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Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) Highly Cross-adsorbed Antibody, Alexa Fluor ?? 555 Conjugated

RRID:AB_141761

Antibody ID

AB_141761

Target Antigen

Rabbit IgG (H+L) rabbit

Proper Citation

(Molecular Probes Cat# A-21429, RRID:AB_141761)

Clonality

unknown

Comments

Discontinued; This product offered by Molecular Probes (Invitrogen), now part of Thermo Fisher:

Host Organism

goat

Vendor

Molecular Probes

Selective Loss of PARG Restores PARylation and Counteracts PARP Inhibitor-Mediated Synthetic Lethality.

  • Gogola E
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Jun 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase (PARPi) have recently entered the clinic for the treatment of homologous recombination (HR)-deficient cancers. Despite the success of this approach, drug resistance is a clinical hurdle, and we poorly understand how cancer cells escape the deadly effects of PARPi without restoring the HR pathway. By combining genetic screens with multi-omics analysis of matched PARPi-sensitive and -resistant Brca2-mutated mouse mammary tumors, we identified loss of PAR glycohydrolase (PARG) as a major resistance mechanism. We also found the presence of PARG-negative clones in a subset of human serous ovarian and triple-negative breast cancers. PARG depletion restores PAR formation and partially rescues PARP1 signaling. Importantly, PARG inactivation exposes vulnerabilities that can be exploited therapeutically.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM061835(United States)

A Switch-like Activation Relay of EGFR-ERK Signaling Regulates a Wave of Cellular Contractility for Epithelial Invagination.

  • Ogura Y
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Jun 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

The dynamics of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling underlies its versatile functions in cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and cell motility. Classical studies in Drosophila established that a gradient of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-ERK signaling is essential for these cellular responses. However, we challenge this view by the real-time monitoring of ERK activation; we show that a switch-like ERK activation is essential for the invagination movement of the Drosophila tracheal placode. This switch-like ERK activation stems from the positive feedback regulation of the EGFR-ERK signaling and a resultant relay of EGFR-ERK signaling among tracheal cells. A key transcription factor Trachealess (Trh) permissively regulates the iteration of the relay, and the ERK activation becomes graded in trh mutant. A mathematical model based on these observations and a molecular link between ERK activation dynamics and myosin shows that the relay mechanism efficiently promotes epithelial invagination while the gradient mechanism does not.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - RG53217(United Kingdom)

Dynamic Architecture of DNA Repair Complexes and the Synaptonemal Complex at Sites of Meiotic Recombination.

  • Woglar A
  • Cell
  • 2018 Jun 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Meiotic double-strand breaks (DSBs) are generated and repaired in a highly regulated manner to ensure formation of crossovers (COs) while also enabling efficient non-CO repair to restore genome integrity. We use structured-illumination microscopy to investigate the dynamic architecture of DSB repair complexes at meiotic recombination sites in relationship to the synaptonemal complex (SC). DSBs resected at both ends are converted into inter-homolog repair intermediates harboring two populations of BLM helicase and RPA, flanking a single population of MutSγ. These intermediates accumulate until late pachytene, when repair proteins disappear from non-CO sites and CO-designated sites become enveloped by SC-central region proteins, acquire a second MutSγ population, and lose RPA. These and other data suggest that the SC may protect CO intermediates from being dismantled inappropriately and promote CO maturation by generating a transient CO-specific repair compartment, thereby enabling differential timing and outcome of repair at CO and non-CO sites.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA016672(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM053804()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM067268()

ER Lipid Defects in Neuropeptidergic Neurons Impair Sleep Patterns in Parkinson's Disease.

  • Valadas JS
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Jun 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Parkinson's disease patients report disturbed sleep patterns long before motor dysfunction. Here, in parkin and pink1 models, we identify circadian rhythm and sleep pattern defects and map these to specific neuropeptidergic neurons in fly models and in hypothalamic neurons differentiated from patient induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Parkin and Pink1 control the clearance of mitochondria by protein ubiquitination. Although we do not observe major defects in mitochondria of mutant neuropeptidergic neurons, we do find an excess of endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial contacts. These excessive contact sites cause abnormal lipid trafficking that depletes phosphatidylserine from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and disrupts the production of neuropeptide-containing vesicles. Feeding mutant animals phosphatidylserine rescues neuropeptidergic vesicle production and acutely restores normal sleep patterns in mutant animals. Hence, sleep patterns and circadian disturbances in Parkinson's disease models are explained by excessive ER-mitochondrial contacts, and blocking their formation or increasing phosphatidylserine levels rescues the defects in vivo.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM073874(United States)

Anatomic and Physiologic Heterogeneity of Subgroup-A Auditory Sensory Neurons in Fruit Flies.

  • Ishikawa Y
  • Front Neural Circuits
  • 2018 May 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

The antennal ear of the fruit fly detects acoustic signals in intraspecific communication, such as the courtship song and agonistic sounds. Among the five subgroups of mechanosensory neurons in the fly ear, subgroup-A neurons respond maximally to vibrations over a wide frequency range between 100 and 1,200 Hz. The functional organization of the neural circuit comprised of subgroup-A neurons, however, remains largely unknown. In the present study, we used 11 GAL4 strains that selectively label subgroup-A neurons and explored the diversity of subgroup-A neurons by combining single-cell anatomic analysis and Ca2+ imaging. Our findings indicate that the subgroup-A neurons that project into various combinations of subareas in the brain are more anatomically diverse than previously described. Subgroup-A neurons were also physiologically diverse, and some types were tuned to a narrow frequency range, suggesting that the response of subgroup-A neurons to sounds of a wide frequency range is due to the existence of several types of subgroup-A neurons. Further, we found that an auditory behavioral response to the courtship song of flies was attenuated when most subgroup-A neurons were silenced. Together, these findings characterize the heterogeneous functional organization of subgroup-A neurons, which might facilitate species-specific acoustic signal detection.

Genetic deletion of xCT attenuates peripheral and central inflammation and mitigates LPS-induced sickness and depressive-like behavior in mice.

  • Albertini G
  • Glia
  • 2018 Apr 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

The communication between the immune and central nervous system (CNS) is affected in many neurological disorders. Peripheral injections of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are widely used to study this communication: an LPS challenge leads to a biphasic syndrome that starts with acute sickness and is followed by persistent brain inflammation and chronic behavioral alterations such as depressive-like symptoms. In vitro, the response to LPS treatment has been shown to involve enhanced expression of system xc-. This cystine-glutamate antiporter, with xCT as specific subunit, represents the main glial provider of extracellular glutamate in mouse hippocampus. Here we injected male xCT knockout and wildtype mice with a single intraperitoneal dose of 5 mg/kg LPS. LPS-injection increased hippocampal xCT expression but did not alter the mainly astroglial localization of the xCT protein. Peripheral and central inflammation (as defined by cytokine levels and morphological activation of microglia) as well as LPS-induced sickness and depressive-like behavior were significantly attenuated in xCT-deficient mice compared with wildtype mice. Our study is the first to demonstrate the involvement of system xc- in peripheral and central inflammation in vivo and the potential therapeutic relevance of its inhibition in brain disorders characterized by peripheral and central inflammation, such as depression.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM091896(United States)

Nek9 Phosphorylation Defines a New Role for TPX2 in Eg5-Dependent Centrosome Separation before Nuclear Envelope Breakdown.

  • Eibes S
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2018 Jan 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Centrosomes [1, 2] play a central role during spindle assembly in most animal cells [3]. In early mitosis, they organize two symmetrical microtubule arrays that upon separation define the two poles of the forming spindle. Centrosome separation is tightly regulated [4, 5], occurring through partially redundant mechanisms that rely on the action of microtubule-based dynein and kinesin motors and the actomyosin system [6]. While centrosomes can separate in prophase or in prometaphase after nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD), prophase centrosome separation optimizes spindle assembly and minimizes the occurrence of abnormal chromosome attachments that could end in aneuploidy [7, 8]. Prophase centrosome separation relies on the activity of Eg5/KIF11, a mitotic kinesin [9] that accumulates around centrosomes in early mitosis under the control of CDK1 and the Nek9/Nek6/7 kinase module [10-17]. Here, we show that Eg5 localization and centrosome separation in prophase depend on the nuclear microtubule-associated protein TPX2 [18], a pool of which localizes to the centrosomes before NEBD. This localization involves RHAMM/HMMR [19] and the kinase Nek9 [20], which phosphorylates TPX2 nuclear localization signal (NLS) preventing its interaction with importin and nuclear import. The pool of centrosomal TPX2 in prophase has a critical role for both microtubule aster organization and Eg5 localization, and thereby for centrosome separation. Our results uncover an unsuspected role for TPX2 before NEBD and define a novel regulatory mechanism for centrosome separation in prophase. They furthermore suggest NLS phosphorylation as a novel regulatory mechanism for spindle assembly factors controlled by the importin/Ran system.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM041804(United States)

Immunohistochemical detection of vimentin in pancreatic islet β- and α-cells of macrosomic infants of diabetic and nondiabetic mothers.

  • Krivova YS
  • Early Hum. Dev.
  • 2017 Dec 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Expression of the intermediate filament protein vimentin has been recently observed in the pancreatic islet β- and α-cells of humans with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was suggested that the presence of vimentin in endocrine cells may indicate islet tissue renewal, or potentially represent the dedifferentiation of endocrine cells, which could contribute to the onset of type 2 diabetes or islet cell dysfunction. AIM: To analyze the expression of vimentin in pancreatic β- and α-cells of macrosomic infants of diabetic and nondiabetic mothers. SUBJECTS: Pancreatic samples of five macrosomic infants (gestational age 34-40weeks) from three diabetic and two nondiabetic mothers were compared to six control infants (32-40weeks, weight appropriate for gestational age) from normoglycemic mothers. METHODS: Pancreatic autopsy samples were examined by double immunofluorescent labeling with antibodies against vimentin and either insulin or glucagon. Alterations in the endocrine pancreas were measured using morphometric methods, then data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: In the pancreatic islets of macrosomic infants from diabetic and nondiabetic mothers, we observed vimentin-positive cells, some of which simultaneously contained insulin or glucagon. We also quantitatively showed that the presence of such cells was associated with hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the islets, and with an increase in β- and α-cell density. CONCLUSIONS: We speculate that the appearance of vimentin-positive islet cells may reflect induction of differentiation in response to the increased insulin demand, and vimentin may serve as an early marker of endocrine pancreas disorders.

Optimized method for isolating highly purified and functional porcine aortic endothelial and smooth muscle cells.

  • Beigi F
  • J. Cell. Physiol.
  • 2017 Nov 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Numerous protocols exist for isolating aortic endothelial and smooth muscle cells from small animals. However, establishing a protocol for isolating pure cell populations from large animal vessels that are more elastic has been challenging. We developed a simple sequential enzymatic approach to isolate highly purified populations of porcine aortic endothelial and smooth muscle cells. The lumen of a porcine aorta was filled with 25 U/ml dispase solution and incubated at 37°C to dissociate the endothelial cells. The smooth muscle cells were isolated by mincing the tunica media of the treated aorta and incubating the pieces in 0.2% and then 0.1% collagenase type I solution. The isolated endothelial cells stained positive for von Willebrand factor, and 97.2% of them expressed CD31. Early and late passage endothelial cells had a population doubling time of 38 hr and maintained a capacity to take up DiI-Ac-LDL and form tubes in Matrigel®. The isolated smooth muscle cells stained highly positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin, and an impurities assessment showed that only 1.8% were endothelial cells. Population doubling time for the smooth muscle cells was ∼70 hr at passages 3 and 7; and the cells positively responded to endothelin-1, as shown by a 66% increase in the intracellular calcium level. This simple protocol allows for the isolation of highly pure populations of endothelial and smooth muscle cells from porcine aorta that can survive continued passage in culture without losing functionality or becoming overgrown by fibroblasts.

Age-Dependent Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration and Impairment of the Autophagy-Lysosomal Pathway in LRRK-Deficient Mice.

  • Giaime E
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Nov 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

LRRK2 mutations are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease, but LRRK2's normal physiological role in the brain is unclear. Here, we show that inactivation of LRRK2 and its functional homolog LRRK1 results in earlier mortality and age-dependent, selective neurodegeneration. Loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus is accompanied with increases in apoptosis, whereas the cerebral cortex and cerebellum are unaffected. Furthermore, selective age-dependent neurodegeneration is only present in LRRK-/-, not LRRK1-/- or LRRK2-/- brains, and it is accompanied by increases in α-synuclein and impairment of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway. Quantitative electron microscopy (EM) analysis revealed age-dependent increases of autophagic vacuoles in the SNpc of LRRK-/- mice before the onset of DA neuron loss. These findings revealed an essential role of LRRK in the survival of DA neurons and in the regulation of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway in the aging brain.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P50 NS094733()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS071251()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS071251()

Lack of CaBP1/Caldendrin or CaBP2 Leads to Altered Ganglion Cell Responses.

  • Sinha R
  • eNeuro
  • 2017 Oct 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) form a subfamily of calmodulin-like proteins that were cloned from the retina. CaBP4 and CaBP5 have been shown to be important for normal visual function. Although CaBP1/caldendrin and CaBP2 have been shown to modulate various targets in vitro, it is not known whether they contribute to the transmission of light responses through the retina. Therefore, we generated mice that lack CaBP2 or CaBP1/caldendrin (Cabp2-/- and Cabp1-/- ) to test whether these CaBPs are essential for normal retinal function. By immunohistochemistry, the overall morphology of Cabp1-/- and Cabp2-/- retinas and the number of synaptic ribbons appear normal; transmission electron microscopy shows normal tethered ribbon synapses and synaptic vesicles as in wild-type retinas. However, whole-cell patch clamp recordings showed that light responses of retinal ganglion cells of Cabp2-/- and Cabp1-/- mice differ in amplitude and kinetics from those of wild-type mice. We conclude that CaBP1/caldendrin and CaBP2 are not required for normal gross retinal and synapse morphology but are necessary for the proper transmission of light responses through the retina; like other CaBPs, CaBP1/caldendrin and CaBP2 likely act by modulating presynaptic Ca2+-dependent signaling mechanisms.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U01 DK062453(United States)

Transient acidosis while retrieving a fear-related memory enhances its lability.

  • Du J
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Attenuating the strength of fearful memories could benefit people disabled by memories of past trauma. Pavlovian conditioning experiments indicate that a retrieval cue can return a conditioned aversive memory to a labile state. However, means to enhance retrieval and render a memory more labile are unknown. We hypothesized that augmenting synaptic signaling during retrieval would increase memory lability. To enhance synaptic transmission, mice inhaled CO2 to induce an acidosis and activate acid sensing ion channels. Transient acidification increased the retrieval-induced lability of an aversive memory. The labile memory could then be weakened by an extinction protocol or strengthened by reconditioning. Coupling CO2 inhalation to retrieval increased activation of amygdala neurons bearing the memory trace and increased the synaptic exchange from Ca2+-impermeable to Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors. The results suggest that transient acidosis during retrieval renders the memory of an aversive event more labile and suggest a strategy to modify debilitating memories.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH085724()

Organization of projection neurons and local neurons of the primary auditory center in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

  • Matsuo E
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Apr 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Acoustic communication between insects serves as an excellent model system for analyzing the neuronal mechanisms underlying auditory information processing. The detailed organization of auditory neural circuits in the brain has not yet been described. To understand the central auditory pathways, we used the brain of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model and performed a large-scale analysis of the interneurons associated with the primary auditory center. By screening expression driver strains and performing single-cell labeling of these strains, we identified 44 types of interneurons innervating the primary auditory center. Five types were local interneurons whereas the other 39 types were projection interneurons connecting the primary auditory center with other brain regions. The projection neurons comprised three frequency-selective pathways and two frequency-embracive pathways. Mapping of their connection targets revealed that five neuropils in the brain-the wedge (WED), anterior ventrolateral protocerebrum, posterior ventrolateral protocerebrum (PVLP), saddle (SAD), and gnathal ganglia (GNG)-were intensively connected with the primary auditory center. In addition, several other neuropils, including visual and olfactory centers in the brain, were directly connected to the primary auditory center. The distribution patterns of the spines and boutons of the identified neurons suggest that auditory information is sent mainly from the primary auditory center to the PVLP, WED, SAD, GNG, and thoracico-abdominal ganglia. Based on these findings, we established the first comprehensive map of secondary auditory interneurons, which indicates the downstream information flow to parallel ascending pathways, multimodal pathways, and descending pathways.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA16058(United States)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor but not vesicular zinc promotes TrkB activation within mossy fibers of mouse hippocampus in vivo.

  • Helgager J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2014 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The neurotrophin receptor, TrkB receptor tyrosine kinase, is critical to central nervous system (CNS) function in health and disease. Elucidating the ligands mediating TrkB activation in vivo will provide insights into its diverse roles in the CNS. The canonical ligand for TrkB is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). A diversity of stimuli also can activate TrkB in the absence of BDNF, a mechanism termed transactivation. Zinc, a divalent cation packaged in synaptic vesicles along with glutamate in axons of mammalian cortical neurons, can transactivate TrkB in neurons and heterologous cells in vitro. Yet the contributions of BDNF and zinc to TrkB activation in vivo are unknown. To address these questions, we conducted immunohistochemical (IHC) studies of the hippocampal mossy fiber axons and boutons using an antibody selective for pY816 of TrkB, a surrogate measure of TrkB activation. We found that conditional deletion of BDNF resulted in a reduction of pY816 in axons and synaptic boutons of hippocampal mossy fibers, thereby implicating BDNF in activation of TrkB in vivo. Unexpectedly, pY816 immunoreactivity was increased in axons but not synaptic boutons of mossy fibers in ZnT3 knockout mice that lack vesicular zinc. Marked increases of BDNF content were evident within the hippocampus of ZnT3 knockout mice and genetic elimination of BDNF reduced pY816 immunoreactivity in these mice, implicating BDNF in enhanced TrkB activation mediated by vesicular zinc depletion. These findings support the conclusion that BDNF but not vesicular zinc activates TrkB in hippocampal mossy fiber axons under physiological conditions.

DYRK1A-mediated phosphorylation of GluN2A at Ser(1048) regulates the surface expression and channel activity of GluN1/GluN2A receptors.

  • Grau C
  • Front Cell Neurosci
  • 2014 Nov 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors (NMDARs) play a pivotal role in neural development and synaptic plasticity, as well as in neurological disease. Since NMDARs exert their function at the cell surface, their density in the plasma membrane is finely tuned by a plethora of molecules that regulate their production, trafficking, docking and internalization in response to external stimuli. In addition to transcriptional regulation, the density of NMDARs is also influenced by post-translational mechanisms like phosphorylation, a modification that also affects their biophysical properties. We previously described the increased surface expression of GluN1/GluN2A receptors in transgenic mice overexpressing the Dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A), suggesting that DYRK1A regulates NMDARs. Here we have further investigated whether the density and activity of NMDARs were modulated by DYRK1A phosphorylation. Accordingly, we show that endogenous DYRK1A is recruited to GluN2A-containing NMDARs in the adult mouse brain, and we identify a DYRK1A phosphorylation site at Ser(1048) of GluN2A, within its intracellular C-terminal domain. Mechanistically, the DYRK1A-dependent phosphorylation of GluN2A at Ser(1048) hinders the internalization of GluN1/GluN2A, causing an increase of surface GluN1/GluN2A in heterologous systems, as well as in primary cortical neurons. Furthermore, GluN2A phosphorylation at Ser(1048) increases the current density and potentiates the gating of GluN1/GluN2A receptors. We conclude that DYRK1A is a direct regulator of NMDA receptors and we propose a novel mechanism for the control of NMDAR activity in neurons.

Ezrin is an actin binding protein that regulates sertoli cell and spermatid adhesion during spermatogenesis.

  • Gungor-Ordueri NE
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Oct 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

During spermatogenesis, the transport of spermatids and the release of sperms at spermiation and the remodeling of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) in the seminiferous epithelium of rat testes require rapid reorganization of the actin-based cytoskeleton. However, the mechanism(s) and the regulatory molecule(s) remain unexplored. Herein we report findings that unfold the functional significance of ezrin in the organization of the testis-specific adherens junction at the spermatid-Sertoli cell interface called apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES) in the adluminal compartment and the Sertoli cell-cell interface known as basal ES at the BTB. Ezrin is expressed at the basal ES/BTB in all stages, except from late VIII to IX, of the epithelial cycle. Its knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi) in vitro perturbs the Sertoli cell tight junction-permeability barrier via a disruption of the actin microfilaments in Sertoli cells, which in turn impeded basal ES protein (eg, N-cadherin) distribution, perturbing the BTB function. These findings were confirmed by a knockdown study in vivo. However, the expression of ezrin at the apical ES is restricted to stage VIII of the cycle and limited only between step 19 spermatids and Sertoli cells. A knockdown of ezrin in vivo by RNAi was found to impede spermatid transport, causing defects in spermiation in which spermatids were embedded deep inside the epithelium, and associated with a loss of spermatid polarity. Also, ezrin was associated with residual bodies and phagosomes, and its knockdown by RNAi in the testis also impeded the transport of residual bodies/phagosomes from the apical to the basal compartment. In summary, ezrin is involved in regulating actin microfilament organization at the ES in rat testes.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 309271(International)

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) perturbs male rat Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier function by affecting F-actin organization via p-FAK-Tyr(407): an in vitro study.

  • Wan HT
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Jan 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Environmental toxicants such as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) have been implicated in male reproductive dysfunction, including reduced sperm count and semen quality, in humans. However, the underlying mechanism(s) remains unknown. Herein PFOS at 10-20 μM (∼5-10 μg/mL) was found to be more potent than bisphenol A (100 μM) in perturbing the blood-testis barrier (BTB) function by disrupting the Sertoli cell tight junction-permeability barrier without detectable cytotoxicity. We also delineated the underlying molecular mechanism by which PFOS perturbed Sertoli cell BTB function using an in vitro model that mimics the BTB in vivo. First, PFOS perturbed F-actin organization in Sertoli cells, causing truncation of actin filaments at the BTB. Thus, the actin-based cytoskeleton was no longer capable of supporting the distribution and/or localization of actin-regulatory and adhesion proteins at the cell-cell interface necessary to maintain BTB integrity. Second, PFOS was found to perturb inter-Sertoli cell gap junction (GJ) communication based on a dye-transfer assay by down-regulating the expression of connexin-43, a GJ integral membrane protein. Third, phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-Tyr(407) was found to protect the BTB from the destructive effects of PFOS as shown in a study via an overexpression of an FAK Y407E phosphomimetic mutant. Also, transfection of Sertoli cells with an FAK-specific microRNA, miR-135b, to knock down the expression of phosphorylated FAK-Tyr(407) was found to worsen PFOS-mediated Sertoli cell tight junction disruption. In summary, PFOS-induced BTB disruption is mediated by down-regulating phosphorylated FAK-Tyr(407) and connexin-43, which in turn perturbed F-actin organization and GJ-based intercellular communication, leading to mislocalization of actin-regulatory and adhesion proteins at the BTB.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P41 RR001081(United States)