Literature context: tems Cat# AF4439; RRID:AB_2044647 Rabbit anti-cleaved CASP3 monoc
The DNA-binding protein REST forms complexes with histone deacetylases (HDACs) to repress neuronal genes in non-neuronal cells. In differentiating neurons, REST is downregulated predominantly by transcriptional silencing. Here we report that post-transcriptional inactivation of REST by alternative splicing is required for hearing in humans and mice. We show that, in the mechanosensory hair cells of the mouse ear, regulated alternative splicing of a frameshift-causing exon into the Rest mRNA is essential for the derepression of many neuronal genes. Heterozygous deletion of this alternative exon of mouse Rest causes hair cell degeneration and deafness, and the HDAC inhibitor SAHA (Vorinostat) rescues the hearing of these mice. In humans, inhibition of the frameshifting splicing event by a novel REST variant is associated with dominantly inherited deafness. Our data reveal the necessity for alternative splicing-dependent regulation of REST in hair cells, and they identify a potential treatment for a group of hereditary deafness cases.
Literature context: stems, goat polyclonal, AF4439, RRID:AB_2044647 1:100 (IHC)
Migfilin, encoded by FBLIM1 at the 1p36 locus, is a multi-domain adaptor protein essential for various cellular processes such as cell morphology and migration. Small deletions and duplications at the 1p36 locus, monosomy of which results in neurodevelopmental disorders and multiple congenital anomalies, have also been identified in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the impact of FBLIM1, the gene within 1p36, on the pathogenesis of ASD is unknown. In this study, we performed morphological analyses of migfilin to elucidate its role in brain development. Migfilin was detected specifically in the embryonic and perinatal stages of the mouse brain. Either silencing or overexpression of migfilin in embryos following in utero electroporation disrupted Neocortical neuronal migration. Additionally, neurite elongation was impaired when migfilin was silenced in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons. We then screened FBLIM1 for rare exonic deletions/duplications in 549 Japanese ASD patients and 824 controls, detecting one case of ASD and intellectual delay that harbored a 26-kb deletion at 1p36.21 that solely included the C-terminal exon of FBLIM1. The FBLIM1 mRNA expression level in this case was reduced compared to levels in individuals without FBLIM1 deletion. Our findings indicate that tightly regulated expression of migfilin is essential for neuronal development and that FBLIM1 disruption may be related to the phenotypes associated with ASD and related neurodevelopmental disorders.
Literature context: l antibodies against Contactin (RRID:AB_2044647) were obtained from Santa Cruz
Axons must withstand mechanical forces, including tension, torsion, and compression. Spectrins and actin form a periodic cytoskeleton proposed to protect axons against these forces. However, because spectrins also participate in assembly of axon initial segments (AISs) and nodes of Ranvier, it is difficult to uncouple their roles in maintaining axon integrity from their functions at AIS and nodes. To overcome this problem and to determine the importance of spectrin cytoskeletons for axon integrity, we generated mice with αII spectrin-deficient peripheral sensory neurons. The axons of these neurons are very long and exposed to the mechanical forces associated with limb movement; most lack an AIS, and some are unmyelinated and have no nodes. We analyzed αII spectrin-deficient mice of both sexes and found that, in myelinated axons, αII spectrin forms a periodic cytoskeleton with βIV and βII spectrin at nodes of Ranvier and paranodes, respectively, but that loss of αII spectrin disrupts this organization. Avil-cre;Sptan1f/f mice have reduced numbers of nodes, disrupted paranodal junctions, and mislocalized Kv1 K+ channels. We show that the density of nodal βIV spectrin is constant among axons, but the density of nodal αII spectrin increases with axon diameter. Remarkably, Avil-cre;Sptan1f/f mice have intact nociception and small-diameter axons, but severe ataxia due to preferential degeneration of large-diameter myelinated axons. Our results suggest that nodal αII spectrin helps resist the mechanical forces experienced by large-diameter axons, and that αII spectrin-dependent cytoskeletons are also required for assembly of nodes of Ranvier.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A periodic axonal cytoskeleton consisting of actin and spectrin has been proposed to help axons resist the mechanical forces to which they are exposed (e.g., compression, torsion, and stretch). However, until now, no vertebrate animal model has tested the requirement of the spectrin cytoskeleton in maintenance of axon integrity. We demonstrate the role of the periodic spectrin-dependent cytoskeleton in axons and show that loss of αII spectrin from PNS axons causes preferential degeneration of large-diameter myelinated axons. We show that nodal αII spectrin is found at greater densities in large-diameter myelinated axons, suggesting that nodes are particularly vulnerable domains requiring a specialized cytoskeleton to protect against axon degeneration.
Literature context: # AF4439; RRID:AB_2044647 Rabbit pol
Generating a precise cellular and molecular cartography of the human embryo is essential to our understanding of the mechanisms of organogenesis in normal and pathological conditions. Here, we have combined whole-mount immunostaining, 3DISCO clearing, and light-sheet imaging to start building a 3D cellular map of the human development during the first trimester of gestation. We provide high-resolution 3D images of the developing peripheral nervous, muscular, vascular, cardiopulmonary, and urogenital systems. We found that the adult-like pattern of skin innervation is established before the end of the first trimester, showing important intra- and inter-individual variations in nerve branches. We also present evidence for a differential vascularization of the male and female genital tracts concomitant with sex determination. This work paves the way for a cellular and molecular reference atlas of human cells, which will be of paramount importance to understanding human development in health and disease. PAPERCLIP.