Literature context: nology, sc7202 Rabbit 1/2000 RRID:AB_2106765
Ghrelin is a potent orexigenic peptide hormone that acts through the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), a G protein-coupled receptor highly expressed in the hypothalamus. In vitro studies have shown that GHSR displays a high constitutive activity, whose physiological relevance is uncertain. As GHSR gene expression in the hypothalamus is known to increase in fasting conditions, we tested the hypothesis that constitutive GHSR activity at the hypothalamic level drives the fasting-induced hyperphagia. We found that refed wild-type (WT) mice displayed a robust hyperphagia that continued for 5 days after refeeding and changed their food intake daily pattern. Fasted WT mice showed an increase in plasma ghrelin levels, as well as in GHSR expression levels and ghrelin binding sites in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. When fasting-refeeding responses were evaluated in ghrelin- or GHSR-deficient mice, only the latter displayed an ∼15% smaller hyperphagia, compared with WT mice. Finally, fasting-induced hyperphagia of WT mice was significantly smaller in mice centrally treated with the GHSR inverse agonist K-(D-1-Nal)-FwLL-NH2, compared with mice treated with vehicle, whereas it was unaffected in mice centrally treated with the GHSR antagonists D-Lys3-growth hormone-releasing peptide 6 or JMV2959. Taken together, genetic models and pharmacological results support the notion that constitutive GHSR activity modulates the magnitude of the compensatory hyperphagia triggered by fasting. Thus, the hypothalamic GHSR signaling system could affect the set point of daily food intake, independently of plasma ghrelin levels, in situations of negative energy balance.
Literature context: 202X lots A2513, J1613, J2015; RRID:AB_2106765 Rabbit anti-Fra-2 Santa Cruz sc
Enhancer elements are genomic regulatory sequences that direct the selective expression of genes so that genetically identical cells can differentiate and acquire the highly specialized forms and functions required to build a functioning animal. To differentiate, cells must select from among the ∼106 enhancers encoded in the genome the thousands of enhancers that drive the gene programs that impart their distinct features. We used a genetic approach to identify transcription factors (TFs) required for enhancer selection in fibroblasts. This revealed that the broadly expressed, growth-factor-inducible TFs FOS/JUN (AP-1) play a central role in enhancer selection. FOS/JUN selects enhancers together with cell-type-specific TFs by collaboratively binding to nucleosomal enhancers and recruiting the SWI/SNF (BAF) chromatin remodeling complex to establish accessible chromatin. These experiments demonstrate how environmental signals acting via FOS/JUN and BAF coordinate with cell-type-specific TFs to select enhancer repertoires that enable differentiation during development.
Literature context: RRID:AB_2106765 C-terminus of c-FOS of human o
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates the transcription of many genes in the osteoblast. One of these genes is Mmp13, which is involved in bone remodeling and early stages of endochondral bone formation. Previously, we reported that PTH induces Mmp13 transcription by regulating the dissociation of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) from runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and the association of the HATs, p300, and p300/CREB binding protein (CBP)-associated factor. It is known that, in addition to Runx2, HDAC4 binds to the transcription factor, myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2c (MEF2C), and represses its activity. In this work, we investigated whether MEF2C participates in PTH-stimulated Mmp13 gene expression in osteoblastic cells and how it does so. Knockdown of Mef2c in UMR 106-01 cells repressed Mmp13 messenger RNA expression and promoter activity with or without PTH treatment. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed that MEF2C associated with the Mmp13 promoter; this increased after 4 hours of PTH treatment. ChIP-reChIP results indicate that endogenous MEF2C associates with HDAC4 on the Mmp13 promoter; after PTH treatment, this association decreased. From gel shift, ChIP, and promoter-reporter assays, MEF2C was found to associate with the activator protein-1 (AP-1) site without directly binding to DNA and had its stimulatory effect through interaction with c-FOS. In conclusion, MEF2C is necessary for Mmp13 gene expression at the transcriptional level and participates in PTH-stimulated Mmp13 gene expression by increased binding to c-FOS at the AP-1 site in the Mmp13 promoter. The observation of MEF2C interacting with a member of the AP-1 transcription factor family provides knowledge of the functions of HDAC4, c-FOS, and MEF2C.
Literature context: ntibody [rabbit anti-c-fos (RID:RRID:AB_2106765), 1:2000 diluted in 0.3% Triton
The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is a critical locus of energy balance control. Three sets of neurons in the PVN are involved in regulating energy balance: oxytocin-expressing neurons (OXT-neurons), thyrotropin-releasing hormone-expressing neurons, and corticotrophin-releasing hormone-expressing neurons. To examine the role of OXT-neurons in energy balance, we ablated these neurons in mice by injecting diphtheria toxin into mice possessing both the oxytocin promoter driving cre expression and a cre-inducible diphtheria toxin receptor. Immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction confirmed that this injection caused a significant decrease in PVN OXT-neurons and OXT-mRNA abundance. OXT-neuron ablation did not alter food intake, weight, or energy expenditure at room temperature on either chow or a high-fat diet. To further characterize OXT-neuron-ablated mice, we examined their response to 1) intraperitoneal cholecystokinin (CCK) injection and 2) thermogenic stress. OXT-neuron-ablated mice had a blunted decrease in feeding response to CCK. When exposed to the extreme cold (4°C) for 3 hours, OXT-neuron-ablated mice had significant decreases in both rectal and brown adipose tissue temperature relative to controls, which was rescued by OXT treatment. Thermographic imaging revealed that OXT-neuron-ablated mice had increased body surface temperature. Thus, we report that OXT-neuron ablation shows no role for OXT-neurons in energy homeostasis at neutral temperature but reveals a heretofore unappreciated role for OXT-neurons and oxytocin specifically in regulating the thermogenic stress response.
Literature context: nta Cruz Cat #: sc-7202, RRID:AB_2106765 Rabbit polyclonal anti-Tyrosine
Beige adipocytes can interconvert between white and brown-like states and switch between energy storage versus expenditure. Here we report that beige adipocyte plasticity is important for feeding-associated changes in energy expenditure and is coordinated by the hypothalamus and the phosphatase TCPTP. A fasting-induced and glucocorticoid-mediated induction of TCPTP, inhibited insulin signaling in AgRP/NPY neurons, repressed the browning of white fat and decreased energy expenditure. Conversely feeding reduced hypothalamic TCPTP, to increase AgRP/NPY neuronal insulin signaling, white adipose tissue browning and energy expenditure. The feeding-induced repression of hypothalamic TCPTP was defective in obesity. Mice lacking TCPTP in AgRP/NPY neurons were resistant to diet-induced obesity and had increased beige fat activity and energy expenditure. The deletion of hypothalamic TCPTP in obesity restored feeding-induced browning and increased energy expenditure to promote weight loss. Our studies define a hypothalamic switch that coordinates energy expenditure with feeding for the maintenance of energy balance.
Literature context: IHC); 1:1000 (fluorescent IHC)Â AB_2106765Â GFPÂ GFP tag polyclonal antibody
Ghrelin is known to act on the area postrema (AP), a sensory circumventricular organ located in the medulla oblongata that regulates a variety of important physiological functions. However, the neuronal targets of ghrelin in the AP and their potential role are currently unknown. In this study, we used wild-type and genetically modified mice to gain insights into the neurons of the AP expressing the ghrelin receptor [growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)] and their role. We show that circulating ghrelin mainly accesses the AP but not to the adjacent nucleus of the solitary tract. Also, we show that both peripheral administration of ghrelin and fasting induce an increase of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in GHSR-expressing neurons of the AP, and that GHSR expression is necessary for the fasting-induced activation of AP neurons. Additionally, we show that ghrelin-sensitive neurons of the AP are mainly γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic, and that an intact AP is required for ghrelin-induced gastric emptying. Overall, we show that the capacity of circulating ghrelin to acutely induce gastric emptying in mice requires the integrity of the AP, which contains a population of GABA neurons that are a target of plasma ghrelin.
The neural networks that generate stepping in complete spinal adult rats remain poorly defined. To address this problem, we used c-fos (an activity-dependent marker) to identify active interneurons and motoneurons in the lumbar spinal cord of adult spinal rats during a 30-min bout of bipedal stepping. Spinal rats were either step trained (30 min/day, 3 days/week, for 7.5 weeks) or not step trained. Stepping was enabled by epidural stimulation and the administration of the serotonergic agonists quipazine and 8-OHDPAT. A third group of spinal rats served as untreated (no stimulation, drugs, or stepping) controls. The numbers of activated cholinergic central canal cluster cells and partition neurons were higher in both step-trained and nontrained rats than in untreated rats and were higher in nontrained than in step-trained rats. The latter finding suggests that daily treatment with epidural stimulation plus serotonergic agonist treatment without step training enhances the excitability of a broader cholinergic interneuronal population than does step training. The numbers of activated interneurons in laminae II-VI of lumbar cross-sections were higher in both step-trained and nontrained rats than in untreated rats, and they were highest in step-trained rats. This finding suggests that this population of interneurons is responsive to epidural stimulation plus serotonergic treatment and that load-bearing induced when stepping has an additive effect. The numbers of activated motoneurons of all size categories were higher in the step-trained group than in the other two groups, reflecting a strong effect of loading on motoneuron recruitment. In general, these results indicate that the spinal networks for locomotion are similar with and without brain input. SIGNIFICANCE: We identified neurons within the spinal cord networks that are activated during assisted stepping in paraplegic rats. We stimulated the spinal cord and administered a drug to help the rats step. One group was trained to step and another was not trained. We observed a lower percentage of activated neurons in specific spinal cord regions in trained rats than in nontrained rats after a 1-hr stepping bout, suggesting that step training reduces activation of some types of spinal neurons. This observation indicates that training makes the spinal networks more efficient and suggests a "learning" phenomenon in the spinal cord without any brain input.
How does the brain develop differently to support nocturnality in some mammals, but diurnality in others? To answer this question, one might look to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which is entrained by light via the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT). However, because the SCN is more active during the day in all mammals studied thus far, it alone cannot determine circadian phase preference. In adult Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), which are nocturnal, the RHT also projects to the ventral subparaventricular zone (vSPVZ), an adjacent region that expresses an in-phase pattern of SCN-vSPVZ neuronal activity. In contrast, in adult Nile grass rats (Arvicanthis niloticus), which are diurnal, an anti-phase pattern of SCN-vSPVZ neuronal activity is expressed. We hypothesized that these species differences result in part from a weak or absent RHT-to-vSPVZ projection in grass rats. Here, using a developmental comparative approach, we assessed species differences in behavior, hypothalamic activity, and RHT anatomy. We report that a robust retina-to-vSPVZ projection develops in Norway rats around the end of the second postnatal week when nocturnal wakefulness and the in-phase pattern of neuronal activity emerge. In grass rats, however, such a projection does not develop and the emergence of the anti-phase pattern during the second postnatal week is accompanied by increased diurnal wakefulness. When considered within the context of previously published reports on RHT projections in a variety of species, the current findings suggest that how and when the retina connects to the hypothalamus differentially shapes brain and behavior to produce animals that occupy opposing temporal niches.