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Tyrosine Hydroxylase antibody


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

Tyrosine Hydroxylase human, mouse, rat

Proper Citation

(Abcam Cat# ab76442, RRID:AB_1524535)


polyclonal antibody


Applications: ICC/IF, IHC-P, IHC-FoFr, IHC-FrFl, IHC-Fr

Host Organism




A Viral Receptor Complementation Strategy to Overcome CAV-2 Tropism for Efficient Retrograde Targeting of Neurons.

  • Li SJ
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Jun 6

Literature context:


Retrogradely transported neurotropic viruses enable genetic access to neurons based on their long-range projections and have become indispensable tools for linking neural connectivity with function. A major limitation of viral techniques is that they rely on cell-type-specific molecules for uptake and transport. Consequently, viruses fail to infect variable subsets of neurons depending on the complement of surface receptors expressed (viral tropism). We report a receptor complementation strategy to overcome this by potentiating neurons for the infection of the virus of interest-in this case, canine adenovirus type-2 (CAV-2). We designed AAV vectors for expressing the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) throughout candidate projection neurons. CAR expression greatly increased retrograde-labeling rates, which we demonstrate for several long-range projections, including some resistant to other retrograde-labeling techniques. Our results demonstrate a receptor complementation strategy to abrogate endogenous viral tropism and thereby facilitate efficient retrograde targeting for functional analysis of neural circuits.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G9810900(United Kingdom)
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA038209()

Phasic Stimulation of Midbrain Dopamine Neuron Activity Reduces Salt Consumption.

  • Sandhu EC
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 May 17

Literature context:


Salt intake is an essential dietary requirement, but excessive consumption is implicated in hypertension and associated conditions. Little is known about the neural circuit mechanisms that control motivation to consume salt, although the midbrain dopamine system, which plays a key role in other reward-related behaviors, has been implicated. We, therefore, examined the effects on salt consumption of either optogenetic excitation or chemogenetic inhibition of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons in male mice. Strikingly, optogenetic excitation of dopamine neurons decreased salt intake in a rapid and reversible manner, despite a strong salt appetite. Importantly, optogenetic excitation was not aversive, did not induce hyperactivity, and did not alter salt concentration preferences in a need-free state. In addition, we found that chemogenetic inhibition of dopamine neurons had no effect on salt intake. Lastly, optogenetic excitation of dopamine neurons reduced consumption of sucrose following an overnight fast, suggesting a more general role of VTA dopamine neuron excitation in organizing motivated behaviors.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - T32 HL007501(United States)

Embryonic and postnatal neurogenesis produce functionally distinct subclasses of dopaminergic neuron.

  • Galliano E
  • Elife
  • 2018 Apr 20

Literature context:


Most neurogenesis in the mammalian brain is completed embryonically, but in certain areas the production of neurons continues throughout postnatal life. The functional properties of mature postnatally generated neurons often match those of their embryonically produced counterparts. However, we show here that in the olfactory bulb (OB), embryonic and postnatal neurogenesis produce functionally distinct subpopulations of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. We define two subclasses of OB DA neuron by the presence or absence of a key subcellular specialisation: the axon initial segment (AIS). Large AIS-positive axon-bearing DA neurons are exclusively produced during early embryonic stages, leaving small anaxonic AIS-negative cells as the only DA subtype generated via adult neurogenesis. These populations are functionally distinct: large DA cells are more excitable, yet display weaker and - for certain long-latency or inhibitory events - more broadly tuned responses to odorant stimuli. Embryonic and postnatal neurogenesis can therefore generate distinct neuronal subclasses, placing important constraints on the functional roles of adult-born neurons in sensory processing.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 725729 FUNCOPLAN()
  • Medical Research Council - MR/M501645/1()
  • National Institutes of Health - DC013329()
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG003562(United States)
  • Wellcome - 103044()
  • Wellcome - 88301()

Stress Accelerates Defensive Responses to Looming in Mice and Involves a Locus Coeruleus-Superior Colliculus Projection.

  • Li L
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2018 Mar 19

Literature context:


Defensive responses to threatening stimuli are crucial to the survival of species. While expression of these responses is considered to be instinctive and unconditional, their magnitude may be affected by environmental and internal factors. The neural circuits underlying this modulation are still largely unknown. In mice, looming-evoked defensive responses are mediated by the superior colliculus (SC), a subcortical sensorimotor integration center. We found that repeated stress caused an anxiety-like state in mice and accelerated defensive responses to looming. Stress also induced c-fos activation in locus coeruleus (LC) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)+ neurons and modified adrenergic receptor expression in SC, suggesting a possible Th::LC-SC projection that may be involved in the accelerated defensive responses. Indeed, both anterograde and retrograde neural tracing confirmed the anatomical Th::LC-SC projection and that the SC-projecting TH+ neurons in LC were activated by repeated stress. Optogenetic stimulation of either LC TH+ neurons or the Th::LC-SC fibers also caused anxiety-like behaviors and accelerated defensive responses to looming. Meanwhile, chemogenetic inhibition of LC TH+ neurons and the infusion of an adrenergic receptor antagonist in SC abolished the enhanced looming defensive responses after repeated stress, confirming the necessity of this pathway. These findings suggest that the Th::LC-SC pathway plays a key role in the sophisticated adjustments of defensive behaviors induced by changes in physiological states.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA-77584(United States)

Distribution and diversity of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in tree shrew.

  • Johnson EN
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Dec 14

Literature context:


Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediate the pupillary light reflex, circadian entrainment, and may contribute to luminance and color perception. The diversity of ipRGCs varies from rodents to primates, suggesting differences in their contributions to retinal output. To further understand the variability in their organization and diversity across species, we used immunohistochemical methods to examine ipRGCs in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri). Tree shrews share membership in the same clade, or evolutionary branch, as rodents and primates. They are highly visual, diurnal animals with a cone-dominated retina and a geniculo-cortical organization resembling that of primates. We identified cells with morphological similarities to M1 and M2 cells described previously in rodents and primates. M1-like cells typically had somas in the ganglion cell layer, with 23% displaced to the inner nuclear layer (INL). However, unlike M1 cells, they had bistratified dendritic fields ramifying in S1 and S5 that collectively tiled space. M2-like cells had dendritic fields restricted to S5 that were smaller and more densely branching. A novel third type of melanopsin immunopositive cell was identified. These cells had somata exclusively in the INL and monostratified dendritic fields restricted to S1 that tiled space. Surprisingly, these cells immunolabeled for tyrosine hydroxylase, a key component in dopamine synthesis. These cells immunolabeled for an RGC marker, not amacrine cell markers, suggesting that they are dopaminergic ipRGCs. We found no evidence for M4 or M5 ipRGCs, described previously in rodents. These results identify some organizational features of the ipRGC system that are canonical versus species-specific.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY024567()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY027193()
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG004401(United States)

Brain micro-inflammation at specific vessels dysregulates organ-homeostasis via the activation of a new neural circuit.

  • Arima Y
  • Elife
  • 2017 Aug 15

Literature context:


Impact of stress on diseases including gastrointestinal failure is well-known, but molecular mechanism is not understood. Here we show underlying molecular mechanism using EAE mice. Under stress conditions, EAE caused severe gastrointestinal failure with high-mortality. Mechanistically, autoreactive-pathogenic CD4+ T cells accumulated at specific vessels of boundary area of third-ventricle, thalamus, and dentate-gyrus to establish brain micro-inflammation via stress-gateway reflex. Importantly, induction of brain micro-inflammation at specific vessels by cytokine injection was sufficient to establish fatal gastrointestinal failure. Resulting micro-inflammation activated new neural pathway including neurons in paraventricular-nucleus, dorsomedial-nucleus-of-hypothalamus, and also vagal neurons to cause fatal gastrointestinal failure. Suppression of the brain micro-inflammation or blockage of these neural pathways inhibited the gastrointestinal failure. These results demonstrate direct link between brain micro-inflammation and fatal gastrointestinal disease via establishment of a new neural pathway under stress. They further suggest that brain micro-inflammation around specific vessels could be switch to activate new neural pathway(s) to regulate organ homeostasis.

Differential Control of Dopaminergic Excitability and Locomotion by Cholinergic Inputs in Mouse Substantia Nigra.

  • Estakhr J
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Jul 10

Literature context:


Understanding how dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) govern movements requires a detailed knowledge of how different neurotransmitter systems modulate DA neuronal excitability. We report a heterogeneity of electrophysiological properties between medial and lateral SNc neurons modulated by cholinergic neurotransmission. Lateral DA neurons received mainly excitatory (nicotinic or glutamatergic) mediated cholinergic neurotransmission. Medial DA neurons received predominantly GABAergic currents mediated by presynaptic nicotinic receptors or biphasic GABAergic and nicotinic neurotransmission conveyed by GABA and ACh corelease, which inhibited DA neurons. To examine whether cholinergic signaling in the SNc controls mouse behavior, we used optogenetics in awake behaving mice and found that activation of cholinergic terminals in the medial SNc decreased locomotion, whereas activation in the lateral SNc increased locomotion. Our findings provide novel insights on how cholinergic inputs to subregions of the SNc regulate the excitability of DA neurons differentially, resulting in different patterns of motor behavior.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P01 GM048677()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM103801()

Oxytocin receptors are expressed on dopamine and glutamate neurons in the mouse ventral tegmental area that project to nucleus accumbens and other mesolimbic targets.

  • Peris J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Apr 1

Literature context:


The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) circuitry determines which behaviors are positively reinforcing and therefore should be encoded in the memory to become a part of the behavioral repertoire. Natural reinforcers, like food and sex, activate this pathway, thereby increasing the likelihood of further consummatory, social, and sexual behaviors. Oxytocin (OT) has been implicated in mediating natural reward and OT-synthesizing neurons project to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc); however, direct neuroanatomical evidence of OT regulation of DA neurons within the VTA is sparse. To phenotype OT-receptor (OTR) expressing neurons originating within the VTA, we delivered Cre-inducible adeno-associated virus that drives the expression of fluorescent marker into the VTA of male mice that had Cre-recombinase driven by OTR gene expression. OTR-expressing VTA neurons project to NAc, prefrontal cortex, the extended amygdala, and other forebrain regions but less than 10% of these OTR-expressing neurons were identified as DA neurons (defined by tyrosine hydroxylase colocalization). Instead, almost 50% of OTR-expressing cells in the VTA were glutamate (GLU) neurons, as indicated by expression of mRNA for the vesicular GLU transporter (vGluT). About one-third of OTR-expressing VTA neurons did not colocalize with either DA or GLU phenotypic markers. Thus, OTR expression by VTA neurons implicates that OT regulation of reward circuitry is more complex than a direct action on DA neurotransmission. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1094-1108, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.