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Phospho-PERK (Thr980) (16F8) Rabbit mAb antibody

RRID:AB_2095850

Antibody ID

AB_2095853

Target Antigen

PERK, phospho (Thr980) human, mouse, rat

Proper Citation

(Cell Signaling Technology Cat# 3179, RRID:AB_2095853)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Applications: W. Consolidation on 10/2018: AB_10171200, AB_10175170, AB_2095850, AB_2095853.

Clone ID

Clone 16F8

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Cell Signaling Technology

Cat Num

3179

Publications that use this research resource

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Contributes to the Loss of Newborn Hippocampal Neurons after Traumatic Brain Injury.

  • Hood KN
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Feb 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been shown to be required for certain types of cognitive function. For example, studies have shown that these neurons are critical for pattern separation, the ability to store similar experiences as distinct memories. Although traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been shown to cause the loss of newborn hippocampal neurons, the signaling pathway(s) that triggers their death is unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates the PERK-eIF2α pathway that acts to restore ER function and improve cell survival. However, unresolved/intense ER stress activates C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), leading to cell death. We show that TBI causes the death of hippocampal newborn neurons via CHOP. Using CHOP KO mice, we show that loss of CHOP markedly reduces newborn neuron loss after TBI. Injured CHOP mice performed significantly better in a context fear discrimination task compared with injured wild-type mice. In contrast, the PERK inhibitor GSK2606414 exacerbated doublecortin cell loss and worsened contextual discrimination. Administration of guanabenz (which reduces ER stress) to injured male rats reduced the loss of newborn neurons and improved one-trial contextual fear memory. Interestingly, we also found that the surviving newborn neurons in brain-injured animals had dendritic loss, which was not observed in injured CHOP KO mice or in animals treated with guanabenz. These results indicate that ER stress plays a key role in the death of newborn neurons after TBI. Further, these findings indicate that ER stress can alter dendritic arbors, suggesting a role for ER stress in neuroplasticity and dendritic pathologies.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The hippocampus, a structure in the temporal lobe, is critical for learning and memory. The hippocampus is one of only two areas in which neurons are generated in the adult brain. These newborn neurons are required for certain types of memory, and are particularly vulnerable to traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the mechanism(s) that causes the loss of these cells after TBI is poorly understood. We show that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways are activated in newborn neurons after TBI, and that manipulation of the CHOP cascade improves newborn neuron survival and cognitive outcome. These results suggest that treatments that prevent/resolve ER stress may be beneficial in treating TBI-triggered memory dysfunction.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY017296(United States)

Palmitate-induced Endoplasmic Reticulum stress and subsequent C/EBPα Homologous Protein activation attenuates leptin and Insulin-like growth factor 1 expression in the brain.

  • Marwarha G
  • Cell. Signal.
  • 2017 Nov 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

The peptide hormones Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) and leptin mediate a myriad of biological effects - both in the peripheral and central nervous systems. The transcription of these two hormones is regulated by the transcription factor C/EBPα, which in turn is negatively regulated by the transcription factor C/EBP Homologous Protein (CHOP), a specific marker of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In the peripheral system, disturbances in leptin and IGF-1 levels are implicated in a variety of metabolic diseases including obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Current research suggests a positive correlation between consumption of diets rich in saturated free fatty acids (sFFA) and metabolic diseases. Induction of ER stress and subsequent dysregulation in the expression levels of leptin and IGF-1 have been shown to mediate sFFA-induced metabolic diseases in the peripheral system. Palmitic acid (palmitate), the most commonly consumed sFFA, has been shown to be up-taken by the brain, where it may promote neurodegeneration. However, the extent to which palmitate induces ER stress in the brain and attenuates leptin and IGF1 expression has not been determined. We fed C57BL/6J mice a palmitate-enriched diet and determined effects on the expression levels of leptin and IGF1 in the hippocampus and cortex. We further determined the extent to which ER stress and subsequent CHOP activation mediate the palmitate effects on the transcription of leptin and IGF1. We demonstrate that palmitate induces ER stress and decreases leptin and IGF1 expression by inducing the expression of CHOP. The molecular chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), an inhibitor of ER stress, precludes the palmitate-evoked down-regulation of leptin and IGF1 expression. Furthermore, the activation of CHOP in response to ER stress is pivotal in the attenuation of leptin and IGF1 expression as knocking-down CHOP in mice or in SH-SY5Y and Neuro-2a (N2a) cells rescues the palmitate-induced mitigation in leptin and IGF1 expression. Our study implicates for the first time ER stress-induced CHOP activation in the brain as a mechanistic link in the palmitate-induced negative regulation of leptin and IGF1, two neurotrophic cytokines that play an indispensable role in the mammalian brain.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA138256-01(United States)
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG045264(United States)

Dual leucine zipper kinase-dependent PERK activation contributes to neuronal degeneration following insult.

  • Larhammar M
  • Elife
  • 2017 Apr 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

The PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) arm of the Integrated Stress Response (ISR) is implicated in neurodegenerative disease, although the regulators and consequences of PERK activation following neuronal injury are poorly understood. Here we show that PERK signaling is a component of the mouse MAP kinase neuronal stress response controlled by the Dual Leucine Zipper Kinase (DLK) and contributes to DLK-mediated neurodegeneration. We find that DLK-activating insults ranging from nerve injury to neurotrophin deprivation result in both c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) signaling and the PERK- and ISR-dependent upregulation of the Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF4). Disruption of PERK signaling delays neurodegeneration without reducing JNK signaling. Furthermore, DLK is both sufficient for PERK activation and necessary for engaging the ISR subsequent to JNK-mediated retrograde injury signaling. These findings identify DLK as a central regulator of not only JNK but also PERK stress signaling in neurons, with both pathways contributing to neurodegeneration.

The PERK arm of the unfolded protein response regulates satellite cell-mediated skeletal muscle regeneration.

  • Xiong G
  • Elife
  • 2017 Mar 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Regeneration of skeletal muscle in adults is mediated by satellite stem cells. Accumulation of misfolded proteins triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress that leads to unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR is relayed to the cell through the activation of PERK, IRE1/XBP1, and ATF6. Here, we demonstrate that levels of PERK and IRE1 are increased in satellite cells upon muscle injury. Inhibition of PERK, but not the IRE1 arm of the UPR in satellite cells inhibits myofiber regeneration in adult mice. PERK is essential for the survival and differentiation of activated satellite cells into the myogenic lineage. Deletion of PERK causes hyper-activation of p38 MAPK during myogenesis. Blocking p38 MAPK activity improves the survival and differentiation of PERK-deficient satellite cells in vitro and muscle formation in vivo. Collectively, our results suggest that the PERK arm of the UPR plays a pivotal role in the regulation of satellite cell homeostasis during regenerative myogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG029623()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR059810()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR068313()