Literature context: t polyclonal; 1/10 IF dilution; RRID:AB_2076666) and (sc-31020, Santa Cruz Biot
Hypoblast/visceral endoderm assists in amniote nutrition, axial positioning and formation of the gut. Here, we provide evidence, currently limited to humans and non-human primates, that hypoblast is a purveyor of extraembryonic mesoderm in the mouse gastrula. Fate mapping a unique segment of axial extraembryonic visceral endoderm associated with the allantoic component of the primitive streak, and referred to as the "AX", revealed that visceral endoderm supplies the placentae with extraembryonic mesoderm. Exfoliation of the AX was dependent upon contact with the primitive streak, which modulated Hedgehog signaling. Resolution of the AX's epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by Hedgehog shaped the allantois into its characteristic projectile and individualized placental arterial vessels. A unique border cell separated the delaminating AX from the yolk sac blood islands which, situated beyond the limit of the streak, were not formed by an EMT. Over time, the AX became the hindgut lip, which contributed extensively to the posterior interface, including both embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. The AX, in turn, imparted antero-posterior (A-P) polarity on the primitive streak and promoted its elongation and differentiation into definitive endoderm. Results of heterotopic grafting supported mutually interactive functions of the AX and primitive streak, showing that together, they self-organized into a complete version of the fetal-placental interface, forming an elongated structure that exhibited A-P polarity and was composed of the allantois, an AX-derived rod-like axial extension reminiscent of the embryonic notochord, the placental arterial vasculature and visceral endoderm/hindgut.
Literature context: adherin Santa Cruz Cat#sc-7870; RRID:AB_2076666 Rabbit polyclonal anti-HA Sigma
The Helicobacter pylori (Hp) type IV secretion system (T4SS) forms needle-like pili, whose binding to the integrin-β1 receptor results in injection of the CagA oncoprotein. However, the apical surface of epithelial cells is exposed to Hp, whereas integrins are basolateral receptors. Hence, the mechanism of CagA delivery into polarized gastric epithelial cells remains enigmatic. Here, we demonstrate that T4SS pilus formation during infection of polarized cells occurs predominantly at basolateral membranes, and not at apical sites. Hp accomplishes this by secreting another bacterial protein, the serine protease HtrA, which opens cell-to-cell junctions through cleaving epithelial junctional proteins including occludin, claudin-8, and E-cadherin. Using a genetic system expressing a peptide inhibitor, we demonstrate that HtrA activity is necessary for paracellular transmigration of Hp across polarized cell monolayers to reach basolateral membranes and inject CagA. The contribution of this unique signaling cascade to Hp pathogenesis is discussed.
Literature context: dherinÂ Santa Cruz, H-108Â RabbitÂ AB_2076666Â 200 timesÂ Dsg1 (demoglein1)Â Unk
When the skin is injured, keratinocytes proliferate, migrate, and differentiate to regenerate the epidermis. We recently showed that ablation of the vitamin D receptor (Vdr) in keratinocytes delays wound re-epithelialization in mice also fed a low-calcium diet, implicating a cooperative role of Vdr and calcium signaling in this process. In this study, we examined the role of vitamin D and calcium signaling in wound healing by deleting their receptors, Vdr and the calcium-sensing receptor (Casr). Gene expression profiling of neonatal epidermis lacking both Vdr and Casr [Vdr and Casr double knockout (DKO)] specifically in keratinocytes revealed that DKO affects a number of pathways relevant to wound healing, including Vdr, β-catenin, and adherens junction (AJ) signaling. In adult skin, DKO caused a significant delay in wound closure and re-epithelialization, whereas myofibroblast numbers and matrix deposition were unaffected. The injury-induced proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes was blunted in both epidermis and hair follicles, and expression of β-catenin target genes was reduced in the DKO. Expression of E-cadherin and desmoglein 1 was reduced in the shortened leading edges of the epithelial tongues re-epithelializing the wounds, consistent with the decreased migration rate of DKO keratinocytes in vitro. These results demonstrate that Vdr and Casr are required for β-catenin-regulated cell proliferation and AJ formation essential for re-epithelialization after wounding. We conclude that vitamin D and calcium signaling in keratinocytes are required for a normal regenerative response of the skin to wounding.
Planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins confer polarization of a field of cells (eg, elongating/elongated spermatids) within the plane of an epithelium such as the seminiferous epithelium of the tubule during spermatogenesis. In adult rat testes, Sertoli and germ cells were found to express PCP core proteins (eg, Van Gogh-like 2 [Vangl2]), effectors, ligands, and signaling proteins. Vangl2 expressed predominantly by Sertoli cells was localized at the testis-specific, actin-rich ectoplasmic specialization (ES) at the Sertoli-spermatid interface in the adluminal compartment and also Sertoli-Sertoli interface at the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and structurally interacted with actin, N-cadherin, and another PCP/polarity protein Scribble. Vangl2 knockdown (KD) by RNA interference in Sertoli cells cultured in vitro with an established tight junction-permeability barrier led to BTB tightening, whereas its overexpression using a full-length cDNA construct perturbed the barrier function. These changes were mediated through an alteration on the organization actin microfilaments at the ES in Sertoli cells, involving actin-regulatory proteins, epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8, actin-related protein 3, and Scribble, which in turn affected the function of adhesion protein complexes at the ES during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. Using Polyplus in vivo-jetPEI reagent as a transfection medium to silence Vangl2 in the testis in vivo by RNA interference with high efficacy, Vangl2 KD led to changes in F-actin organization at the ES in the epithelium, impeding spermatid and phagosome transport and spermatid polarity, meiosis, and BTB dynamics. For instance, step 19 spermatids remained embedded in the epithelium alongside with step 9 and 10 spermatids in stages IX-X tubules. In summary, the PCP protein Vangl2 is an ES regulator through its effects on actin microfilaments in the testis.