations diminished pathology and restored physiological α-syn conformers that associated with synapses. Our work indicates that GSLs control the toxic conversion of physiological α-syn conformers in a reversible manner that is amenable to therapeutic intervention by GSL reducing agents.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA90668(United States)
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P20 RR017677()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30 NS081774()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS092823()

Roquin Suppresses the PI3K-mTOR Signaling Pathway to Inhibit T Helper Cell Differentiation and Conversion of Treg to Tfr Cells.

  • Essig K
  • Immunity
  • 2017 Dec 19

Literature context:


Roquin proteins preclude spontaneous T cell activation and aberrant differentiation of T follicular helper (Tfh) or T helper 17 (Th17) cells. Here we showed that deletion of Roquin-encoding alleles specifically in regulatory T (Treg) cells also caused the activation of conventional T cells. Roquin-deficient Treg cells downregulated CD25, acquired a follicular Treg (Tfr) cell phenotype, and suppressed germinal center reactions but could not protect from colitis. Roquin inhibited the PI3K-mTOR signaling pathway by upregulation of Pten through interfering with miR-17∼92 binding to an overlapping cis-element in the Pten 3' UTR, and downregulated the Foxo1-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch. Loss of Roquin enhanced Akt-mTOR signaling and protein synthesis, whereas inhibition of PI3K or mTOR in Roquin-deficient T cells corrected enhanced Tfh and Th17 or reduced iTreg cell differentiation. Thereby, Roquin-mediated control of PI3K-mTOR signaling prevents autoimmunity by restraining activation and differentiation of conventional T cells and specialization of Treg cells.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R37 HL036982(United States)

Pharmacological targeting of GSK-3 and NRF2 provides neuroprotection in a preclinical model of tauopathy.

  • Cuadrado A
  • Redox Biol
  • 2017 Nov 10

Literature context:


Tauopathies are a group of neurodegenerative disorders where TAU protein is presented as aggregates or is abnormally phosphorylated, leading to alterations of axonal transport, neuronal death and neuroinflammation. Currently, there is no treatment to slow progression of these diseases. Here, we have investigated whether dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an inducer of the transcription factor NRF2, could mitigate tauopathy in a mouse model. The signaling pathways modulated by DMF were also studied in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEFs) from wild type or KEAP1-deficient mice. The effect of DMF on neurodegeneration, astrocyte and microglial activation was examined in Nrf2+/+ and Nrf2-/- mice stereotaxically injected in the right hippocampus with an adeno-associated vector expressing human TAUP301L and treated daily with DMF (100mg/kg, i.g) during three weeks. DMF induces the NRF2 transcriptional through a mechanism that involves KEAP1 but also PI3K/AKT/GSK-3-dependent pathways. DMF modulates GSK-3β activity in mouse hippocampi. Furthermore, DMF modulates TAU phosphorylation, neuronal impairment measured by calbindin-D28K and BDNF expression, and inflammatory processes involved in astrogliosis, microgliosis and pro-inflammatory cytokines production. This study reveals neuroprotective effects of DMF beyond disruption of the KEAP1/NRF2 axis by inhibiting GSK3 in a mouse model of tauopathy. Our results support repurposing of this drug for treatment of these diseases.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P20 RR16462(United States)

The Role of Calcium-Sensing Receptors in Endothelin-1-Dependent Effects on Adult Rat Ventricular Cardiomyocytes: Possible Contribution to Adaptive Myocardial Hypertrophy.

  • Dyukova E
  • J. Cell. Physiol.
  • 2017 Sep 23

Literature context:


Nitric oxide (NO)-deficiency as it occurs during endothelial dysfunction activates the endothelin-1 (ET-1) system and increases the expression of receptor activity modifying protein (RAMP)-1 that acts as a chaperon for calcium-sensing receptors (CaR) that have recently been identified to improve cardiac function. Here, we hypothesized that ET-1 increases the cardiac expression of CaR and thereby induces an adaptive type of hypertrophy. Expressions of RAMP-1, endothelin receptors, and CaR were analyzed by RT-PCR in left ventricular tissues of L-NAME-treated rats. Effects of ET-1 on CaR expression and cell function (load free cell shortening) were analyzed in adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. siRNA directed against CaR and RAMP-1 was used to investigate a causal relationship. PD142893 and BQ788 were used to dissect the contribution of ETB1 , ETB2 , and ETA receptors. Non-specific NO synthase inhibition with L-Nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) caused a cardiac upregulation of ETB receptors and CaR suggesting a paracrine effect of ET-1 on cardiomyocytes. Indeed, ET-1 induced the expression of CaR in cultured cardiomyocytes. Under these conditions, cardiomyocytes increased cell size (hypertrophy) but maintained normal function. Inhibition of ETA and ETB1 receptors led to ET-1-dependent reduction in cell shortening and attenuated up-regulation of CaR. Down-regulation of RAMP-1 reduced CaR responsiveness. In conclusion, ET-1 causes an adaptive type of hypertrophy by up-regulation of CaR in cardiomyocytes via ETA and/or ETB1 receptors. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2508-2518, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - MH095095(United States)

Reciprocal regulation of ARPP-16 by PKA and MAST3 kinases provides a cAMP-regulated switch in protein phosphatase 2A inhibition.

  • Musante V
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 14

Literature context:


ARPP-16, ARPP-19, and ENSA are inhibitors of protein phosphatase PP2A. ARPP-19 and ENSA phosphorylated by Greatwall kinase inhibit PP2A during mitosis. ARPP-16 is expressed in striatal neurons where basal phosphorylation by MAST3 kinase inhibits PP2A and regulates key components of striatal signaling. The ARPP-16/19 proteins were discovered as substrates for PKA, but the function of PKA phosphorylation is unknown. We find that phosphorylation by PKA or MAST3 mutually suppresses the ability of the other kinase to act on ARPP-16. Phosphorylation by PKA also acts to prevent inhibition of PP2A by ARPP-16 phosphorylated by MAST3. Moreover, PKA phosphorylates MAST3 at multiple sites resulting in its inhibition. Mathematical modeling highlights the role of these three regulatory interactions to create a switch-like response to cAMP. Together, the results suggest a complex antagonistic interplay between the control of ARPP-16 by MAST3 and PKA that creates a mechanism whereby cAMP mediates PP2A disinhibition.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - P01 DA010044()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - P30 DA018343()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS091336()

Releasing Syntaphilin Removes Stressed Mitochondria from Axons Independent of Mitophagy under Pathophysiological Conditions.

  • Lin MY
  • Neuron
  • 2017 May 3

Literature context:


Chronic mitochondrial stress is a central problem associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Early removal of defective mitochondria from axons constitutes a critical step of mitochondrial quality control. Here we investigate axonal mitochondrial response to mild stress in wild-type neurons and chronic mitochondrial defects in Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)- and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-linked neurons. We show that stressed mitochondria are removed from axons triggered by the bulk release of mitochondrial anchoring protein syntaphilin via a new class of mitochondria-derived cargos independent of Parkin, Drp1, and autophagy. Immuno-electron microscopy and super-resolution imaging show the budding of syntaphilin cargos, which then share a ride on late endosomes for transport toward the soma. Releasing syntaphilin is also activated in the early pathological stages of ALS- and AD-linked mutant neurons. Our study provides new mechanistic insights into the maintenance of axonal mitochondrial quality through SNPH-mediated coordination of mitochondrial stress and motility before activation of Parkin-mediated mitophagy. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z01 NS002946-12()
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA NS002946-20()
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA NS003029-10()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS089737()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - ZIA NS002946()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - ZIA NS003029()

Regulation of Synaptic Amyloid-β Generation through BACE1 Retrograde Transport in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

  • Ye X
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Mar 8

Literature context:


Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides play a key role in synaptic damage and memory deficits in the early pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Abnormal accumulation of Aβ at nerve terminals leads to synaptic pathology and ultimately to neurodegeneration. β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the major neuronal β-secretase for Aβ generation. However, the mechanisms regulating BACE1 distribution in axons and β cleavage of APP at synapses remain largely unknown. Here, we reveal that dynein-Snapin-mediated retrograde transport regulates BACE1 trafficking in axons and APP processing at presynaptic terminals. BACE1 is predominantly accumulated within late endosomes at the synapses of AD-related mutant human APP (hAPP) transgenic (Tg) mice and patient brains. Defective retrograde transport by genetic ablation of snapin in mice recapitulates late endocytic retention of BACE1 and increased APP processing at presynaptic sites. Conversely, overexpressing Snapin facilitates BACE1 trafficking and reduces synaptic BACE1 accumulation by enhancing the removal of BACE1 from distal AD axons and presynaptic terminals. Moreover, elevated Snapin expression via stereotactic hippocampal injections of adeno-associated virus particles in mutant hAPP Tg mouse brains decreases synaptic Aβ levels and ameliorates synapse loss, thus rescuing cognitive impairments associated with hAPP mice. Altogether, our study provides new mechanistic insights into the complex regulation of BACE1 trafficking and presynaptic localization through Snapin-mediated dynein-driven retrograde axonal transport, thereby suggesting a potential approach of modulating Aβ levels and attenuating synaptic deficits in AD.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT β-Site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) trafficking and synaptic localization significantly influence its β secretase activity and amyloid-β (Aβ) production. In AD brains, BACE1 is accumulated within dystrophic neurites, which is thought to augment Aβ-induced synaptotoxicity by Aβ overproduction. However, it remains largely unknown whether axonal transport regulates synaptic APP processing. Here, we demonstrate that Snapin-mediated retrograde transport plays a critical role in removing BACE1 from presynaptic terminals toward the soma, thus reducing synaptic Aβ production. Adeno-associated virus-mediated Snapin overexpression in the hippocampus of mutant hAPP mice significantly decreases synaptic Aβ levels, attenuates synapse loss, and thus rescues cognitive deficits. Our study uncovers a new pathway that controls synaptic APP processing by enhancing axonal BACE1 trafficking, thereby advancing our fundamental knowledge critical for ameliorating Aβ-linked synaptic pathology.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS094450()

A Rapid Induction Mechanism for Lin28a in Trophic Responses.

  • Amen AM
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Feb 2

Literature context:


Environmental cues provoke rapid transitions in gene expression to support growth and cellular plasticity through incompletely understood mechanisms. Lin28 RNA-binding proteins have evolutionarily conserved roles in post-transcriptional coordination of pro-growth gene expression, but signaling pathways allowing trophic stimuli to induce Lin28 have remained uncharacterized. We find that Lin28a protein exhibits rapid basal turnover in neurons and that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent phosphorylation of the RNA-silencing factor HIV TAR-RNA-binding protein (TRBP) promotes binding and stabilization of Lin28a, but not Lin28b, with an accompanying reduction in Lin28-regulated miRNAs, downstream of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Binding of Lin28a to TRBP in vitro is also enhanced by phospho-mimic TRBP. Further, phospho-TRBP recapitulates BDNF-induced neuronal dendritic spine growth in a Lin28a-dependent manner. Finally, we demonstrate MAPK-dependent TRBP and Lin28a induction, with physiological function in growth and survival, downstream of diverse growth factors in multiple primary cell types, supporting a broad role for this pathway in trophic responses.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - F31 MH103902()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH098016()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH109341()

Absence of intracellular ion channels TPC1 and TPC2 leads to mature-onset obesity in male mice, due to impaired lipid availability for thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue.

  • Lear PV
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Mar 21

Literature context:


Intracellular calcium-permeable channels have been implicated in thermogenic function of murine brown and brite/beige adipocytes, respectively transient receptor potential melastin-8 and transient receptor potential vanilloid-4. Because the endo-lysosomal two-pore channels (TPCs) have also been ascribed with metabolic functionality, we studied the effect of simultaneously knocking out TPC1 and TPC2 on body composition and energy balance in male mice fed a chow diet. Compared with wild-type mice, TPC1 and TPC2 double knockout (Tpcn1/2(-/-)) animals had a higher respiratory quotient and became obese between 6 and 9 months of age. Although food intake was unaltered, interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) maximal temperature and lean-mass adjusted oxygen consumption were lower in Tpcn1/2(-/-) than in wild type mice. Phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase expression, lipid density and expression of β-adrenergic receptors were also lower in Tpcn1/2(-/-) BAT, whereas mitochondrial respiratory chain function and uncoupling protein-1 expression remained intact. We conclude that Tpcn1/2(-/-) mice show mature-onset obesity due to reduced lipid availability and use, and a defect in β-adrenergic receptor signaling, leading to impaired thermogenic activity, in BAT.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS065053(United States)