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mCherry Antibody

RRID:AB_1975001

Antibody ID

AB_1975001

Target Antigen

mCherry

Proper Citation

(BioVision Cat# 5993-100, RRID:AB_1975001)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

manufacturer recommendations: IgG Western blot, Western blotting (0.5-4 µg/ml). However, the optimal conditions should be determined individually. Recombinant mCherry (Cat. : 4993-100) can be used as a positive control.; Western Blot

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

BioVision

The role of calretinin-expressing granule cells in olfactory bulb functions and odor behavior.

  • Hardy D
  • Sci Rep
  • 2018 Jun 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

The adult mouse olfactory bulb is continuously supplied with new neurons that mostly differentiate into granule cells (GCs). Different subtypes of adult-born GCs have been identified, but their maturational profiles and their roles in bulbar network functioning and odor behavior remain elusive. It is also not known whether the same subpopulations of GCs born during early postnatal life (early-born) or during adulthood (adult-born) differ in their morpho-functional properties. Here, we show that adult-born calretinin-expressing (CR+) and non-expressing (CR-) GCs, as well as early-born CR+ GCs, display distinct inhibitory inputs but indistinguishable excitatory inputs and similar morphological characteristics. The frequencies of inhibitory post-synaptic currents were lower in early-born and adult-born CR+ GCs than in adult-born CR- neurons. These findings were corroborated by the reduced density of gephyrin+ puncta on CR+ GCs. CR+ GCs displayed a higher level of activation following olfactory tasks based on odor discrimination, as determined by an immediate early gene expression analysis. Pharmacogenetic inhibition of CR+ GCs diminished the ability of the mice to discriminate complex odor mixtures. Altogether, our results indicate that distinct inhibitory inputs are received by adult-born CR+ and CR- GCs, that early- and adult-born CR+ neurons have similar morpho-functional properties, and that CR+ GCs are involved in complex odor discrimination tasks.

Funding information:
  • Austrian Science Fund FWF - P 21487(Austria)

SHRED Is a Regulatory Cascade that Reprograms Ubr1 Substrate Specificity for Enhanced Protein Quality Control during Stress.

  • Szoradi T
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Jun 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

When faced with proteotoxic stress, cells mount adaptive responses to eliminate aberrant proteins. Adaptive responses increase the expression of protein folding and degradation factors to enhance the cellular quality control machinery. However, it is unclear whether and how this augmented machinery acquires new activities during stress. Here, we uncover a regulatory cascade in budding yeast that consists of the hydrophilin protein Roq1/Yjl144w, the HtrA-type protease Ynm3/Nma111, and the ubiquitin ligase Ubr1. Various stresses stimulate ROQ1 transcription. The Roq1 protein is cleaved by Ynm3. Cleaved Roq1 interacts with Ubr1, transforming its substrate specificity. Altered substrate recognition by Ubr1 accelerates proteasomal degradation of misfolded as well as native proteins at the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and in the cytosol. We term this pathway stress-induced homeostatically regulated protein degradation (SHRED) and propose that it promotes physiological adaptation by reprogramming a key component of the quality control machinery.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)

CaMKIIα Expression Defines Two Functionally Distinct Populations of Granule Cells Involved in Different Types of Odor Behavior.

  • Malvaut S
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Nov 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Granule cells (GCs) in the olfactory bulb (OB) play an important role in odor information processing. Although they have been classified into various neurochemical subtypes, the functional roles of these subtypes remain unknown. We used in vivo two-photon Ca2+ imaging combined with cell-type-specific identification of GCs in the mouse OB to examine whether functionally distinct GC subtypes exist in the bulbar network. We showed that half of GCs express Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα+) and that these neurons are preferentially activated by olfactory stimulation. The higher activity of CaMKIIα+ neurons is due to the weaker inhibitory input that they receive compared to their CaMKIIα-immunonegative (CaMKIIα-) counterparts. In line with these functional data, immunohistochemical analyses showed that 75%-90% of GCs expressing the immediate early gene cFos are CaMKIIα+ in naive animals and in mice that have been exposed to a novel odor and go/no-go operant conditioning, or that have been subjected to long-term associative memory and spontaneous habituation/dishabituation odor discrimination tasks. On the other hand, a perceptual learning task resulted in increased activation of CaMKIIα- cells. Pharmacogenetic inhibition of CaMKIIα+ GCs revealed that this subtype is involved in habituation/dishabituation and go/no-go odor discrimination, but not in perceptual learning. In contrast, pharmacogenetic inhibition of GCs in a subtype-independent manner affected perceptual learning. Our results indicate that functionally distinct populations of GCs exist in the OB and that they play distinct roles during different odor tasks.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R21-AR-063846(United States)

Inhibitory Basal Ganglia Inputs Induce Excitatory Motor Signals in the Thalamus.

  • Kim J
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Aug 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Basal ganglia (BG) circuits orchestrate complex motor behaviors predominantly via inhibitory synaptic outputs. Although these inhibitory BG outputs are known to reduce the excitability of postsynaptic target neurons, precisely how this change impairs motor performance remains poorly understood. Here, we show that optogenetic photostimulation of inhibitory BG inputs from the globus pallidus induces a surge of action potentials in the ventrolateral thalamic (VL) neurons and muscle contractions during the post-inhibitory period. Reduction of the neuronal population with this post-inhibitory rebound firing by knockout of T-type Ca2+ channels or photoinhibition abolishes multiple motor responses induced by the inhibitory BG input. In a low dopamine state, the number of VL neurons showing post-inhibitory firing increases, while reducing the number of active VL neurons via photoinhibition of BG input, effectively prevents Parkinson disease (PD)-like motor symptoms. Thus, BG inhibitory input generates excitatory motor signals in the thalamus and, in excess, promotes PD-like motor abnormalities. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

The PomXYZ Proteins Self-Organize on the Bacterial Nucleoid to Stimulate Cell Division.

  • Schumacher D
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 May 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cell division site positioning is precisely regulated to generate correctly sized and shaped daughters. We uncover the strategy used by the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus to position the FtsZ cytokinetic ring at midcell. PomX, PomY, and the nucleoid-binding ParA/MinD ATPase PomZ self-assemble forming a large nucleoid-associated complex that localizes at the division site before FtsZ to directly guide and stimulate division. PomXYZ localization is generated through self-organized biased random motion on the nucleoid toward midcell and constrained motion at midcell. Experiments and theory show that PomXYZ motion is produced by diffusive PomZ fluxes on the nucleoid into the complex. Flux differences scale with the intracellular asymmetry of the complex and are converted into a local PomZ concentration gradient across the complex with translocation toward the higher PomZ concentration. At midcell, fluxes equalize resulting in constrained motion. Flux-based mechanisms may represent a general paradigm for positioning of macromolecular structures in bacteria.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY012135(United States)

Rainbow Enhancers Regulate Restrictive Transcription in Teleost Green, Red, and Blue Cones.

  • Fang W
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Mar 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Photoreceptor-specific transcription of individual genes collectively constitutes the transcriptional profile that orchestrates the structural and functional characteristics of each photoreceptor type. It is challenging, however, to study the transcriptional specificity of individual photoreceptor genes because each gene's distinct spatiotemporal transcription patterns are determined by the unique interactions between a specific set of transcription factors and the gene's own cis-regulatory elements (CREs), which remain unknown for most of the genes. For example, it is unknown what CREs underlie the zebrafish mpp5bponli (ponli) and crumbs2b (crb2b) apical polarity genes' restrictive transcription in the red, green, and blue (RGB) cones in the retina, but not in other retinal cell types. Here we show that the intronic enhancers of both the ponli and crb2b genes are conserved among teleost species and that they share sequence motifs that are critical for RGB cone-specific transcription. Given their similarities in sequences and functions, we name the ponli and crb2b enhancers collectively rainbow enhancers. Rainbow enhancers may represent a cis-regulatory mechanism to turn on a group of genes that are commonly and restrictively expressed in RGB cones, which largely define the beginning of the color vision pathway.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Dim-light achromatic vision and bright-light color vision are initiated in rod and several types of cone photoreceptors, respectively; these photoreceptors are structurally distinct from each other. In zebrafish, although quite different from rods and UV cones, RGB cones (red, green, and blue cones) are structurally similar and unite into mirror-symmetric pentamers (G-R-B-R-G) by adhesion. This structural commonality and unity suggest that a set of genes is commonly expressed only in RGB cones but not in other cells. Here, we report that the rainbow enhancers activate RGB cone-specific transcription of the ponli and crb2b genes. This study provides a starting point to study how RGB cone-specific transcription defines RGB cones' distinct functions for color vision.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/F005806/1(United Kingdom)
  • NEI NIH HHS - P30 EY008098()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY016099()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY025638()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R21 EY023665()