Literature context: of APC Millipore (Temecula, CA) RRID:AB_2057371
Both the lateral olfactory tract (LOT) and anterior limb of the anterior commissure (AC) carry olfactory information. The LOT forms the projection from the olfactory bulb to the ipsilateral olfactory cortices, while the AC carries odor information across the midline to the contralateral olfactory cortex and bulb. The LOT and AC differ on a number of dimensions, including early development and functional onset. The present work, examining their myelination in mice, reveals additional important differences. For example, the LOT initiates myelination 3-4 days earlier than the AC, evidenced by both an earlier increase in myelin basic protein staining seen with immunohistochemistry and an earlier appearance of myelinated fibers using electron microscopy. While both exhibit a period of rapid myelination, it occurs 4-5 days earlier in the LOT than the AC. The tracts also respond differently to early sensory restriction. Unilateral naris occlusion from the day after birth to postnatal day 30 had no consistent effects on the AC but resulted in significantly thinner myelin sheaths relative to axon caliber in the LOT. Finally, the two tracts differ structurally (the LOT contains larger, more densely packed axons with significantly thicker myelin sheaths resulting in a conduction velocity that is more than twice as fast as the AC). The findings indicate that these two large, accessible tracts provide an important means for studying brain maturation due to basic differences in both the timing of their maturation and general organization.
Literature context: illipore catalog #OP80, RRID:AB_2057371), mouse IgG1 anti-human specifi
Muscarinic receptor antagonists act as potent inducers of oligodendrocyte differentiation and accelerate remyelination. However, the use of muscarinic antagonists in the clinic is limited by poor understanding of the operant receptor subtype, and questions regarding possible species differences between rodents and humans. Based on high selective expression in human oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), we hypothesized that M3R is the functionally relevant receptor. Lentiviral M3R knock-down in human primary CD140a/PDGFαR+ OPCs resulted in enhanced differentiation in vitro and substantially reduced the calcium response following muscarinic agonist treatment. Importantly, following transplantation in hypomyelinating shiverer/rag2 mice, M3R knock-down improved remyelination by human OPCs. Furthermore, conditional M3R ablation in adult NG2-expressing OPCs increased oligodendrocyte differentiation and led to improved spontaneous remyelination in mice. Together, we demonstrate that M3R receptor mediates muscarinic signaling in human OPCs that act to delay differentiation and remyelination, suggesting that M3 receptors are viable targets for human demyelinating disease.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTThe identification of drug targets aimed at improving remyelination in patients with demyelination disease is a key step in development of effective regenerative therapies to treat diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Muscarinic receptor antagonists have been identified as effective potentiators of remyelination but the receptor subtypes that mediate these receptors are unclear. In this study, Welliver et al. show that genetic M3R ablation in both mouse and human cells results in improved remyelination and is mediated by acceleration of oligodendrocyte commitment from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Therefore, M3R therefore represents an attractive target for induced remyelination in human disease.
Literature context: esearch Cat#OP80; RRID:AB_2057371 Goat anti-MBP Santa Cruz biotec
Disruptive mutations in chromatin remodeler CHD8 cause autism spectrum disorders, exhibiting widespread white matter abnormalities; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We show that cell-type specific Chd8 deletion in oligodendrocyte progenitors, but not in neurons, results in myelination defects, revealing a cell-intrinsic dependence on CHD8 for oligodendrocyte lineage development, myelination and post-injury remyelination. CHD8 activates expression of BRG1-associated SWI/SNF complexes that in turn activate CHD7, thus initiating a successive chromatin remodeling cascade that orchestrates oligodendrocyte lineage progression. Genomic occupancy analyses reveal that CHD8 establishes an accessible chromatin landscape, and recruits MLL/KMT2 histone methyltransferase complexes distinctively around proximal promoters to promote oligodendrocyte differentiation. Inhibition of histone demethylase activity partially rescues myelination defects of CHD8-deficient mutants. Our data indicate that CHD8 exhibits a dual function through inducing a cascade of chromatin reprogramming and recruiting H3K4 histone methyltransferases to establish oligodendrocyte identity, suggesting potential strategies of therapeutic intervention for CHD8-associated white matter defects.
Literature context: , Billerica, MA; Cat# OP80 Lot# RRID:AB_2057371); rabbit anti-cleaved caspase-3
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to cellular loss, destabilisation of membranes, disruption of synapses and altered brain connectivity, and increased risk of neurodegenerative disease. A significant and long-lasting decrease in phospholipids (PL), essential membrane constituents, has recently been reported in plasma and brain tissue, in human and experimental TBI. We hypothesised that supporting PL synthesis post-injury could improve outcome after TBI. We tested this hypothesis using a multi-nutrient combination designed to support the biosynthesis of phospholipids and available for clinical use. The multi-nutrient Fortasyn® Connect (FC) contains polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, choline, uridine, vitamins, co-factors required for PL biosynthesis, and has been shown to have significant beneficial effects in early Alzheimer's disease. Male C57BL/6 mice received a controlled cortical impact injury and then were fed a control diet or a diet enriched with FC for 70 days. FC led to a significantly improved sensorimotor outcome and cognition, reduced lesion size and oligodendrocyte loss, and it restored myelin. It reversed the loss of the synaptic protein synaptophysin and decreased levels of the axon growth inhibitor Nogo-A, thus creating a permissive environment. It decreased microglia activation and the rise in ß-amyloid precursor protein and restored the depressed neurogenesis. The effects of this medical multi-nutrient suggest that support of PL biosynthesis after TBI, a new treatment paradigm, has significant therapeutic potential in this neurological condition for which there is no satisfactory treatment. The multi-nutrient tested has been used in dementia patients, is safe and well-tolerated, which would enable rapid clinical exploration in TBI.
Literature context: ody RegistryAB_839504AB_10013382AB_2057371AB_570666AB_2096229AB_10902070AB
BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS). Although TNF-targeted therapies have been largely unsuccessful in MS, recent preclinical data suggests selective soluble TNF inhibition can promote remyelination. This has renewed interest in regulation of TNF signaling in demyelinating disease, especially given the limited treatment options for progressive MS. Using a mouse model of progressive MS, this study evaluates the effects of sustained TNF on oligodendrocyte (OLG) apoptosis and OLG precursor cell (OPC) differentiation. METHODS: Induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative interferon-γ receptor under the human glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter (GFAPγR1Δ) causes severe non-remitting disease associated with sustained TNF. Therapeutic effects in GFAPγR1Δ mice treated with anti-TNF compared to control antibody during acute EAE were evaluated by assessing demyelinating lesion size, remyelination, OLG apoptosis, and OPC differentiation. RESULTS: More severe and enlarged demyelinating lesions in GFAPγR1Δ compared to wild-type (WT) mice were associated with increased OLG apoptosis and reduced differentiated CC1+Olig2+ OLG within lesions, as well as impaired upregulation of TNF receptor-2, suggesting impaired OPC differentiation. TNF blockade during acute EAE in GFAPγR1Δ both limited OLG apoptosis and enhanced OPC differentiation consistent with reduced lesion size and clinical recovery. TNF neutralization further limited increasing endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression in astrocytes and myeloid cells noted in lesions during disease progression in GFAPγR1Δ mice, supporting inhibitory effects of ET-1 on OPC maturation. CONCLUSION: Our data implicate that IFNγ signaling to astrocytes is essential to limit a detrimental positive feedback loop of TNF and ET-1 production, which increases OLG apoptosis and impairs OPC differentiation. Interference of this cycle by TNF blockade promotes repair independent of TNFR2 and supports selective TNF targeting to mitigate progressive forms of MS.
Literature context: llipore (Calbiochem) Cat# OP80; RRID:AB_2057371 (1:50)
The inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 is broadly expressed by CNS glia and deficits in Kir4.1 lead to seizures and myelin vacuolization. However, the role of oligodendrocyte Kir4.1 channels in controlling myelination and K+ clearance in white matter has not been defined. Here, we show that selective deletion of Kir4.1 from oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPCs) or mature oligodendrocytes did not impair their development or disrupt the structure of myelin. However, mice lacking oligodendrocyte Kir4.1 channels exhibited profound functional impairments, including slower clearance of extracellular K+ and delayed recovery of axons from repetitive stimulation in white matter, as well as spontaneous seizures, a lower seizure threshold, and activity-dependent motor deficits. These results indicate that Kir4.1 channels in oligodendrocytes play an important role in extracellular K+ homeostasis in white matter, and that selective loss of this channel from oligodendrocytes is sufficient to impair K+ clearance and promote seizures.
Literature context: B_9610), mouse anti-CC1 (1:400; RRID:AB_2057371; EMD Millipore, OP80), mouse an
Alcohol exposure during central nervous system (CNS) development can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Human imaging studies have revealed significant white matter (WM) abnormalities linked to cognitive impairment in children with FASD; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we evaluated both the acute and long-term impacts of alcohol exposure on oligodendrocyte number and WM integrity in a third trimester-equivalent mouse model of FASD, in which mouse pups were exposed to alcohol during the first 2 weeks of postnatal development. Our results demonstrate a 58% decrease in the number of mature oligodendrocytes (OLs) and a 75% decrease in the number of proliferating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) within the corpus callosum of alcohol-exposed mice at postnatal day 16 (P16). Interestingly, neither mature OLs nor OPCs derived from the postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ) were numerically affected by alcohol exposure, indicating heterogeneity in susceptibility based on OL ontogenetic origin. Although mature OL and proliferating OPC numbers recovered by postnatal day 50 (P50), abnormalities in myelin protein expression and microstructure within the corpus callosum of alcohol-exposed subjects persisted, as assessed by western immunoblotting of myelin basic protein (MBP; decreased expression) and MRI diffusion tensor imaging (DTI; decreased fractional anisotropy). These results indicate that third trimester-equivalent alcohol exposure leads to an acute, albeit recoverable, decrease in OL lineage cell numbers, accompanied by enduring WM injury. Additionally, our finding of heterogeneity in alcohol susceptibility based on the developmental origin of OLs may have therapeutic implications in FASD and other disorders of WM development.
Literature context: EMD Biosciences, Gibbstown, NJ, RRID:AB_2057371), myelin basic protein (MBP,1:1
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) play a critical role in immune-mediated demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), by regulating the viability of oligodendrocytes. Our previous studies show that activation of the PERK branch of the UPR protects myelinating oligodendrocytes against ER stress in young, developing mice that express IFN-γ, a key pro-inflammatory cytokine in MS and EAE, in the CNS. Several studies also demonstrate that PERK activation preserves oligodendrocyte viability and function, protecting mice against EAE. While evidence suggests activation of the ATF6α branch of the UPR in oligodendrocytes under normal and disease conditions, the effects of ATF6α activation on oligodendrocytes in immune-mediated demyelinating diseases remain unknown. Herein, we showed that ATF6α deficiency had no effect on oligodendrocytes under normal conditions. Interestingly, we showed that ATF6α deficiency exacerbated ER stressed-induced myelinating oligodendrocyte death and subsequent myelin loss in the developing CNS of IFN-γ-expressing mice. Moreover, we found that ATF6α deficiency increased EAE severity and aggravated EAE-induced oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination, without affecting inflammation. Thus, these data suggest the protective effects of ATF6α activation on oligodendrocytes in immune-mediated demyelinating diseases.
Literature context: CC1, EMD Millipore, #OP80, RRID:AB_2057371, 1:100), guinea pig anti-NG2 (a
Oligodendrocytes (OLs), the myelin-forming CNS glia, are highly vulnerable to cellular stresses, and a severe myelin loss underlies numerous CNS disorders. Expedited OL regeneration may prevent further axonal damage and facilitate functional CNS repair. Although adult OL progenitors (OPCs) are the primary players for OL regeneration, targetable OPC-specific intracellular signaling mechanisms for facilitated OL regeneration remain elusive. Here, we report that OPC-targeted PTEN inactivation in the mouse, in contrast to OL-specific manipulations, markedly promotes OL differentiation and regeneration in the mature CNS. Unexpectedly, an additional deletion of mTOR did not reverse the enhanced OL development from PTEN-deficient OPCs. Instead, ablation of GSK3β, another downstream signaling molecule that is negatively regulated by PTEN-Akt, enhanced OL development. Our results suggest that PTEN persistently suppresses OL development in an mTOR-independent manner, and at least in part, via controlling GSK3β activity. OPC-targeted PTEN-GSK3β inactivation may benefit facilitated OL regeneration and myelin repair.
Literature context: rocyte marker Clone CC1 (OP80, RRID:AB_213434, 1:200; Calbiochem), and APC (s
In the CNS, myelination and remyelination depend on the successful progression and maturation of oligodendroglial lineage cells, including proliferation and differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs). Previous studies have reported that Sox2 transiently regulates oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation in the embryonic and perinatal spinal cord and appears dispensable for myelination in the postnatal spinal cord. However, the role of Sox2 in OL development in the brain has yet to be defined. We now report that Sox2 is an essential positive regulator of developmental myelination in the postnatal murine brain of both sexes. Stage-specific paradigms of genetic disruption demonstrated that Sox2 regulated brain myelination by coordinating upstream OPC population supply and downstream OL differentiation. Transcriptomic analyses further supported a crucial role of Sox2 in brain developmental myelination. Consistently, oligodendroglial Sox2-deficient mice developed severe tremors and ataxia, typical phenotypes indicative of hypomyelination, and displayed severe impairment of motor function and prominent deficits of brain OL differentiation and myelination persisting into the later CNS developmental stages. We also found that Sox2 was required for efficient OPC proliferation and expansion and OL regeneration during remyelination in the adult brain and spinal cord. Together, our genetic evidence reveals an essential role of Sox2 in brain myelination and CNS remyelination, and suggests that manipulation of Sox2 and/or Sox2-mediated downstream pathways may be therapeutic in promoting CNS myelin repair.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Promoting myelin formation and repair has translational significance in treating myelin-related neurological disorders, such as periventricular leukomalacia and multiple sclerosis in which brain developmental myelin formation and myelin repair are severely affected, respectively. In this report, analyses of a series of genetic conditional knock-out systems targeting different oligodendrocyte stages reveal a previously unappreciated role of Sox2 in coordinating upstream proliferation and downstream differentiation of oligodendroglial lineage cells in the mouse brain during developmental myelination and CNS remyelination. Our study points to the potential of manipulating Sox2 and its downstream pathways to promote oligodendrocyte regeneration and CNS myelin repair.
Literature context: ore OP80, RRID:AB_2057371, 1:300), r
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are the principal source of new myelin in the central nervous system. A better understanding of how they mature into myelin-forming cells is of high relevance for remyelination. It has recently been demonstrated that during developmental myelination, the DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), but not DNMT3A, is critical for regulating proliferation and differentiation of OPCs into myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs). However, it remains to be determined whether DNA methylation is also critical for the differentiation of adult OPCs during remyelination. After lysolecithin-induced demyelination in the ventrolateral spinal cord white matter of adult mice of either sex, we detected increased levels of DNA methylation and higher expression levels of the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A and lower levels of DNMT1 in differentiating adult OLs. To functionally assess the role of DNMT1 and DNMT3 in adult OPCs, we used mice with inducible and lineage-specific ablation of Dnmt3a and/or Dnmt1 (i.e., Plp-creER(t);Dnmt3a-flox, Plp-creER(t);Dnmt1-flox, Plp-creER(t);Dnmt1-flox;Dnmt3a-flox). Upon lysolecithin injection in the spinal cord of these transgenic mice, we detected defective OPC differentiation and inefficient remyelination in the Dnmt3a null and Dnmt1/Dnmt3a null mice, but not in the Dnmt1 null mice. Taken together with previous results in the developing spinal cord, these data suggest an age-dependent role of distinct DNA methyltransferases in the oligodendrocyte lineage, with a dominant role for DNMT1 in neonatal OPCs and for DNMT3A in adult OPCs.
Literature context: 100; EMD Millipore Corporation, RRID:AB_2057371), 2â€™,3â€™-Cyclic-nucleotide 3â€™-ph
N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is a differentiation- and stress-associated molecule that is predominantly expressed in astrocytes in the central nervous system. In this study, we examined the expression and role of NDRG2 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the expression of NDRG2 was observed in astrocytes of spinal cord, and was enhanced after EAE induction. A comparative analysis of wild-type and Ndrg2-/- mice revealed that deletion of Ndrg2 ameliorated the clinical symptoms of EAE. Although Ndrg2 deficiency only slightly affected the inflammatory response, based on the results of flow cytometry, qRT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry, it significantly reduced demyelination in the chronic phase, and, more importantly, neurodegeneration both in the acute and chronic phases. Further studies revealed that the expression of astrocytic glutamate transporters, including glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) and glutamate transporter 1, was more maintained in the Ndrg2-/- mice compared with wild-type mice after EAE induction. Consistent with these results, studies using cultured astrocytes revealed that Ndrg2 gene silencing increased the expression of GLAST, while NDRG2 over-expression decreased it without altering the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein. The effect of NDRG2 on GLAST expression was associated with the activation of Akt, but not with the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B. These findings suggest that NDRG2 plays a key role in the pathology of EAE by modulating glutamate metabolism. Cover Image for this Issue: doi: 10.1111/jnc.14173.
Literature context: RRID:AB_2057371
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) is a large endocytic and signaling molecule broadly expressed by neurons and glia. In adult mice, global inducible (Lrp1flox/flox;CAG-CreER) or oligodendrocyte (OL)-lineage specific ablation (Lrp1flox/flox;Pdgfra-CreER) of Lrp1 attenuates repair of damaged white matter. In oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), Lrp1 is required for cholesterol homeostasis and differentiation into mature OLs. Lrp1-deficient OPC/OLs show a strong increase in the sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-2 yet are unable to maintain normal cholesterol levels, suggesting more global metabolic deficits. Mechanistic studies revealed a decrease in peroxisomal biogenesis factor-2 and fewer peroxisomes in OL processes. Treatment of Lrp1-/- OPCs with cholesterol or activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ with pioglitazone alone is not sufficient to promote differentiation; however, when combined, cholesterol and pioglitazone enhance OPC differentiation into mature OLs. Collectively, our studies reveal a novel role for Lrp1 in peroxisome biogenesis, lipid homeostasis, and OPC differentiation during white matter development and repair.
Literature context: husetts, USA, order numb. OP80, RRID:AB_2057371), or with anti-oligodendrocyte
The extent of remyelination in multiple sclerosis lesions is often incomplete. Injury to oligodendrocyte progenitor cells can be a contributing factor for such incomplete remyelination. The precise mechanisms underlying insufficient repair remain to be defined, but oxidative stress appears to be involved. Here, we used immortalized oligodendrocyte cell lines as model systems to investigate a causal relation of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling cascades. OLN93 and OliNeu cells were subjected to chemical hypoxia by blocking the respiratory chain at various levels. Mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative stress levels were quantified by flow cytometry. Endoplasmic reticulum stress was monitored by the expression induction of activating transcription factor 3 and 4 (Atf3, Atf4), DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 protein (Ddit3), and glucose-regulated protein 94. Lentiviral silencing of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 or kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 was applied to study the relevance of NRF2 for endoplasmic reticulum stress responses. We demonstrate that inhibition of the respiratory chain induces oxidative stress in cultured oligodendrocytes which is paralleled by the expression induction of distinct mediators of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response, namely Atf3, Atf4, and Ddit3. Atf3 and Ddit3 expression induction is potentiated in kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-deficient cells and absent in cells lacking the oxidative stress-related transcription factor NRF2. This study provides strong evidence that oxidative stress in oligodendrocytes activates endoplasmic reticulum stress response in a NRF2-dependent manner and, in consequence, might regulate oligodendrocyte degeneration in multiple sclerosis and other neurological disorders.
Literature context: RRID: (AB_2057371) donkey anti-mouse F(abâ€²)2 IgG
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) regulates a wave of oligodendrocyte production for extensive myelination during postnatal development. During this postnatal period of oligodendrogenesis, we fate-labeled cells exhibiting active Shh signaling to examine their contribution to the regenerative response during remyelination. Bitransgenic mouse lines were generated for induced genetic fate-labeling of cells actively transcribing Shh or Gli1. Gli1 transcription is an effective readout for canonical Shh signaling. ShhCreERT2 mice and Gli1CreERT2 mice were crossed to either R26tdTomato mice to label cells with red fluorescence, or, R26IAP mice to label membranes with alkaline phosphatase. When tamoxifen (TMX) was given on postnatal days 6-9 (P6-9), Shh ligand synthesis was prevalent in neurons of ShhCreERT2; R26tdTomato mice and ShhCreERT2;R26IAP mice. In Gli1CreERT2 crosses, TMX from P6-9 detected Gli1 transcription in cells that populated the corpus callosum (CC) during postnatal myelination. Delaying TMX to P14-17, after the peak of oligodendrogenesis, significantly reduced labeling of Shh synthesizing neurons and Gli1 expressing cells in the CC. Importantly, Gli1CreERT2;R26tdTomato mice given TMX from P6-9 showed Gli1 fate-labeled cells in the adult (P56) CC, including cycling progenitor cells identified by EdU incorporation and NG2 immunolabeling. Furthermore, after cuprizone demyelination of the adult CC, Gli1 fate-labeled cells incorporated EdU and were immunolabeled by NG2 early during remyelination while forming myelin-like membranes after longer periods for remyelination to progress. These studies reveal a postnatal cell population with transient Shh signaling that contributes to oligodendrogenesis during CC myelination, and gives rise to cells that continue to proliferate in adulthood and contribute to CC remyelination.
Literature context: RRID:AB_2057371), green fluorescent protein (GF
Exploring the molecular mechanisms that drive the maturation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) during the remyelination process is essential to developing new therapeutic tools to intervene in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. To determine whether L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs) are required for OPC development during remyelination, we generated an inducible conditional knock-out mouse in which the L-VGCC isoform Cav1.2 was deleted in NG2-positive OPCs (Cav1.2KO). Using the cuprizone (CPZ) model of demyelination and mice of either sex, we establish that Cav1.2 deletion in OPCs leads to less efficient remyelination of the adult brain. Specifically, Cav1.2KO OPCs mature slower and produce less myelin than control oligodendrocytes during the recovery period after CPZ intoxication. This reduced remyelination was accompanied by an important decline in the number of myelinating oligodendrocytes and in the rate of OPC proliferation. Furthermore, during the remyelination phase of the CPZ model, the corpus callosum of Cav1.2KO animals presented a significant decrease in the percentage of myelinated axons and a substantial increase in the mean g-ratio of myelinated axons compared with controls. In addition, in a mouse line in which the Cav1.2KO OPCs were identified by a Cre reporter, we establish that Cav1.2KO OPCs display a reduced maturational rate through the entire remyelination process. These results suggest that Ca2+ influx mediated by L-VGCCs in oligodendroglial cells is necessary for normal remyelination and is an essential Ca2+ channel for OPC maturation during the remyelination of the adult brain.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Ion channels implicated in oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation may induce positive signals for myelin recovery. Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) are important for normal myelination by acting at several critical steps during oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) development. To determine whether voltage Ca2+ entry is involved in oligodendrocyte differentiation and remyelination, we used a conditional knockout mouse for VGCCs in OPCs. Our results indicate that VGCCs can modulate oligodendrocyte maturation in the demyelinated brain and suggest that voltage-gated Ca2+ influx in OPCs is critical for remyelination. These findings could lead to novel approaches for obtaining a better understanding of the factors that control OPC maturation in order to stimulate this pool of progenitors to replace myelin in demyelinating diseases.
Literature context: 1 (APC7, 1:50; EMD Biosciences, RRID:AB_2057371), myelin basic protein (MBP,1:1
NF-κB is a key player in inflammatory diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the effects of NF-κB activation on oligodendrocytes in MS and EAE remain unknown. We generated a mouse model that expresses IκBαΔN, a super-suppressor of NF-κB, specifically in oligodendrocytes and demonstrated that IκBαΔN expression had no effect on oligodendrocytes under normal conditions (both sexes). Interestingly, we showed that oligodendrocyte-specific expression of IκBαΔN blocked NF-κB activation in oligodendrocytes and resulted in exacerbated oligodendrocyte death and hypomyelination in young, developing mice that express IFN-γ ectopically in the CNS (both sexes). We also showed that NF-κB inactivation in oligodendrocytes aggravated IFN-γ-induced remyelinating oligodendrocyte death and remyelination failure in the cuprizone model (male mice). Moreover, we found that NF-κB inactivation in oligodendrocytes increased the susceptibility of mice to EAE (female mice). These findings imply the cytoprotective effects of NF-κB activation on oligodendrocytes in MS and EAE.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS. NF-κB is a major player in inflammatory diseases that acts by regulating inflammation and cell viability. Data indicate that NF-κB activation in inflammatory cells facilitates the development of MS. However, to date, attempts to understand the role of NF-κB activation in oligodendrocytes in MS have been unsuccessful. Herein, we generated a mouse model that allows for inactivation of NF-κB specifically in oligodendrocytes and then used this model to determine the precise role of NF-κB activation in oligodendrocytes in models of MS. The results presented in this study represent the first demonstration that NF-κB activation acts cell autonomously to protect oligodendrocytes against inflammation in animal models of MS.
Literature context: RRID:AB_2057371
Spontaneous remyelination occurs after spinal cord injury (SCI), but the extent of myelin repair and identity of the cells responsible remain incompletely understood and contentious. We assessed the cellular origin of new myelin by fate mapping platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα), Olig2+, and P0+ cells following contusion SCI in mice. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs; PDGFRα+) produced oligodendrocytes responsible for de novo ensheathment of ∼30% of myelinated spinal axons at injury epicenter 3 months after SCI, demonstrating that these resident cells are a major contributor to oligodendrocyte regeneration. OPCs also produced the majority of myelinating Schwann cells in the injured spinal cord; invasion of peripheral myelinating (P0+) Schwann cells made only a limited contribution. These findings reveal that PDGFRα+ cells perform diverse roles in CNS repair, as multipotential progenitors that generate both classes of myelinating cells. This endogenous repair might be exploited as a therapeutic target for CNS trauma and disease.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to profound functional deficits, though substantial numbers of axons often survive. One possible explanation for these deficits is loss of myelin, creating conduction block at the site of injury. SCI leads to oligodendrocyte death and demyelination, and clinical trials have tested glial transplants to promote myelin repair. However, the degree and duration of myelin loss, and the extent and mechanisms of endogenous repair, have been contentious issues. Here, we use genetic fate mapping to demonstrate that spontaneous myelin repair by endogenous oligodendrocyte precursors is much more robust than previously recognized. These findings are relevant to many types of CNS pathology, raising the possibility that CNS precursors could be manipulated to repair myelin in lieu of glial transplantation.
Literature context: ed: CC1 (1:100, Millipore OP80, RRID:AB_2057371), Cleaved Caspase 3 (1:500, Cel
Although the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an essential regulator of developmental oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination, oligodendrocyte-specific deletion of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a major upstream inhibitor of mTOR, surprisingly also leads to hypomyelination during CNS development. However, the function of TSC has not been studied in the context of remyelination. Here, we used the inducible Cre-lox system to study the function of TSC in the remyelination of a focal, lysolecithin-demyelinated lesion in adult male mice. Using two different mouse models in which Tsc1 is deleted by Cre expression in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) or in premyelinating oligodendrocytes, we reveal that deletion of Tsc1 affects oligodendroglia differently depending on the stage of the oligodendrocyte lineage. Tsc1 deletion from NG2+ OPCs accelerated remyelination. Conversely, Tsc1 deletion from proteolipid protein (PLP)-positive oligodendrocytes slowed remyelination. Contrary to developmental myelination, there were no changes in OPC or oligodendrocyte numbers in either model. Our findings reveal a complex role for TSC in oligodendrocytes during remyelination in which the timing of Tsc1 deletion is a critical determinant of its effect on remyelination. Moreover, our findings suggest that TSC has different functions in developmental myelination and remyelination.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Myelin loss in demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis results in disability due to loss of axon conductance and axon damage. Encouragingly, the nervous system is capable of spontaneous remyelination, but this regenerative process often fails. Many chronically demyelinated lesions have oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) within their borders. It is thus of great interest to elucidate mechanisms by which we might enhance endogenous remyelination. Here, we provide evidence that deletion of Tsc1 from OPCs, but not differentiating oligodendrocytes, is beneficial to remyelination. This finding contrasts with the loss of oligodendroglia and hypomyelination seen with Tsc1 or Tsc2 deletion in the oligodendrocyte lineage during CNS development and points to important differences in the regulation of developmental myelination and remyelination.
Literature context: lipore), and 1:50 CC1 (catalog #OP80, Calbiochem), 1:100 Sox10 (cata
Currently no treatments exist for preterm infants with diffuse white matter injury (DWMI) caused by hypoxia. Due to improved care of preterm neonates and increased recognition by advanced imaging techniques, the prevalence of DWMI is increasing. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of DWMI is therefore of critical importance. The integrated stress response (ISR), a conserved eukaryotic response to myriad stressors including hypoxia, may play a role in hypoxia-induced DWMI and may represent a novel target for much needed therapies. In this study we utilize in vitro and in vivo hypoxic models of DWMI to investigate whether the ISR is involved in DWMI. We demonstrate that hypoxia activates the ISR in primary mouse oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in vitro and that genetically inhibiting the ISR in differentiating OPCs increases their susceptibility to in vitro hypoxia. We also show that a well-established in vivo mild chronic hypoxia (MCH) mouse model and a new severe acute hypoxia (SAH) mouse model of DWMI activates the initial step of the ISR. Nonetheless, genetic inhibition of the ISR has no detectable effect on either MCH or SAH-induced DWMI. In addition, we demonstrate that genetic enhancement of the ISR does not ameliorate MCH or SAH-induced DWMI. These studies suggest that while the ISR protects OPCs from hypoxia in vitro, it does not appear to play a major role in either MCH or SAH-induced DWMI and is therefore not a likely target for therapies aimed at improving neurological outcome in preterm neonates with hypoxia-induced DWMI.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTDiffuse white matter injury (DWMI) caused by hypoxia is a leading cause of neurological deficits following premature birth. An increased understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease is critical. The integrated stress response (ISR) is activated by hypoxia and protects oligodendrocyte lineage cells in other disease models. This has led to an interest in the potential role of the ISR in DWMI. Here we examine the ISR in hypoxia-induced DWMI and show that while the ISR protects oligodendrocyte lineage cells from hypoxia in vitro, genetic inhibition or enhancement of the ISR has no effect on hypoxia-induced DWMI in vivo suggesting that the ISR does not play a major role in, and is not a likely therapeutic target for, DWMI.
Literature context: (CC1; 1:50; Millipore, Cat. No. OP80), guinea pig anti-Olig2 (1:20,0
A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene is the most common cause of inherited forms of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mechanisms have been proposed to underlie this disease, but the pathogenic pathways are not fully understood. To better understand the involvement of different cell types in the pathogenesis of ALS, we systematically analyzed the distribution of promoter activity of the mouse ortholog of C9orf72 in the central nervous system. We demonstrate that C9orf72 promoter activity is widespread in both excitatory and inhibitory neurons as well as in oligodendrocytes and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. In contrast, few microglia and astrocytes exhibit detectable C9orf72 promoter activity. Although at a gross level, the distribution of C9orf72 promoter activity largely follows overall cellular density, we found that it is selectively enriched in subsets of neurons and glial cells that degenerate in ALS. Specifically, we show that C9orf72 promoter activity is enriched in corticospinal and spinal motor neurons as well as in oligodendrocytes in brain regions that are affected in ALS. These results suggest that cell autonomous changes in both neurons and glia may contribute to C9orf72-mediated disease, as has been shown for mutations in superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1).
Literature context: Cat#OP80; RRID:AB_2057371 Goat anti-
A lack of sufficient oligodendrocyte myelination contributes to remyelination failure in demyelinating disorders. miRNAs have been implicated in oligodendrogenesis; however, their functions in myelin regeneration remained elusive. Through developmentally regulated targeted mutagenesis, we demonstrate that miR-219 alleles are critical for CNS myelination and remyelination after injury. Further deletion of miR-338 exacerbates the miR-219 mutant hypomyelination phenotype. Conversely, miR-219 overexpression promotes precocious oligodendrocyte maturation and regeneration processes in transgenic mice. Integrated transcriptome profiling and biotin-affinity miRNA pull-down approaches reveal stage-specific miR-219 targets in oligodendrocytes and further uncover a novel network for miR-219 targeting of differentiation inhibitors including Lingo1 and Etv5. Inhibition of Lingo1 and Etv5 partially rescues differentiation defects of miR-219-deficient oligodendrocyte precursors. Furthermore, miR-219 mimics enhance myelin restoration following lysolecithin-induced demyelination as well as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, principal animal models of multiple sclerosis. Together, our findings identify context-specific miRNA-regulated checkpoints that control myelinogenesis and a therapeutic role for miR-219 in CNS myelin repair.
Literature context: RRID:AB_2057371
The node of Ranvier is a functionally important site on the myelinated axon where sodium channels are clustered and regeneration of action potentials occurs, allowing fast saltatory conduction of action potentials. Early ultrastructural studies have revealed the presence of "glia" or "astrocytes" at the nodes. NG2 cells, also known as oligodendrocyte precursor cells or polydendrocytes, which are a resident glial cell population in the mature mammalian central nervous system that is distinct from astrocytes, have also been shown to extend processes that contact the nodes. However, the prevalence of the two types of glia at the node has remained unknown. We have used specific cell surface markers to examine the association of NG2 cells and astrocytes with the nodes of Ranvier in the optic nerve, corpus callosum, and spinal cord of young adult mice or rats. We show that more than 95% of the nodes in all three regions contained astrocyte processes, while 33-49% of nodes contained NG2 cell processes. NG2 cell processes were associated more frequently with larger nodes. A few nodes were devoid of glial apposition. Electron microscopy and stimulated emission depletion (STED) super-resolution microscopy confirmed the presence of dual glial insertion at some nodes and further revealed that NG2 cell processes contacted the nodal membrane at discrete points, while astrocytes had broader processes that surrounded the nodes. The study provides the first systematic quantitative analysis of glial cell insertions at central nodes of Ranvier. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:535-552, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Literature context: lbiochem, RRID:AB_2057371), MBP (1:1
To determine whether L-type voltage-operated Ca2+ channels (L-VOCCs) are required for oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) development, we generated an inducible conditional knock-out mouse in which the L-VOCC isoform Cav1.2 was postnatally deleted in NG2-positive OPCs. A significant hypomyelination was found in the brains of the Cav1.2 conditional knock-out (Cav1.2KO) mice specifically when the Cav1.2 deletion was induced in OPCs during the first 2 postnatal weeks. A decrease in myelin proteins expression was visible in several brain structures, including the corpus callosum, cortex, and striatum, and the corpus callosum of Cav1.2KO animals showed an important decrease in the percentage of myelinated axons and a substantial increase in the mean g-ratio of myelinated axons. The reduced myelination was accompanied by an important decline in the number of myelinating oligodendrocytes and in the rate of OPC proliferation. Furthermore, using a triple transgenic mouse in which all of the Cav1.2KO OPCs were tracked by a Cre reporter, we found that Cav1.2KO OPCs produce less mature oligodendrocytes than control cells. Finally, live-cell imaging in early postnatal brain slices revealed that the migration and proliferation of subventricular zone OPCs is decreased in the Cav1.2KO mice. These results indicate that the L-VOCC isoform Cav1.2 modulates oligodendrocyte development and suggest that Ca2+ influx mediated by L-VOCCs in OPCs is necessary for normal myelination. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Overall, it is clear that cells in the oligodendrocyte lineage exhibit remarkable plasticity with regard to the expression of Ca2+ channels and that perturbation of Ca2+ homeostasis likely plays an important role in the pathogenesis underlying demyelinating diseases. To determine whether voltage-gated Ca2+ entry is involved in oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination, we used a conditional knock-out mouse for voltage-operated Ca2+ channels in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Our results indicate that voltage-operated Ca2+ channels can modulate oligodendrocyte development in the postnatal brain and suggest that voltage-gated Ca2+ influx in oligodendroglial cells is critical for normal myelination. These findings could lead to novel approaches to intervene in neurodegenerative diseases in which myelin is lost or damaged.
Literature context: at# OP80, RRID:AB_2057371), beta-gal
Myelination occurs selectively around neuronal axons to increase the efficiency and velocity of action potentials. While oligodendrocytes are capable of myelinating permissive structures in the absence of molecular cues, structurally permissive neuronal somata and dendrites remain unmyelinated. Utilizing a purified spinal cord neuron-oligodendrocyte myelinating co-culture system, we demonstrate that disruption of dynamic neuron-oligodendrocyte signaling by chemical cross-linking results in aberrant myelination of the somatodendritic compartment of neurons. We hypothesize that an inhibitory somatodendritic cue is necessary to prevent non-axonal myelination. Using next-generation sequencing and candidate profiling, we identify neuronal junction adhesion molecule 2 (JAM2) as an inhibitory myelin-guidance molecule. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the somatodendritic compartment directly inhibits myelination and suggest a model in which broadly indiscriminate myelination is tailored by inhibitory signaling to meet local myelination requirements.
Literature context: No. OP80; RRID:AB_2057371; EMD Biosc
Previous studies have demonstrated that transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs) into the lesioned spinal cord can promote functional recovery following incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) in animal models. However, this strategy is insufficient following complete SCI because of the gap at the lesion epicenter. To obtain functional recovery in a mouse model of complete SCI, this study uses a novel collagen-based microfiber as a scaffold for engrafted NS/PCs. We hypothesized that the NS/PC-microfiber combination would facilitate lesion closure as well as transplant survival in the transected spinal cord. NS/PCs were seeded inside the novel microfibers, where they maintained their capacity to differentiate and proliferate. After transplantation, the stumps of the transected spinal cord were successfully bridged by the NS/PC-laden microfibers. Moreover, the transplanted cells migrated into the host spinal cord and differentiated into three neural lineages (astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes). However, the NS/PC-laden scaffold could not achieve a neural connection between the rostral end of the injury and the intact caudal area of the spinal cord, nor could it achieve recovery of motor function. To obtain optimal functional recovery, a microfiber design with a modified composition may be useful. Furthermore, combinatorial therapy with rehabilitation and/or medications should also be considered for practical success of biomaterial/cell transplantation-based approaches to regenerative medicine.
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with variable expressivity. Heterozygous mutations in either of two genes, TSC1 (hamartin) or TSC2 (tuberin), are responsible for most cases. Hamartin and tuberin form a heterodimer that functions as a major cellular inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) kinase. Genotype-phenotype studies suggest that TSC2 mutations are associated with a more severe neurologic phenotype, although the biologic basis for the difference between TSC1- and TSC2-based disease is unclear. Here we performed a study to compare and contrast the brain phenotypes of Tsc1 and Tsc2 single and double mutants. Using Tsc1 and Tsc2 floxed alleles and a radial glial transgenic Cre driver (FVB-Tg(GFAP-cre)25Mes/J), we deleted Tsc1 and/or Tsc2 in radial glial progenitor cells. Single and double mutants had remarkably similar phenotypes: early postnatal mortality, brain overgrowth, laminar disruption, astrogliosis, a paucity of oligodendroglia, and myelination defects. Double Tsc1/Tsc2 mutants died earlier than single mutants, and single mutants showed differences in the location of heterotopias and the organization of the hippocampal stratum pyramidale. The differences were not due to differential mTORC1 activation or feedback inhibition on Akt. These data provide further genetic evidence for individual hamartin and tuberin functions that may explain some of the genotype-phenotype differences seen in the human disease.
Acetyl coenzyme A synthetase-1 (AceCS1) catalyzes the synthesis of acetyl coenzyme A from acetate and coenzyme A and is thought to play diverse roles ranging from fatty acid synthesis to gene regulation. By using an affinity-purified antibody generated against an 18-mer peptide sequence of AceCS1 and a polyclonal antibody directed against recombinant AceCS1 protein, we examined the expression of AceCS1 in the rat brain. AceCS1 immunoreactivity in the adult rat brain was present predominantly in cell nuclei, with only light to moderate cytoplasmic staining in some neurons, axons, and oligodendrocytes. Some nonneuronal cell nuclei were very strongly immunoreactive, including those of some oligodendrocytes, whereas neuronal nuclei ranged from unstained to moderately stained. Both antibodies stained some neuronal cell bodies and axons, especially in the hindbrain. AceCS1 immunoreactivity was stronger and more widespread in the brains of 18-day-old rats than in adults, with increased expression in oligodendrocytes and neurons, including cortical pyramidal cells. Expression of AceCS1 was substantially up-regulated in neurons throughout the brain after controlled cortical impact injury. The strong AceCS1 expression observed in the nuclei of CNS cells during brain development and after injury is consistent with a role in nuclear histone acetylation and therefore the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. The cytoplasmic staining observed in some oligodendrocytes, especially during postnatal brain development, suggests an additional role in CNS lipid synthesis and myelination. Neuronal and axonal localization implicates AceCS1 in cytoplasmic acetylation reactions in some neurons.
OBJECTIVE: To develop an HPLC method for determination of the content of chelerythrine in Chelidonium majus. METHOD: Chelerythrine was extracted from the fine powder of the crade with drug methanol and determined by HPLC. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-1% triethylamine (25:75) (adjusted pH to 3 using phosphoric acid) and the detection wavelength was set at 268 nm. RESULT: The linear range of calibration curve was 0.051 6-0.516 0 microg (r = 1.000). The average recovery (n = 6) was 103.0% with RSD of 1.2%. Chelerythrine in the sample solution was stable in 8 h and the ruggedness was perfect among 3 different chromatographic columns. CONCLUSION: The method is accurate, sensitive and reliable.
NG2 cells express the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2 and are a fourth type of glia distinct from astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia. NG2 cells generate oligodendrocytes but have also been reported to represent neuronal progenitor cells in the postnatal mouse subventricular zone (SVZ). We performed a detailed immunohistochemical analysis of NG2 cells in the mouse SVZ, rostral migratory stream (RMS), and olfactory bulb granule cell layer (OB GCL), which constitute a neurogenic niche in the postnatal forebrain. NG2 cells in the SVZ and RMS expressed the oligodendrocyte precursor cell antigen platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha but did not express antigens known to be expressed by neuronogenic cells in the SVZ, such as doublecortin, PSA-NCAM, beta-tubulin, Dlx2, or GFAP. More than 99.5% of the proliferating cells in the SVZ were NG2 negative. In the olfactory bulb, NG2 cells were found to generate primarily oligodendrocytes and a small number of astrocytes but not neurons. In the SVZ and RMS, NG2 cells were sparse and made up a much smaller fraction of the cells compared with the surrounding nonneurogenic parenchyma. Parenchymal NG2 cells were often located along the border of the SVZ and RMS. The abundance of NG2 cells increased in the distal parts of the RMS and especially in the OB GCL, where NG2 cell processes were seen in close proximity to many maturing interneurons. Our findings indicate that NG2 cells do not represent neuronal progenitor cells in the postnatal SVZ but are likely to be oligodendrocyte precursor cells.
The adult mammalian spinal cord contains neural stem and/or progenitor cells that slowly multiply throughout life and differentiate exclusively into glia. The contribution of adult progenitors to repair has been highlighted in recent studies, demonstrating extensive cell proliferation and gliogenesis following central nervous system (CNS) trauma. The present experiments aimed to determine the relative roles of endogenously dividing progenitor cells versus quiescent progenitor cells in posttraumatic gliogenesis. Using the mitotic indicator bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and a retroviral vector, we found that, in the adult female Fisher 344 rat, endogenously dividing neural progenitors are acutely vulnerable in response to T8 dorsal hemisection spinal cord injury. We then studied the population of cells that divide postinjury in the injury epicenter by delivering BrdU or retrovirus at 24 hours after spinal cord injury. Animals were euthanized at five timepoints postinjury, ranging from 6 hours to 9 weeks after BrdU delivery. At all timepoints, we observed extensive proliferation of ependymal and periependymal cells that immunohistochemically resembled stem/progenitor cells. BrdU+ incorporation was noted to be prominent in NG2-immunoreactive progenitors that matured into oligodendrocytes, and in a transient population of microglia. Using a green fluorescence protein (GFP) hematopoietic chimeric mouse, we determined that 90% of the dividing cells in this early proliferation event originate from the spinal cord, whereas only 10% originate from the bone marrow. Our results suggest that dividing, NG2-expressing progenitor cells are vulnerable to injury, but a separate, immature population of neural stem and/or progenitor cells is activated by injury and rapidly divides to replace this vulnerable population.
alpha(1)-Adrenergic receptors (ARs) are not well defined in the central nervous system. The particular cell types and areas that express these receptors are uncertain because of the lack of high avidity antibodies and selective ligands. We have developed transgenic mice that either systemically overexpress the human alpha(1A)-AR subtype fused with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or express the EGFP protein alone under the control of the mouse alpha(1A)-AR promoter. We confirm our transgenic model against the alpha(1A)-AR knockout mouse, which expresses the LacZ gene in place of the coding region for the alpha(1A)-AR. By using these models, we have now determined cellular localization of the alpha(1A)-AR in the brain, at the protein level. The alpha(1A)-AR or the EGFP protein is expressed prominently in neuronal cells in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, midbrain, pontine olivary nuclei, trigeminal nuclei, cerebellum, and spinal cord. The types of neurons were diverse, and the alpha(1A)-AR colocalized with markers for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Recordings from alpha(1A)-AR EGFP-expressing cells in the stratum oriens of the hippocampal CA1 region confirmed that these cells were interneurons. We could not detect expression of the alpha(1A)-AR in mature astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, or cerebral blood vessels, but we could detect the alpha(1A)-AR in oligodendrocyte progenitors. We conclude that the alpha(1A)-AR is abundant in the brain, expressed in various types of neurons, and may regulate the function of oligodendrocyte progenitors, interneurons, GABA, and NMDA receptor containing neurons.