Literature context: Fisher scientific Cat# A-21206, RRID:AB_141708 Alexa Fluor 488 Donkey anti Mou
Chronic liver injury can cause cirrhosis and impaired liver regeneration, impairing organ function. Adult livers can regenerate in response to parenchymal insults, and multiple cellular sources have been reported to contribute to this response. In this study, we modeled human chronic liver injuries, in which such responses are blunted, without genetic manipulations, and assessed potential contributions of non-parenchymal cells (NPCs) to hepatocyte regeneration. We show that NPC-derived hepatocytes replenish a large fraction of the liver parenchyma following severe injuries induced by long-term thioacetamide (TAA) or 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) treatment. Through lineage tracing of biliary epithelial cells (BECs), we show that BECs are a source of new hepatocytes and gain an Hnf4α+CK19+ bi-phenotypic state in periportal regions and fibrotic septa. Bi-phenotypic cells were also detected in cirrhotic human livers. Together, these data provide further support for hepatocyte regeneration from BECs without genetic interventions and show their cellular plasticity during severe liver injury.
Literature context: es; RRID:AB_141708) antibody conjugated with Alexa
In mammalian cells, Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) plays a role in removing DNA damage induced by UV radiation. In Global Genome-NER subpathway, DDB2 protein forms a complex with DDB1 (UV-DDB), recognizing photolesions. During DNA repair, DDB2 interacts directly with PCNA through a conserved region in N-terminal tail and this interaction is important for DDB2 degradation. In this work, we sought to investigate the role of DDB2-PCNA association in DNA repair and cell proliferation after UV-induced DNA damage. To this end, stable clones expressing DDB2Wt and DDB2PCNA- were used. We have found that cells expressing a mutant DDB2 show inefficient photolesions removal, and a concomitant lack of binding to damaged DNA in vitro. Unexpected cellular behaviour after DNA damage, such as UV-resistance, increased cell growth and motility were found in DDB2PCNA- stable cell clones, in which the most significant defects in cell cycle checkpoint were observed, suggesting a role in the new cellular phenotype. Based on these findings, we propose that DDB2-PCNA interaction may contribute to a correct DNA damage response for maintaining genome integrity.
Literature context: 00; Life Technologies; A-21206; RRID:AB_141708) and Alexa Fluor 594-conjugated
The glycoprotein FSH, a product of pituitary gonadotrope cells, regulates ovarian follicle development in females and spermatogenesis in males. FSH is a heterodimer of the common α gonadotropin subunit and the hormone-specific FSHβ subunit (a product of the Fshb gene). Using a conditional knockout approach (Cre-lox), we previously demonstrated that Fshb expression in mice depends on the transcription factors forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) and SMAD4. Deletion of Foxl2 or Smad4 alone led to FSH deficiency, female subfertility, and oligozoospermia in males. Simultaneous deletion of the two genes yielded a greater suppression of FSH and female sterility. The Cre-driver used previously was first active during embryonic development. Therefore, it is unclear whether FOXL2 and SMAD4 play important roles in the development or adult function of gonadotropes, or both. To address this question, we developed a tamoxifen-inducible Cre-driver line, which enabled Foxl2 and Smad4 gene deletions in gonadotropes of adult mice. After tamoxifen treatment, females with previously demonstrated fertility exhibited profound reductions in FSH levels, arrested ovarian follicle development, and sterility. FSH levels were comparably reduced in males 1 or 2 months after treatment; however, spermatogenesis was unaffected. These data indicate that (1) FOXL2 and SMAD4 are necessary to maintain FSH synthesis in gonadotrope cells of adult mice, (2) FSH is essential for female reproduction but appears to be unnecessary for the maintenance of spermatogenesis in adult male mice, and (3) the inducible Cre-driver line developed here provides a powerful tool to interrogate gene function in gonadotrope cells of adult mice.
Literature context: A21206, RRID:AB_141708 anti goat 488 Life Technology A
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive degeneration of midbrain neurons (MBNs). Recent evidence suggests contribution of the adaptive immune system in PD. Here, we show a role for human T lymphocytes as cell death inducers of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived MBNs in sporadic PD. Higher Th17 frequencies were found in the blood of PD patients and increased numbers of T lymphocytes were detected in postmortem PD brain tissues. We modeled this finding using autologous co-cultures of activated T lymphocytes and iPSC-derived MBNs of sporadic PD patients and controls. After co-culture with T lymphocytes or the addition of IL-17, PD iPSC-derived MBNs underwent increased neuronal death driven by upregulation of IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) and NFκB activation. Blockage of IL-17 or IL-17R, or the addition of the FDA-approved anti-IL-17 antibody, secukinumab, rescued the neuronal death. Our findings indicate a critical role for IL-17-producing T lymphocytes in sporadic PD.
Literature context: bit Invitrogen Cat# A21206; RRID:AB_141708 Alexa Fluor 594 Donkey Anti-mou
Large intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) play widespread roles in epigenetic regulation during multiple differentiation processes, but little is known about their mode of action in cardiac differentiation. Here, we identified the key roles of a lincRNA, termed linc1405, in modulating the core network of cardiac differentiation by functionally interacting with Eomes. Chromatin- and RNA-immunoprecipitation assays showed that exon 2 of linc1405 physically mediates a complex consisting of Eomes, trithorax group (TrxG) subunit WDR5, and histone acetyltransferase GCN5 binding at the enhancer region of Mesp1 gene and activates its expression during cardiac mesoderm specification of embryonic stem cells. Importantly, linc1405 co-localizes with Eomes, WDR5, and GCN5 at the primitive streak, and linc1405 depletion impairs heart development and function in vivo. In summary, linc1405 mediates a Eomes/WDR5/GCN5 complex that contributes to cardiogenesis, highlighting the critical roles of lincRNA-based complexes in the epigenetic regulation of cardiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.
Literature context: abbit IgG (H+L) (RRID:AB_141708), Alexa Fluor 488 and 555 donke
LIM-domain containing transcription factors (LIM-TFs) are conserved factors important for embryogenesis. The specificity of these factors in transcriptional regulation is conferred by the complexes that they form with other proteins such as LIM-domain-binding (Ldb) proteins and LIM-domain only (LMO) proteins. Unlike LIM-TFs, these proteins do not bind DNA directly. LMO proteins are negative regulators of LIM-TFs and function by competing with LIM-TFs for binding to Ldb's. Although the LIM-TF Lmx1a is expressed in the developing mouse hindbrain, which provides many of the extrinsic signals for inner ear formation, conditional knock-out embryos of both sexes show that the inner ear source of Lmx1a is the major contributor of ear patterning. In addition, we have found that the reciprocal interaction between Lmx1a and Lmo4 (a LMO protein within the inner ear) mediates the formation of both vestibular and auditory structures. Lmo4 negatively regulates Lmx1a to form the three sensory cristae, the anterior semicircular canal, and the shape of the utricle in the vestibule. Furthermore, this negative regulation blocks ectopic sensory formation in the cochlea. In contrast, Lmx1a negatively regulates Lmo4 in mediating epithelial resorption of the canal pouch, which gives rise to the anterior and posterior semicircular canals. We also found that Lmx1a is independently required for the formation of the endolymphatic duct and hair cells in the basal cochlear region.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The mammalian inner ear is a structurally complex organ responsible for detecting sound and maintaining balance. Failure to form the intricate 3D structure of this organ properly during development most likely will result in sensory deficits on some level. Here, we provide genetic evidence that a transcription factor, Lmx1a, interacts with its negative regulator, Lmo4, to pattern various vestibular and auditory components of the mammalian inner ear. Identifying these key molecules that mediate formation of this important sensory organ will be helpful for designing strategies and therapeutics to alleviate hearing loss and balance disorders.
Literature context: ains Molecular Probes, A-21206, RRID:AB_141708, donkey, unknown 1:200 PFA or P
Vocalization is a behavioral feature that is shared among multiple vertebrate lineages, including fish. The temporal patterning of vocal communication signals is set, in part, by central pattern generators (CPGs). Toadfishes are well-established models for CPG coding of vocalization at the hindbrain level. The vocal CPG comprises three topographically separate nuclei: pre-pacemaker, pacemaker, motor. While the connectivity between these nuclei is well understood, their neurochemical profile remains largely unexplored. The highly vocal Gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta, has been the subject of previous behavioral, neuroanatomical and neurophysiological studies. Combining transneuronal neurobiotin-labeling with immunohistochemistry, we map the distribution of inhibitory neurotransmitters and neuromodulators along with gap junctions in the vocal CPG of this species. Dense GABAergic and glycinergic label is found throughout the CPG, with labeled somata immediately adjacent to or within CPG nuclei, including a distinct subset of pacemaker neurons co-labeled with neurobiotin and glycine. Neurobiotin-labeled motor and pacemaker neurons are densely co-labeled with the gap junction protein connexin 35/36, supporting the hypothesis that transneuronal neurobiotin-labeling occurs, at least in part, via gap junction coupling. Serotonergic and catecholaminergic label is also robust within the entire vocal CPG, with additional cholinergic label in pacemaker and prepacemaker nuclei. Likely sources of these putative modulatory inputs are neurons within or immediately adjacent to vocal CPG neurons. Together with prior neurophysiological investigations, the results reveal potential mechanisms for generating multiple classes of social context-dependent vocalizations with widely divergent temporal and spectral properties.
Literature context: RRID:AB_141708 (Discontinued)
The efficacy and duration of memory storage is regulated by neuromodulatory transmitter actions. While the modulatory transmitter serotonin (5-HT) plays an important role in implicit forms of memory in the invertebrate Aplysia, its function in explicit memory mediated by the mammalian hippocampus is less clear. Specifically, the consequences elicited by the spatio-temporal gradient of endogenous 5-HT release are not known. Here we applied optogenetic techniques in mice to gain insight into this fundamental biological process. We find that activation of serotonergic terminals in the hippocampal CA1 region both potentiates excitatory transmission at CA3-to-CA1 synapses and enhances spatial memory. Conversely, optogenetic silencing of CA1 5-HT terminals inhibits spatial memory. We furthermore find that synaptic potentiation is mediated by 5-HT4 receptors and that systemic modulation of 5-HT4 receptor function can bidirectionally impact memory formation. Collectively, these data reveal powerful modulatory influence of serotonergic synaptic input on hippocampal function and memory formation.
Literature context: Invitrogen Cat# A-21206, RRID:AB_141708 Donkey Alexa555 anti-rabbit IgG
Cerebral cortex size differs dramatically between reptiles, birds, and mammals, owing to developmental differences in neuron production. In mammals, signaling pathways regulating neurogenesis have been identified, but genetic differences behind their evolution across amniotes remain unknown. We show that direct neurogenesis from radial glia cells, with limited neuron production, dominates the avian, reptilian, and mammalian paleocortex, whereas in the evolutionarily recent mammalian neocortex, most neurogenesis is indirect via basal progenitors. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments in mouse, chick, and snake embryos and in human cerebral organoids demonstrate that high Slit/Robo and low Dll1 signaling, via Jag1 and Jag2, are necessary and sufficient to drive direct neurogenesis. Attenuating Robo signaling and enhancing Dll1 in snakes and birds recapitulates the formation of basal progenitors and promotes indirect neurogenesis. Our study identifies modulation in activity levels of conserved signaling pathways as a primary mechanism driving the expansion and increased complexity of the mammalian neocortex during amniote evolution.
Literature context: a 488 (#A21206, Invitrogen, RRID:AB_141708) (1:500, IHC), anti-rabbit Cy3
Bassoon is a large scaffolding protein of the presynaptic active zone involved in the development of presynaptic terminals and in the regulation of neurotransmitter release at both excitatory and inhibitory brain synapses. Mice with constitutive ablation of the Bassoon (Bsn) gene display impaired presynaptic function, show sensory deficits and develop severe seizures. To specifically study the role of Bassoon at excitatory forebrain synapses and its relevance for control of behavior, we generated conditional knockout (Bsn cKO) mice by gene ablation through an Emx1 promoter-driven Cre recombinase. In these animals, we confirm selective loss of Bassoon from glutamatergic neurons of the forebrain. Behavioral assessment revealed that, in comparison to wild-type littermates, Bsn cKO mice display selectively enhanced contextual fear memory and increased novelty preference in a spatial discrimination/pattern separation task. These changes are accompanied by an augmentation of baseline synaptic transmission at medial perforant path to dentate gyrus (DG) synapses, as indicated by increased ratios of field excitatory postsynaptic potential slope to fiber volley amplitude. At the structural level, an increased complexity of apical dendrites of DG granule cells can be detected in Bsn cKO mice. In addition, alterations in the expression of cellular maturation markers and a lack of age-dependent decrease in excitability between juvenile and adult Bsn cKO mice are observed. Our data suggest that expression of Bassoon in excitatory forebrain neurons is required for the normal maturation of the DG and important for spatial and contextual memory.
Literature context: uor 488 Invitrogen Cat#A-21206; RRID:AB_141708 Donkey anti-Mouse IgG Alexa Flu
During meiosis, crossover recombination promotes the establishment of physical connections between homologous chromosomes, enabling their bipolar segregation. To ensure that persistent recombination intermediates are disengaged prior to the completion of meiosis, the Yen1(GEN1) resolvase is strictly activated at the onset of anaphase II. Whether controlled activation of Yen1 is important for meiotic crossing-over is unknown. Here, we show that CDK-mediated phosphorylation of Yen1 averts its pervasive recruitment to recombination intermediates during prophase I. Yen1 mutants that are refractory to phosphorylation resolve DNA joint molecules prematurely and form crossovers independently of MutLγ, the central crossover resolvase during meiosis. Despite bypassing the requirement for MutLγ in joint molecule processing and promoting crossover-specific resolution, unrestrained Yen1 impairs the spatial distribution of crossover events, genome-wide. Thus, active suppression of Yen1 function, and by inference also of Mus81-Mms4(EME1) and Slx1-Slx4(BTBD12) resolvases, avoids precocious resolution of recombination intermediates to enable meiotic crossover patterning.
Literature context: fe Technologies A-21206; RRID:AB_141708 Anti-mouse CD40 Thermo Fisher 1
The local regulation of type 2 immunity relies on dialog between the epithelium and the innate and adaptive immune cells. Here we found that alarmin-induced expression of the co-stimulatory molecule OX40L on group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) provided tissue-restricted T cell co-stimulation that was indispensable for Th2 and regulatory T (Treg) cell responses in the lung and adipose tissue. Interleukin (IL)-33 administration resulted in organ-specific surface expression of OX40L on ILC2s and the concomitant expansion of Th2 and Treg cells, which was abolished upon deletion of OX40L on ILC2s (Il7raCre/+Tnfsf4fl/fl mice). Moreover, Il7raCre/+Tnfsf4fl/fl mice failed to mount effective Th2 and Treg cell responses and corresponding adaptive type 2 pulmonary inflammation arising from Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection or allergen exposure. Thus, the increased expression of OX40L in response to IL-33 acts as a licensing signal in the orchestration of tissue-specific adaptive type 2 immunity, without which this response fails to establish.
Literature context: bbit IgG Invitrogen A21206 RRID:AB_141708 Alexa Fluoro 594 Donkey anti-ra
Cells demonstrate plasticity following injury, but the extent of this phenomenon and the cellular mechanisms involved remain underexplored. Using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and lineage tracing, we uncover that myoepithelial cells (MECs) of the submucosal glands (SMGs) proliferate and migrate to repopulate the airway surface epithelium (SE) in multiple injury models. Specifically, SMG-derived cells display multipotency and contribute to basal and luminal cell types of the SMGs and SE. Ex vivo expanded MECs have the potential to repopulate and differentiate into SE cells when grafted onto denuded airway scaffolds. Significantly, we find that SMG-like cells appear on the SE of both extra- and intra-lobular airways of large animal lungs following severe injury. We find that the transcription factor SOX9 is necessary for MEC plasticity in airway regeneration. Because SMGs are abundant and present deep within airways, they may serve as a reserve cell source for enhancing human airway regeneration.
Literature context: , Invitrogen; catalog #A-21206, RRID:AB_141708; catalog #R37119, RRID:AB_25565
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a central role in reinforcement and motivation. Around 95% of the NAc neurons are medium spiny neurons (MSNs), divided into those expressing dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) or dopamine receptor D2 (D2R). Optogenetic activation of D2-MSNs increased motivation, whereas inhibition of these neurons produced the opposite effect. Yet, it is still unclear how activation of D2-MSNs affects other local neurons/interneurons or input terminals and how this contributes for motivation enhancement. To answer this question, in this work we combined optogenetic modulation of D2-MSNs with in loco pharmacological delivery of specific neurotransmitter antagonists in rats. First, we showed that optogenetic activation of D2-MSNs increases motivation in a progressive ratio (PR) task. We demonstrated that this behavioral effect relies on cholinergic-dependent modulation of dopaminergic signalling of ventral tegmental area (VTA) terminals, which requires D1R and D2R signalling in the NAc. D2-MSN optogenetic activation decreased ventral pallidum (VP) activity, reducing the inhibitory tone to VTA, leading to increased dopaminergic activity. Importantly, optogenetic activation of D2-MSN terminals in the VP was sufficient to recapitulate the motivation enhancement. In summary, our data suggests that optogenetic stimulation of NAc D2-MSNs indirectly modulates VTA dopaminergic activity, contributing for increased motivation. Moreover, both types of dopamine receptors signalling in the NAc are required in order to produce the positive behavioral effects.
Literature context: n, San Diego, CA; Cat# A-21206, RRID:AB_141708) and anti-goat Alexa Fluor 555
Glial cells play important roles in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. In particular, activated microglia in the spinal cord facilitate the hyper-excitability of dorsal horn neurons after peripheral nerve injury via pro-inflammatory molecules. In this study, we investigated the possible involvement of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-4 (IL-4), in neuropathic pain. We did not detect the expression of IL-4 mRNA in the rat dorsal root ganglion or spinal cord; however, peripheral nerve injury induced the expression of IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) alpha mRNA in the spinal cord. A histological analysis revealed that nerve injury induced IL-4R alpha mRNA in activated spinal microglia ipsilateral to the injury site. Additionally, the increases in IL-4R alpha were coincident with the increased expression of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (pSTAT6) in spinal microglia. Intrathecal administration of recombinant IL-4 suppressed mechanical hypersensitivity in neuropathic rats, and the analgesic effect of IL-4 was accompanied by further enhancement of pSTAT6 expression in spinal microglia. Taken together, these results suggest that the adaptive responses of microglia to nerve injury involve both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signaling, including IL-4R alpha and pSTAT6. These findings support that utilizing the endogenous anti-nociceptive activity of IL-4R alpha may modify the cell lineage of pro-nociceptive microglia, thus providing a novel therapeutic strategy for neuropathic pain.
Literature context: anti-rabbit Molecular Probes RRID:AB_141708 Alexa FluorÂ®568-labeled goat an
The complex architecture of neuronal networks in the brain requires tight control of the actin cytoskeleton. The actin nucleator Cobl is critical for neuronal morphogenesis. Here we reveal that Cobl is controlled by arginine methylation. Coprecipitations, coimmunoprecipitations, cellular reconstitutions, and in vitro reconstitutions demonstrated that Cobl associates with the protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT2 in a Src Homology 3 (SH3) domain-dependent manner and that this promotes methylation of Cobl's actin nucleating C-terminal domain. Consistently, PRMT2 phenocopied Cobl functions in both gain- and loss-of-function studies. Both PRMT2- and Cobl-promoted dendritogenesis relied on methylation. PRMT2 effects require both its catalytic domain and SH3 domain. Cobl-mediated dendritic arborization required PRMT2, complex formation with PRMT2, and PRMT2's catalytic activity. Mechanistic studies reveal that Cobl methylation is key for Cobl actin binding. Therefore, arginine methylation is a regulatory mechanism reaching beyond controlling nuclear processes. It also controls a major, cytosolic, cytoskeletal component shaping neuronal cells.
Literature context: 0; Invitrogen, catalog #A21206; RRID:AB_141708), Alexa Fluor 647 donkey anti-g
In many species, neurons are unevenly distributed across the retina, leading to nonuniform analysis of specific visual features at certain locations in visual space. In recent years, the mouse has emerged as a premiere model for probing visual system function, development and disease. Thus, achieving a detailed understanding of mouse visual circuit architecture is of paramount importance. The general belief is that mice possess a relatively even topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs)- the output neurons of the eye. However, mouse RGCs include ∼30 subtypes; each responds best to a specific feature in the visual scene and conveys that information to central targets. Given the crucial role of RGCs and the prominence of the mouse as a model, we asked how different RGC subtypes are distributed across the retina. We targeted and filled individual fluorescently tagged RGC subtypes from across the retinal surface and evaluated the dendritic arbor extent and soma size of each cell according to its specific retinotopic position. Three prominent RGC subtypes: On-Off direction selective RGCs, object-motion-sensitive RGCs, and a specialized subclass of non-image-forming RGCs each had marked topographic variations in their dendritic arbor sizes. Moreover, the pattern of variation was distinct for each RGC subtype. Thus, there is increasing evidence that the mouse retina encodes visual space in a region-specific manner. As a consequence, some visual features are sampled far more densely at certain retinal locations than others. These findings have implications for central visual processing, perception and behavior in this prominent model species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Literature context: Molecular Probes, Cat# A-21206, RRID:AB_141708) for 2 h at room temperature to
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha2 subunit (Chrna2) is a specific marker for oriens lacunosum-moleculare (OLM) interneurons in the dorsal CA1 region of the hippocampus. It was recently shown using a Chrna2-cre mice line that OLM interneurons can modulate entorhinal cortex and CA3 inputs and may therefore have an important role in gating, encoding, and recall of memory. In this study, we have used a combination of electrophysiology and optogenetics using Chrna2-cre mice to determine the role of Chrna2 interneurons in the subiculum area, the main output region of the hippocampus. We aimed to assess the similarities between Chrna2 subiculum and CA1 neurons in terms of the expression of interneuron markers, their membrane properties, and their inhibitory input to pyramidal neurons. We found that subiculum and CA1 dorsal Chrna2 cells similarly expressed the marker somatostatin and had comparable membrane and firing properties. The somas of Chrna2 cells in both regions were found in the deepest layer with axons projecting superficially. However, subiculum Chrna2 cells displayed more extensive projections with dendrites which occupied a significantly larger area than in CA1. The post-synaptic responses elicited by Chrna2 cells in pyramidal cells of both regions revealed comparable inhibitory responses elicited by GABAA receptors and, interestingly, GABAB receptor mediated components. This study provides the first in-depth characterization of Chrna2 cells in the subiculum, and suggests that subiculum and CA1 Chrna2 cells are generally similar and may play comparable roles in both sub-regions.
Literature context: IgG 1:500 Invitrogen; A-21206, RRID:AB_141708 Alexa Fluor 488 Donkey Anti-Rat
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a monogenic, lethal disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance (CFTR) gene. Here we report the production of CF-iPS cell lines from two different p.F508del homozygous female patients (Table 1). Two different primary cell types, skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes, were transfected with retroviral cocktails containing four: c-MYC, KLF4, OCT4 and SOX2 (MKOS) or three: KLF4, OCT4 and SOX2 (KOS) reprogramming factors. Two fibroblast-derived MKOS lines are described in the main text. The lines carry the p.F508del mutation, have a normal karyotype, express pluripotency markers and are able to differentiate into the three germ layers.
Literature context: Life technologies Cat#A-21206; RRID:AB_141708 Donkey anti-rabbit secondary an
The spinal cord contains neural networks that enable regionally distinct motor outputs along the body axis. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how segment-specific motor computations are processed because the cardinal interneuron classes that control motor neurons appear uniform at each level of the spinal cord. V2a interneurons are essential to both forelimb and hindlimb movements, and here we identify two major types that emerge during development: type I neurons marked by high Chx10 form recurrent networks with neighboring spinal neurons and type II neurons that downregulate Chx10 and project to supraspinal structures. Types I and II V2a interneurons are arrayed in counter-gradients, and this network activates different patterns of motor output at cervical and lumbar levels. Single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed type I and II V2a neurons are each comprised of multiple subtypes. Our findings uncover a molecular and anatomical organization of V2a interneurons reminiscent of the orderly way motor neurons are divided into columns and pools.
Literature context: ermo Fisher Scientific A-21206, RRID:AB_141708 Donkey polyclonal anti-goat IgG
Genetic lineage tracing has revealed that Lgr5+ murine colon stem cells (CoSCs) rapidly proliferate at the crypt bottom. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics of human CoSCs in vivo have remained experimentally intractable. Here we established an orthotopic xenograft system for normal human colon organoids, enabling stable reconstruction of the human colon epithelium in vivo. Xenografted organoids were prone to displacement by the remaining murine crypts, and this could be overcome by complete removal of the mouse epithelium. Xenografted organoids formed crypt structures distinctively different from surrounding mouse crypts, reflecting their human origin. Lineage tracing using CRISPR-Cas9 to engineer an LGR5-CreER knockin allele demonstrated self-renewal and multipotency of LGR5+ CoSCs. In contrast to the rapidly cycling properties of mouse Lgr5+ CoSCs, human LGR5+ CoSCs were slow-cycling in vivo. This organoid-based orthotopic xenograft model enables investigation of the functional behaviors of human CoSCs in vivo, with potential therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine.
Literature context: xa Fluor 488 Invitrogen A21206, RRID:AB_141708 Goat anti-mouse coupled to Texa
mRNA processing, transport, translation, and ultimately degradation involve a series of dedicated protein complexes that often assemble into large membraneless structures such as stress granules (SGs) and processing bodies (PBs). Here, systematic in vivo proximity-dependent biotinylation (BioID) analysis of 119 human proteins associated with different aspects of mRNA biology uncovers 7424 unique proximity interactions with 1,792 proteins. Classical bait-prey analysis reveals connections of hundreds of proteins to distinct mRNA-associated processes or complexes, including the splicing and transcriptional elongation machineries (protein phosphatase 4) and the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex (CEP85, RNF219, and KIAA0355). Analysis of correlated patterns between endogenous preys uncovers the spatial organization of RNA regulatory structures and enables the definition of 144 core components of SGs and PBs. We report preexisting contacts between most core SG proteins under normal growth conditions and demonstrate that several core SG proteins (UBAP2L, CSDE1, and PRRC2C) are critical for the formation of microscopically visible SGs.
Literature context: , USA; Cat# A-21206 also A21206 RRID:AB_141708; dilution 1:200) and Cy3-conjug
Parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons form dendritic gap junctions with one another, but the connectivity among gap junction-coupled dendrites remains uninvestigated in most neocortical areas. We visualized gap junctions in layer 4 of the mouse barrel cortex and examined their structural details. PV neurons were divided into 4 types based on the location of soma and dendrites within or outside barrels. Type 1 neurons that had soma and all dendrites inside a barrel, considered most specific to single vibrissa-derived signals, unexpectedly formed gap junctions only with other types but never with each other. Type 2 neurons inside a barrel elongated dendrites outward, forming gap junctions within a column that contained the home barrel. Type 3 neurons located outside barrels established connections with all types including Type 4 neurons that were confined inside the inter-barrel septa. The majority (33/38, 86.8%) of dendritic gap junctions were within 75 μm from at least 1 of 2 paired somata. All types received vesicular glutamate transporter 2-positive axon terminals preferentially on somata and proximal dendrites, indicating the involvement of all types in thalamocortical feedforward regulation in which proximal gap junctions may also participate. These structural organizations provide a new morphological basis for regulatory mechanisms in barrel cortex.
Literature context: 33 Rabbit; polyclonal 1:1000 RRID:AB_141708
Sexual dysfunction is a poorly understood condition that affects up to one-third of men around the world. Existing treatments that target the periphery do not work for all men. Previous studies have shown that central melanocortins, which are released by pro-opiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, can lead to male erection and increased libido. Several studies specifically implicate the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) in the central control of sexual function, but the specific neural circuitry involved is unknown. We hypothesized that single-minded homolog 1 (Sim1) neurons play an important role in the melanocortin-mediated regulation of male sexual behavior. To test this hypothesis, we examined the sexual behavior of mice expressing MC4R only on Sim1-positive neurons (tbMC4Rsim1 mice) in comparison with tbMC4R null mice and wild-type controls. In tbMC4Rsim1 mice, MC4R reexpression was found in the medial amygdala and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. These mice were paired with sexually experienced females, and their sexual function and behavior was scored based on mounting, intromission, and ejaculation. tbMC4R null mice showed a longer latency to mount, a reduced intromission efficiency, and an inability to reach ejaculation. Expression of MC4R only on Sim1 neurons reversed the sexual deficits seen in tbMC4R null mice. This study implicates melanocortin signaling via the MC4R on Sim1 neurons in the central control of male sexual behavior.
Literature context: ScientificR371161:500PolyclonalDonkey anti-rabbit IgG (Hâ€‰+â€‰L) Alexa FluorÂ® 488Thermo Fisher ScientificA-212061:500PolyclonalIgG (Hâ€‰+â€‰L): gamm
Adult skeletal muscle is maintained and repaired by resident stem cells called satellite cells, located between the plasmalemma of a muscle fiber, and the surrounding basal lamina. When needed, satellite cells are activated to form proliferative myoblasts, that then differentiate and fuse to existing muscle fibers, or fuse together to form replacement myofibers. In parallel, a proportion of satellite cells self-renew, to maintain the stem cell pool. To date, Pax7 is the marker of choice for identifying quiescent satellite cells. Co-immunostaining of skeletal muscle with Pax7 and laminin allows both identification of satellite cells, and the myofiber that they are associated with. Furthermore, satellite cells can be followed through the early stages of the myogenic program by co-immunostaining with myogenic regulatory factors such as MyoD. To test genetically modified mice for satellite cell expression, co-immunostaining can be performed for Pax7 and reporter genes such as eGFP. Here, we describe a method for identification of satellite cells in skeletal muscle sections, including muscle isolation, cryosectioning and co-immunostaining for Pax7 and laminin.
Literature context: ated Thermo Fisher Cat#A-21206; RRID:AB_141708 Goat Anti-Rat IgG (H+L) Antibod
Erroneous DNA repair by heterologous recombination (Ht-REC) is a potential threat to genome stability, but evidence supporting its prevalence is lacking. Here we demonstrate that recombination is possible between heterologous sequences and that it is a source of chromosomal alterations in mitotic and meiotic cells. Mechanistically, we find that the RTEL1 and HIM-6/BLM helicases and the BRCA1 homolog BRC-1 counteract Ht-REC in Caenorhabditis elegans, whereas mismatch repair does not. Instead, MSH-2/6 drives Ht-REC events in rtel-1 and brc-1 mutants and excessive crossovers in rtel-1 mutant meioses. Loss of vertebrate Rtel1 also causes a variety of unusually large and complex structural variations, including chromothripsis, breakage-fusion-bridge events, and tandem duplications with distant intra-chromosomal insertions, whose structure are consistent with a role for RTEL1 in preventing Ht-REC during break-induced replication. Our data establish Ht-REC as an unappreciated source of genome instability that underpins a novel class of complex genome rearrangements that likely arise during replication stress.
Literature context: sher scientific Cat #: A-21206, RRID:AB_141708 Alexa Flour 555 Goat anti Mouse
Tissue regeneration requires dynamic cellular adaptation to the wound environment. It is currently unclear how this is orchestrated at the cellular level and how cell fate is affected by severe tissue damage. Here we dissect cell fate transitions during colonic regeneration in a mouse dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model, and we demonstrate that the epithelium is transiently reprogrammed into a primitive state. This is characterized by de novo expression of fetal markers as well as suppression of markers for adult stem and differentiated cells. The fate change is orchestrated by remodeling the extracellular matrix (ECM), increased FAK/Src signaling, and ultimately YAP/TAZ activation. In a defined cell culture system recapitulating the extracellular matrix remodeling observed in vivo, we show that a collagen 3D matrix supplemented with Wnt ligands is sufficient to sustain endogenous YAP/TAZ and induce conversion of cell fate. This provides a simple model for tissue regeneration, implicating cellular reprogramming as an essential element.
Literature context: gG (H+L) Invitrogen Cat#A21206; RRID:AB_141708 Alexa Fluor 568 donkey anti-mou
Radial glia (RG) are embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) that produce neuroblasts and provide fibers that act as a scaffold for neuroblast migration during embryonic development. Although they normally disappear soon after birth, here we found that RG fibers can persist in injured neonatal mouse brains and act as a scaffold for postnatal ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ)-derived neuroblasts that migrate to the lesion site. This injury-induced maintenance of RG fibers has a limited time window during post-natal development and promotes directional saltatory movement of neuroblasts via N-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts that promote RhoA activation. Transplanting an N-cadherin-containing scaffold into injured neonatal brains likewise promotes migration and maturation of V-SVZ-derived neuroblasts, leading to functional improvements in impaired gait behaviors. Together these results suggest that RG fibers enable postnatal V-SVZ-derived neuroblasts to migrate toward sites of injury, thereby enhancing neuronal regeneration and functional recovery from neonatal brain injuries.
Literature context: ated Thermo Fisher Cat#A-21206; RRID:AB_141708 Goat Anti-Mouse IgG (H+L) Antib
Telomere maintenance critically depends on the distinct activities of telomerase, which adds telomeric repeats to solve the end replication problem, and RTEL1, which dismantles DNA secondary structures at telomeres to facilitate replisome progression. Here, we establish that reversed replication forks are a pathological substrate for telomerase and the source of telomere catastrophe in Rtel1-/- cells. Inhibiting telomerase recruitment to telomeres, but not its activity, or blocking replication fork reversal through PARP1 inhibition or depleting UBC13 or ZRANB3 prevents the rapid accumulation of dysfunctional telomeres in RTEL1-deficient cells. In this context, we establish that telomerase binding to reversed replication forks inhibits telomere replication, which can be mimicked by preventing replication fork restart through depletion of RECQ1 or PARG. Our results lead us to propose that telomerase inappropriately binds to and inhibits restart of reversed replication forks within telomeres, which compromises replication and leads to critically short telomeres.
Literature context: r 488 Thermo Fisher Cat#A21206; RRID:AB_141708 Alexa Fluor 568 Thermo Fisher C
Current genome-editing systems generally rely on inducing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). This may limit their utility in clinical therapies, as unwanted mutations caused by DSBs can have deleterious effects. CRISPR/Cas9 system has recently been repurposed to enable target gene activation, allowing regulation of endogenous gene expression without creating DSBs. However, in vivo implementation of this gain-of-function system has proven difficult. Here, we report a robust system for in vivo activation of endogenous target genes through trans-epigenetic remodeling. The system relies on recruitment of Cas9 and transcriptional activation complexes to target loci by modified single guide RNAs. As proof-of-concept, we used this technology to treat mouse models of diabetes, muscular dystrophy, and acute kidney disease. Results demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated target gene activation can be achieved in vivo, leading to measurable phenotypes and amelioration of disease symptoms. This establishes new avenues for developing targeted epigenetic therapies against human diseases. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
Literature context: ey anti-rabbit Molecular Probes RRID:AB_141708 1:1000 (IF)
Several human diseases are associated with a lack of caveolae. Yet, the functions of caveolae and the molecular mechanisms critical for shaping them still are debated. We show that muscle cells of syndapin III KO mice show severe reductions of caveolae reminiscent of human caveolinopathies. Yet, different from other mouse models, the levels of the plasma membrane-associated caveolar coat proteins caveolin3 and cavin1 were both not reduced upon syndapin III KO. This allowed for dissecting bona fide caveolar functions from those supported by mere caveolin presence and also demonstrated that neither caveolin3 nor caveolin3 and cavin1 are sufficient to form caveolae. The membrane-shaping protein syndapin III is crucial for caveolar invagination and KO rendered the cells sensitive to membrane tensions. Consistent with this physiological role of caveolae in counterpoising membrane tensions, syndapin III KO skeletal muscles showed pathological parameters upon physical exercise that are also found in CAVEOLIN3 mutation-associated muscle diseases.
Literature context: conjugated Life Technology, USA RRID:AB_141708 1:200
Eye opening, a natural and timed event during animal development, influences cortical circuit assembly and maturation; yet, little is known about its precise effect on inhibitory synaptic connections. Here, we show that coinciding with eye opening, the strength of unitary inhibitory postsynaptic currents (uIPSCs) from somatostatin-expressing interneurons (Sst-INs) to nearby excitatory neurons, but not interneurons, sharply decreases in layer 2/3 of the mouse visual cortex. In contrast, the strength of uIPSCs from fast-spiking interneurons (FS-INs) to excitatory neurons significantly increases during eye opening. More importantly, these developmental changes can be prevented by dark rearing or binocular lid suture, and reproduced by the artificial opening of sutured lids. Mechanistically, this differential maturation of synaptic transmission is accompanied by a significant change in the postsynaptic quantal size. Together, our study reveals a differential regulation in GABAergic circuits in the cortex driven by eye opening may be crucial for cortical maturation and function.
Literature context: nologies antibodies Cat# A21206 RRID:AB_141708 Polyclonal
The tumor suppressor PTEN controls cell proliferation by regulating phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) activity, but the participation of PTEN in host defense against bacterial infection is less well understood. Anti-inflammatory PI3K-Akt signaling is suppressed in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), a disease characterized by hyper-inflammatory responses to airway infection. We found that Ptenl-/- mice, which lack the NH2-amino terminal splice variant of PTEN, were unable to eradicate Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the airways and could not generate sufficient anti-inflammatory PI3K activity, similar to what is observed in CF. PTEN and the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) interacted directly and this interaction was necessary to position PTEN at the membrane. CF patients under corrector-potentiator therapy, which enhances CFTR transport to the membrane, have increased PTEN amounts. These findings suggest that improved CFTR trafficking could enhance P. aeruginosa clearance from the CF airway by activating PTEN-mediated anti-bacterial responses and might represent a therapeutic strategy.
Literature context: 1:200 (IF) Invitrogen A-21206, RRID:AB_141708 Anti-mouse IgG AlexaFluor 555 D
The present study explores tissue and cellular distribution of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 2 (NTPDase2) and the gene and protein expression in rat spinal cord during the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Given that NTPDase2 hydrolyzes ATP with a transient accumulation of ADP, the expression of ADP-sensitive P2 purinoceptors was analyzed as well. The autoimmune disease was actively induced in Dark Agouti female rats and the changes were analyzed 10, 15 and 29 days after the induction. These selected time points correspond to the onset ( Eo ), peak ( Ep ) and recovery ( Er ) from EAE. In control animals, NTPDase2 was confined in the white matter, in most of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-immunoreactive (ir) astrocytes and in a considerable number of nestin-ir cells, while the other cell types were immunonegative. Immunoreactivity corresponding to NTPDase2 decreased significantly at Eo and Ep and then returned to the baseline levels at Er . The preservation of the proportion of GFAP single-labeled and GFAP/NTPDase2 double-labeled elements along the course of EAE indicated that changes in NTPDase2-ir occurred at fibrous astrocytes that typically express NTPDase2 in normal conditions. Significant downregulation of P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptor proteins at Eo and several-fold induction of P2Y12 and P2Y13 receptor proteins at Ep and/or Er were observed implying that the pathophysiological process in EAE may be linked to ADP signaling. Cell-surface expression of NTPDase2, NTPDase1/CD39 and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN/CD73) was analyzed in CD4+ T cells of a draining lymph node by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The induction of EAE was associated with a transient decrease in a number of CD4+ NTPDase2+ T cells in a draining lymph node, whereas the recovery was characterized by an increase in NTPDase2+ cells in both CD4+ and CD4- cell populations. The opposite was found for NTPDase1/CD39+ and eN/CD73+ cells, which slightly increased in number with progression of the disease, particularly in CD4- cells, and then decreased in the recovery. Finally, CD4+ NTPDase2+ cells were never observed in the spinal cord parenchyma. Taken together, our results suggest that the process of neuroinflammation in EAE may be associated with altered ADP signaling.
Literature context: IgG Thermo Fisher Cat#:A21206; RRID:AB_141708 Alexa Fluor 555 donkey anti-goa
As human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) exit pluripotency, they are thought to switch from a glycolytic mode of energy generation to one more dependent on oxidative phosphorylation. Here we show that, although metabolic switching occurs during early mesoderm and endoderm differentiation, high glycolytic flux is maintained and, in fact, essential during early ectoderm specification. The elevated glycolysis observed in hPSCs requires elevated MYC/MYCN activity. Metabolic switching during endodermal and mesodermal differentiation coincides with a reduction in MYC/MYCN and can be reversed by ectopically restoring MYC activity. During early ectodermal differentiation, sustained MYCN activity maintains the transcription of "switch" genes that are rate-limiting for metabolic activity and lineage commitment. Our work, therefore, shows that metabolic switching is lineage-specific and not a required step for exit of pluripotency in hPSCs and identifies MYC and MYCN as developmental regulators that couple metabolism to pluripotency and cell fate determination.
Literature context: gG Molecular Probes Cat#A21206, RRID:AB_141708 Alexa 555-conjugated donkey ant
Intestinal organoids hold great promise as a valuable tool for studying and treating intestinal diseases. The currently available sources of human intestinal organoids, tissue fragments or pluripotent stem cells, involve invasive procedures or complex differentiation protocols, respectively. Here, we show that a set of four transcription factors, Hnf4α, Foxa3, Gata6, and Cdx2, can directly reprogram mouse fibroblasts to acquire the identity of fetal intestine-derived progenitor cells (FIPCs). These induced FIPCs (iFIPCs) form spherical organoids that develop into adult-type budding organoids containing cells with intestinal stem cell properties. The resulting stem cells produce all intestinal epithelial cell lineages and undergo self-renewing cell divisions. After transplantation, the induced spherical and budding organoids can reconstitute colonic and intestinal epithelia, respectively. The same combination of four defined transcription factors can also induce human iFIPCs. This alternative approach for producing intestinal organoids may well facilitate application for disease analysis and therapy development.
Literature context: #A-21206 RRID:AB_141708; Invitroge
Altered neuregulin 1 (Nrg1)/ErbB signaling and glutamatergic hypofunction have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Here, we employed gene chimeric ventral hippocampus (vHipp)-nucleus accumbens (nAcc) coculture from mouse, electrophysiology, immunocytochemistry, FM1-43 vesicle fusion, and electron microscopy techniques to examine the pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms of genetic deficits in Nrg1/ErbB signaling-induced glutamatergic dysfunctions. Reduced presynaptic type III Nrg1 expression along vHipp axons decreases the number of glutamate synapses and impairs GluA2 trafficking in the postsynaptic nAcc neurons, resulting in decreased frequency and amplitude of miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs). Reduced expression of axonal type III Nrg1 along vHipp projections also decreases functional synaptic vesicle (SV) clustering and vesicular trafficking to presynaptic vHipp axonal terminals. These findings suggest that Nrg1/ErbB signaling modulate glutamatergic transmission via both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms.
Literature context: :500; Thermo Fisher Scientific; RRID:AB_141708) or DyLight 647 (1:500; Jackson
Classical schemes of basal ganglia organization posit that parkinsonian movement difficulties presenting after striatal dopamine depletion stem from the disproportionate firing rates of spiny projection neurons (SPNs) therein. There remains, however, a pressing need to elucidate striatal SPN firing in the context of the synchronized network oscillations that are abnormally exaggerated in cortical-basal ganglia circuits in parkinsonism. To address this, we recorded unit activities in the dorsal striatum of dopamine-intact and dopamine-depleted rats during two brain states, respectively defined by cortical slow-wave activity (SWA) and activation. Dopamine depletion escalated striatal net output but had contrasting effects on "direct pathway" SPNs (dSPNs) and "indirect pathway" SPNs (iSPNs); their firing rates became imbalanced, and they disparately engaged in network oscillations. Disturbed striatal activity dynamics relating to the slow (∼1 Hz) oscillations prevalent during SWA partly generalized to the exaggerated beta-frequency (15-30 Hz) oscillations arising during cortical activation. In both cases, SPNs exhibited higher incidences of phase-locked firing to ongoing cortical oscillations, and SPN ensembles showed higher levels of rhythmic correlated firing, after dopamine depletion. Importantly, in dopamine-depleted striatum, a widespread population of iSPNs, which often displayed excessive firing rates and aberrant phase-locked firing to cortical beta oscillations, preferentially and excessively synchronized their firing at beta frequencies. Conversely, dSPNs were neither hyperactive nor synchronized to a large extent during cortical activation. These data collectively demonstrate a cell type-selective entrainment of SPN firing to parkinsonian beta oscillations. We conclude that a population of overactive, excessively synchronized iSPNs could orchestrate these pathological rhythms in basal ganglia circuits.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Chronic depletion of dopamine from the striatum, a part of the basal ganglia, causes some symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Here, we elucidate how dopamine depletion alters striatal neuron firing in vivo, with an emphasis on defining whether and how spiny projection neurons (SPNs) engage in the synchronized beta-frequency (15-30 Hz) oscillations that become pathologically exaggerated throughout basal ganglia circuits in parkinsonism. We discovered that a select population of so-called "indirect pathway" SPNs not only fire at abnormally high rates, but are also particularly prone to being recruited to exaggerated beta oscillations. Our results provide an important link between two complementary theories that explain the presentation of disease symptoms on the basis of changes in firing rate or firing synchronization/rhythmicity.
Literature context: 62717) and -488 (A-21206, RRID: AB_141708; both from Thermo Fisher Scient
Bone atrophy and its related fragility fractures are frequent, late side effects of radiotherapy in cancer survivors and have a detrimental impact on their quality of life. In another study, we showed that parathyroid hormone 1-34 and anti-sclerostin antibody attenuates radiation-induced bone damage by accelerating DNA repair in osteoblasts. DNA damage responses are partially regulated by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. In the current study, we examined whether proteasome inhibitors have similar bone-protective effects against radiation damage. MG132 treatment greatly reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in cultured osteoblastic cells. This survival effect was owing to accelerated DNA repair as revealed by γH2AX foci and comet assays and to the up-regulation of Ku70 and DNA-dependent protein kinase, catalytic subunit, essential DNA repair proteins in the nonhomologous end-joining pathway. Administration of bortezomib (Bzb) reversed the loss of trabecular bone structure and strength in mice at 4 wk after focal radiation. Histomorphometry revealed that Bzb significantly increased the number of osteoblasts and activity in the irradiated area and suppressed the number and activity of osteoclasts, regardless of irradiation. Two weeks of Bzb treatment accelerated DNA repair in bone-lining osteoblasts and thus promoted their survival. Meanwhile, it also inhibited bone marrow adiposity. Taken together, we demonstrate a novel role of proteasome inhibitors in treating radiation-induced osteoporosis.-Chandra, A., Wang, L., Young, T., Zhong, L., Tseng, W.-J., Levine, M. A., Cengel, K., Liu, X. S., Zhang, Y., Pignolo, R. J., Qin, L. Proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is a novel therapeutic agent for focal radiation-induced osteoporosis.
Literature context: (Cat# A21206, RRID:AB_141708). Other: goat anti-guinea pig-H
Hippocampal CA3 neurons form synapses with CA1 neurons in two layers, stratum oriens (SO) and stratum radiatum (SR). Each layer develops unique synaptic properties but molecular mechanisms that mediate these differences are unknown. Here, we show that SO synapses normally have significantly more mushroom spines and higher-magnitude long-term potentiation (LTP) than SR synapses. Further, we discovered that these differences require the Type II classic cadherins, cadherins-6, -9, and -10. Though cadherins typically function via trans-cellular homophilic interactions, our results suggest presynaptic cadherin-9 binds postsynaptic cadherins-6 and -10 to regulate mushroom spine density and high-magnitude LTP in the SO layer. Loss of these cadherins has no effect on the lower-magnitude LTP typically observed in the SR layer, demonstrating that cadherins-6, -9, and -10 are gatekeepers for high-magnitude LTP. Thus, Type II cadherins may uniquely contribute to the specificity and strength of synaptic changes associated with learning and memory.
Literature context: oFisher Scientific Cat#A-21206; RRID:AB_141708 Cell Proliferation Dye eFluor 4
Follicular regulatory T (Tfr) cells differentiate from conventional regulatory T (Treg) cells and suppress excessive germinal center (GC) responses by acting on both GC B cells and T follicular helper (Tfh) cells. Here, we examined the impact of mTOR, a serine/threonine protein kinase that senses and integrates diverse environmental cues, on the differentiation and functional competency of Tfr cells in response to protein immunization or viral infection. By genetically deleting Rptor or Rictor, essential components for mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), respectively, we found that mTORC1 but not mTORC2 is essential for Tfr differentiation. Mechanistically, mTORC1-mediated phosphorylation of the transcription factor STAT3 induced the expression of the transcription factor TCF-1 by promoting STAT3 binding to the Tcf7 5'-regulatory region. Subsequently, TCF-1 bound to the Bcl6 promoter to induce Bcl6 expression, which launched the Tfr cell differentiation program. Thus, mTORC1 initiates Tfr cell differentiation by activating the TCF-1-Bcl-6 axis during immunization or infection.
Literature context: ermo Fisher Scientific A-21206, RRID:AB_141708 AlexaFluor Donkey Anti-Rabbit 5
Directing the fate of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into different lineages requires variable starting conditions and components with undefined activities, introducing inconsistencies that confound reproducibility and assessment of specific perturbations. Here we introduce a simple, modular protocol for deriving the four main ectodermal lineages from hPSCs. By precisely varying FGF, BMP, WNT, and TGFβ pathway activity in a minimal, chemically defined medium, we show parallel, robust, and reproducible derivation of neuroectoderm, neural crest (NC), cranial placode (CP), and non-neural ectoderm in multiple hPSC lines, on different substrates independently of cell density. We highlight the utility of this system by interrogating the role of TFAP2 transcription factors in ectodermal differentiation, revealing the importance of TFAP2A in NC and CP specification, and performing a small-molecule screen that identified compounds that further enhance CP differentiation. This platform provides a simple stage for systematic derivation of the entire range of ectodermal cell types.
Literature context: A-21206, RRID:AB_141708) or 555 (T
The nuclear factor I (NFI) family of transcription factors plays an important role in the development of the cerebral cortex in humans and mice. Disruption of nuclear factor IA (NFIA), nuclear factor IB (NFIB), or nuclear factor IX (NFIX) results in abnormal development of the corpus callosum, lateral ventricles, and hippocampus. However, the expression or function of these genes has not been examined in detail in the adult brain, and the cell type-specific expression of NFIA, NFIB, and NFIX is currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of each NFI protein shows a distinct laminar pattern in the adult mouse neocortex and that their cell type-specific expression differs depending on the family member. NFIA expression was more frequently observed in astrocytes and oligodendroglia, whereas NFIB expression was predominantly localized to astrocytes and neurons. NFIX expression was most commonly observed in neurons. The NFI proteins were equally distributed within microglia, and the ependymal cells lining the ventricles of the brain expressed all three proteins. In the hippocampus, the NFI proteins were expressed during all stages of neural stem cell differentiation in the dentate gyrus, with higher expression intensity in neuroblast cells as compared to quiescent stem cells and mature granule neurons. These findings suggest that the NFI proteins may play distinct roles in cell lineage specification or maintenance, and establish the basis for further investigation of their function in the adult brain and their emerging role in disease.
Literature context: -546-155; RRID:AB_141708) was incub
Taste buds contain multiple cell types with each type expressing receptors and transduction components for a subset of taste qualities. The sour sensing cells, Type III cells, release serotonin (5-HT) in response to the presence of sour (acidic) tastants and this released 5-HT activates 5-HT3 receptors on the gustatory nerves. We show here, using 5-HT3A GFP mice, that 5-HT3 -expressing nerve fibers preferentially contact and receive synaptic contact from Type III taste cells. Further, these 5-HT3 -expressing nerve fibers terminate in a restricted central-lateral portion of the nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS)-the same area that shows increased c-Fos expression upon presentation of a sour tastant (30 mM citric acid). This acid stimulation also evokes c-Fos in the laterally adjacent mediodorsal spinal trigeminal nucleus (DMSp5), but this trigeminal activation is not associated with the presence of 5-HT3 -expressing nerve fibers as it is in the nTS. Rather, the neuronal activation in the trigeminal complex likely is attributable to direct depolarization of acid-sensitive trigeminal nerve fibers, for example, polymodal nociceptors, rather than through taste buds. Taken together, these findings suggest that transmission of sour taste information involves communication between Type III taste cells and 5-HT3 -expressing afferent nerve fibers that project to a restricted portion of the nTS consistent with a crude mapping of taste quality information in the primary gustatory nucleus.
Literature context: 8 (A21206 RRID:AB_141708 and custom
Purkinje cells of the primate cerebellum play critical but poorly understood roles in the execution of coordinated, accurate movements. Elucidating these roles has been hampered by a lack of techniques for manipulating spiking activity in these cells selectively-a problem common to most cell types in non-transgenic animals. To overcome this obstacle, we constructed AAV vectors carrying the channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) gene under the control of a 1 kb L7/Pcp2 promoter. We injected these vectors into the cerebellar cortex of rhesus macaques and tested vector efficacy in three ways. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed selective ChR2 expression in Purkinje cells. Neurophysiological recordings confirmed robust optogenetic activation. Optical stimulation of the oculomotor vermis caused saccade dysmetria. Our results demonstrate the utility of AAV-L7-ChR2 for revealing the contributions of Purkinje cells to circuit function and behavior, and they attest to the feasibility of promoter-based, targeted, genetic manipulations in primates.
Literature context: orresponding secondary antibody Alexa Fluor 488 donkey anti-rabbit (Invitrogen 1:1000 for 90 min a
The concurrent application of subtoxic doses of soluble oligomeric forms of human amyloid-beta (oAβ) and Tau (oTau) proteins impairs memory and its electrophysiological surrogate long-term potentiation (LTP), effects that may be mediated by intra-neuronal oligomers uptake. Intrigued by these findings, we investigated whether oAβ and oTau share a common mechanism when they impair memory and LTP in mice. We found that as already shown for oAβ, also oTau can bind to amyloid precursor protein (APP). Moreover, efficient intra-neuronal uptake of oAβ and oTau requires expression of APP. Finally, the toxic effect of both extracellular oAβ and oTau on memory and LTP is dependent upon APP since APP-KO mice were resistant to oAβ- and oTau-induced defects in spatial/associative memory and LTP. Thus, APP might serve as a common therapeutic target against Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and a host of other neurodegenerative diseases characterized by abnormal levels of Aβ and/or Tau.
Literature context: 21206Â Donkey; polyclonalÂ 1:1000Â AB_141708Â Mouse IgGÂ Goat anti-mouse IgG (
Kisspeptin (Kp) regulates prolactin (PRL) in an estradiol-dependent manner. We investigated the interaction between ovarian steroid receptors and Kp in the control of PRL secretion. Intracerebroventricular injections of Kp-10 or Kp-234 were performed in ovariectomized (OVX) rats under different hormonal treatments. Kp-10 increased PRL release and decreased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels in the median eminence (ME) of OVX rats treated with estradiol (OVX+E), which was prevented by tamoxifen. Whereas these effects of Kp-10 were absent in OVX rats, they were replicated in OVX rats treated with selective agonist of estrogen receptor (ER)α, propylpyrazole triol, but not of ERβ, diarylpropionitrile. Furthermore, the Kp-10-induced increase in PRL was two times higher in OVX+E rats also treated with progesterone (OVX+EP), which was associated with a reduced expression of both tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and Ser40-phosphorylated TH in the ME. Kp-10 also reduced dopamine levels in the ME of OVX+EP rats, an effect blocked by the progesterone receptor (PR) antagonist RU486. We also determined the effect of Kp antagonism with Kp-234 on the estradiol-induced surges of PRL and luteinizing hormone (LH), using tail-tip blood sampling combined with ultrasensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Kp-234 impaired the early phase of the PRL surge and prevented the LH surge in OVX+E rats. Thus, we provide evidence that Kp stimulation of PRL release requires ERα and is potentiated by progesterone via PR activation. Moreover, alongside its essential role in the LH surge, Kp seems to play a role in the peak phase of the estradiol-induced PRL surge.
Literature context: 488InvitrogenCat# A21206; RRID: AB_141708Donkey anti-rat DyLight 594Bethy
Cytoplasmic dynein-1 binds dynactin and cargo adaptor proteins to form a transport machine capable of long-distance processive movement along microtubules. However, it is unclear why dynein-1 moves poorly on its own or how it is activated by dynactin. Here, we present a cryoelectron microscopy structure of the complete 1.4-megadalton human dynein-1 complex in an inhibited state known as the phi-particle. We reveal the 3D structure of the cargo binding dynein tail and show how self-dimerization of the motor domains locks them in a conformation with low microtubule affinity. Disrupting motor dimerization with structure-based mutagenesis drives dynein-1 into an open form with higher affinity for both microtubules and dynactin. We find the open form is also inhibited for movement and that dynactin relieves this by reorienting the motor domains to interact correctly with microtubules. Our model explains how dynactin binding to the dynein-1 tail directly stimulates its motor activity.
Literature context: 41788, AB_141708, RRID:AB_1
Cartilaginous structures are at the core of embryo growth and shaping before the bone forms. Here we report a novel principle of vertebrate cartilage growth that is based on introducing transversally-oriented clones into pre-existing cartilage. This mechanism of growth uncouples the lateral expansion of curved cartilaginous sheets from the control of cartilage thickness, a process which might be the evolutionary mechanism underlying adaptations of facial shape. In rod-shaped cartilage structures (Meckel, ribs and skeletal elements in developing limbs), the transverse integration of clonal columns determines the well-defined diameter and resulting rod-like morphology. We were able to alter cartilage shape by experimentally manipulating clonal geometries. Using in silico modeling, we discovered that anisotropic proliferation might explain cartilage bending and groove formation at the macro-scale.
Literature context: luor 488 (RRID:AB_141708) and anti-
The DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a suppresses tumorigenesis in models of leukemia and lung cancer. Conversely, deregulation of Dnmt3b is thought to generally promote tumorigenesis. However, the role of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b in many types of cancer remains undefined. Here, we show that Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b are dispensable for homeostasis of the murine epidermis. However, loss of Dnmt3a-but not Dnmt3b-increases the number of carcinogen-induced squamous tumors, without affecting tumor progression. Only upon combined deletion of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b, squamous carcinomas become more aggressive and metastatic. Mechanistically, Dnmt3a promotes the expression of epidermal differentiation genes by interacting with their enhancers and inhibits the expression of lipid metabolism genes, including PPAR-γ, by directly methylating their promoters. Importantly, inhibition of PPAR-γ partially prevents the increase in tumorigenesis upon deletion of Dnmt3a. Altogether, we demonstrate that Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b protect the epidermis from tumorigenesis and that squamous carcinomas are sensitive to inhibition of PPAR-γ.
Literature context: i-Rabbit (RRID:AB_141708, Invitroge
Organ formation is a multi-scale event that involves changes at the intracellular, cellular and tissue level. Organogenesis often starts with the formation of characteristically shaped organ precursors. However, the cellular mechanisms driving organ precursor formation are often not clear. Here, using zebrafish, we investigate the epithelial rearrangements responsible for the development of the hemispherical retinal neuroepithelium (RNE), a part of the optic cup. We show that in addition to basal shrinkage of RNE cells, active migration of connected epithelial cells into the RNE is a crucial player in its formation. This cellular movement is driven by progressive cell-matrix contacts and actively translocates prospective RNE cells to their correct location before they adopt neuroepithelial fate. Failure of this migration during neuroepithelium formation leads to ectopic determination of RNE cells and consequently impairs optic cup formation. Overall, this study illustrates how spatiotemporal coordination between morphogenic movements and fate determination critically influences organogenesis.
Literature context: luor 488, RRID:AB_141708; donkey an
Developmental plasticity allows individuals with the same genotype to show different phenotypes in response to environmental changes. An example of this is how neuronal diversity is protected at the expense of neuronal number under sustained undernourishment during the development of the Drosophila optic lobe. In the development of the Drosophila central nervous system, neuroblasts go through two phases of neurogenesis separated by a period of mitotic quiescence. Although during embryonic development much evidence indicates that both cell number and the cell fates generated by each neuroblast are very precisely controlled in a cell autonomous manner, after quiescence extrinsic factors control the reactivation of neuroblast proliferation in a fashion that has not yet been elucidated. Moreover, there is very little information about whether environmental changes affect lineage progression during postembryonic neurogenesis. Using as a model system the pattern of abdominal leucokinergic neurons (ABLKs), we have analyzed how changes in a set of environmental factors affect the number of ABLKs generated during postembryonic neurogenesis. We describe the variability in ABLK number between individuals and between hemiganglia of the same individual and, by genetic analysis, we identify the bithorax-complex genes and the ecdysone hormone as critical factors in these differences. We also explore the possible adaptive roles involved in this process. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:639-660, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Literature context: luor 488, RRID:AB_141708; donkey an
Neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in a unique microenvironment within the central nervous system (CNS) called the NSC niche. Although they are relatively rare, niches have been previously characterized in both the brain and spinal cord of adult animals. Recently, another potential NSC niche has been identified in the filum terminale (FT), which is a thin band of tissue at the caudal end of the spinal cord. While previous studies have demonstrated that NSCs can be isolated from the FT, the in vivo architecture of this tissue and its relation to other NSC niches in the CNS has not yet been established. In this article we report a histological analysis of the FT NSC niche in postnatal rats and humans. Immunohistochemical characterization reveals that the FT is mitotically active and its cells express similar markers to those in other CNS niches. In addition, the organization of the FT most closely resembles that of the adult spinal cord niche. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:661-675, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Literature context: #A-21206, RRID:AB_141708 Donkey Ant
The recent discovery that genetically modified α cells can regenerate and convert into β-like cells in vivo holds great promise for diabetes research. However, to eventually translate these findings to human, it is crucial to discover compounds with similar activities. Herein, we report the identification of GABA as an inducer of α-to-β-like cell conversion in vivo. This conversion induces α cell replacement mechanisms through the mobilization of duct-lining precursor cells that adopt an α cell identity prior to being converted into β-like cells, solely upon sustained GABA exposure. Importantly, these neo-generated β-like cells are functional and can repeatedly reverse chemically induced diabetes in vivo. Similarly, the treatment of transplanted human islets with GABA results in a loss of α cells and a concomitant increase in β-like cell counts, suggestive of α-to-β-like cell conversion processes also in humans. This newly discovered GABA-induced α cell-mediated β-like cell neogenesis could therefore represent an unprecedented hope toward improved therapies for diabetes.
Literature context: vitrogen; RRID:AB_141708), and goat
We recently developed a rat model of incubation of methamphetamine craving after choice-based voluntary abstinence. Here, we studied the role of dorsolateral striatum (DLS) and dorsomedial striatum (DMS) in this incubation. We trained rats to self-administer palatable food pellets (6 d, 6 h/d) and methamphetamine (12 d, 6 h/d). We then assessed relapse to methamphetamine seeking under extinction conditions after 1 and 21 abstinence days. Between tests, the rats underwent voluntary abstinence (using a discrete choice procedure between methamphetamine and food; 20 trials/d) for 19 d. We used in situ hybridization to measure the colabeling of the activity marker Fos with Drd1 and Drd2 in DMS and DLS after the tests. Based on the in situ hybridization colabeling results, we tested the causal role of DMS D1 and D2 family receptors, and DMS neuronal ensembles in "incubated" methamphetamine seeking, using selective dopamine receptor antagonists (SCH39166 or raclopride) and the Daun02 chemogenetic inactivation procedure, respectively. Methamphetamine seeking was higher after 21 d of voluntary abstinence than after 1 d (incubation of methamphetamine craving). The incubated response was associated with increased Fos expression in DMS but not in DLS; Fos was colabeled with both Drd1 and Drd2 DMS injections of SCH39166 or raclopride selectively decreased methamphetamine seeking after 21 abstinence days. In Fos-lacZ transgenic rats, selective inactivation of relapse test-activated Fos neurons in DMS on abstinence day 18 decreased incubated methamphetamine seeking on day 21. Results demonstrate a role of DMS dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the incubation of methamphetamine craving after voluntary abstinence and that DMS neuronal ensembles mediate this incubation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: In human addicts, abstinence is often self-imposed and relapse can be triggered by exposure to drug-associated cues that induce drug craving. We recently developed a rat model of incubation of methamphetamine craving after choice-based voluntary abstinence. Here, we used classical pharmacology, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and the Daun02 inactivation procedure to demonstrate a critical role of dorsomedial striatum neuronal ensembles in this new form of incubation of drug craving.
Literature context: t#A21206; RRID:AB_141708 Donkey pol
Memories about sensory experiences are tightly linked to the context in which they were formed. Memory contextualization is fundamental for the selection of appropriate behavioral reactions needed for survival, yet the underlying neuronal circuits are poorly understood. By combining trans-synaptic viral tracing and optogenetic manipulation, we found that the ventral hippocampus (vHC) and the amygdala, two key brain structures encoding context and emotional experiences, interact via multiple parallel pathways. A projection from the vHC to the basal amygdala mediates fear behavior elicited by a conditioned context, whereas a parallel projection from a distinct subset of vHC neurons onto midbrain-projecting neurons in the central amygdala is necessary for context-dependent retrieval of cued fear memories. Our findings demonstrate that two fundamentally distinct roles of context in fear memory retrieval are processed by distinct vHC output pathways, thereby allowing for the formation of robust contextual fear memories while preserving context-dependent behavioral flexibility.
Literature context: RRID:AB_141708 Donkey anti-Rabbit Alexa Fluor
Understanding human embryonic ventral midbrain is of major interest for Parkinson's disease. However, the cell types, their gene expression dynamics, and their relationship to commonly used rodent models remain to be defined. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing to examine ventral midbrain development in human and mouse. We found 25 molecularly defined human cell types, including five subtypes of radial glia-like cells and four progenitors. In the mouse, two mature fetal dopaminergic neuron subtypes diversified into five adult classes during postnatal development. Cell types and gene expression were generally conserved across species, but with clear differences in cell proliferation, developmental timing, and dopaminergic neuron development. Additionally, we developed a method to quantitatively assess the fidelity of dopaminergic neurons derived from human pluripotent stem cells, at a single-cell level. Thus, our study provides insight into the molecular programs controlling human midbrain development and provides a foundation for the development of cell replacement therapies.
Literature context: # A21206) RRID:AB_141708 1:200
The siphon of Aplysia californica has several functions, including involvement in respiration, excretion, and defensive inking. It also provides sensory input for defensive withdrawals that have been studied extensively to examine mechanisms that underlie learning. To better understand the neuronal bases of these functions, we used immunohistochemistry to catalogue peripheral cell types and innervation of the siphon in stage 12 juveniles (chosen to allow observation of tissues in whole-mounts). We found that the siphon nerve splits into three major branches, leading ultimately to a two-part FMRFamide-immunoreactive plexus and an apparently separate tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive plexus. Putative sensory neurons included four distinct types of tubulin-immunoreactive bipolar cells (one likely also tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive) that bore ciliated dendrites penetrating the epithelium. A fifth bipolar neuron type (tubulin- and FMRFamide-immunoreactive) occurred deeper in the tissue, associated with part of the FMRFamide-immunoreactive plexus. Our observations emphasize the structural complexity of the peripheral nervous system of the siphon, and the importance of direct tests of the various components to better understand the functioning of the entire organ, including its role in defensive withdrawal responses.
Literature context: #A21206; RRID:AB_141708), and Alex
Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss is a hallmark of glaucoma and the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. The type and timing of cellular changes leading to RGC loss in glaucoma remain incompletely understood, including whether specific RGC subtypes are preferentially impacted at early stages of this disease. Here we applied the microbead occlusion model of glaucoma to different transgenic mouse lines, each expressing green fluorescent protein in 1-2 specific RGC subtypes. Targeted filling, reconstruction, and subsequent comparison of the genetically identified RGCs in control and bead-injected eyes revealed that some subtypes undergo significant dendritic rearrangements as early as 7 d following induction of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). By comparing specific On-type, On-Off-type and Off-type RGCs, we found that RGCs that target the majority of their dendritic arbors to the scleral half or "Off" sublamina of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) undergo the greatest changes, whereas RGCs with the majority of their dendrites in the On sublamina did not alter their structure at this time point. Moreover, M1 intrinsically photosensitive RGCs, which functionally are On RGCs but structurally stratify their dendrites in the Off sublamina of the IPL, also underwent significant changes in dendritic structure 1 week after elevated IOP. Thus, our findings reveal that certain RGC subtypes manifest significant changes in dendritic structure after very brief exposure to elevated IOP. The observation that RGCs stratifying most of their dendrites in the Off sublamina are first to alter their structure may inform the development of new strategies to detect, monitor, and treat glaucoma in humans.
The contribution of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonism in pancreatic β-cells to the antidiabetic actions of thiazolidinediones has not been clearly elucidated. Genetic models of pancreatic β-cell PPARγ ablation have revealed a potential role for PPARγ in β-cell expansion in obesity but a limited role in normal β-cell physiology. Here we overexpressed PPARγ1 or PPARγ2 specifically in pancreatic β-cells of mice subjected to high-fat feeding using an associated adenovirus (β-PPARγ1-HFD and β-PPARγ2-HFD mice). We show β-cell-specific PPARγ1 or PPARγ2 overexpression in diet-induced obese mice exacerbated obesity-induced glucose intolerance with decreased β-cell mass, increased islet cell apoptosis, and decreased plasma insulin compared with obese control mice (β-eGFP-HFD mice). Analysis of islet lipid composition in β-PPARγ2-HFD mice revealed no significant changes in islet triglyceride content and an increase in only one of eight ceramide species measured. Interestingly β-PPARγ2-HFD islets had significantly lower levels of lysophosphatidylcholines, lipid species shown to enhance insulin secretion in β-cells. Gene expression profiling revealed increased expression of uncoupling protein 2 and genes involved in fatty acid transport and β-oxidation. In summary, transgenic overexpression of PPARγ in β-cells in diet-induced obesity negatively impacts whole-animal carbohydrate metabolism associated with altered islet lipid content, increased expression of β-oxidative genes, and reduced β-cell mass.
Literature context: . A21206, RRID:AB_141708 ; Alexa Fl
Previous studies in rats have demonstrated that microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) is induced in brain vascular cells that also express inducible cyclooxygenase-2, suggesting that such cells are the source of the increased PGE2 levels that are seen in the brain following peripheral immune stimulation, and that are associated with sickness responses such as fever, anorexia, and stress hormone release. However, while most of what is known about the functional role of mPGES-1 for these centrally evoked symptoms is based on studies on genetically modified mice, the cellular localization of mPGES-1 in the mouse brain has not been thoroughly determined. Here, using a newly developed antibody that specifically recognizes mouse mPGES-1 and dual-labeling for cell-specific markers, we report that mPGES-1 is constitutively expressed in the mouse brain, being present not only in brain endothelial cells, but also in several other cell types and structures, such as capillary-associated pericytes, astroglial cells, leptomeninges, and the choroid plexus. Regional differences were seen with particularly prominent labeling in autonomic relay structures such as the area postrema, the subfornical organ, the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, the arcuate nucleus, and the preoptic area. Following immune stimulation, mPGES-1 in brain endothelial cells, but not in other mPGES-1-positive cells, was coexpressed with cyclooxygenase-2, whereas there was no coexpression between mPGES-1 and cyclooxygenase-1. These data imply a widespread synthesis of PGE2 or other mPGES-1-dependent products in the mouse brain that may be related to inflammation-induced sickness symptom as well as other functions, such as blood flow regulation.
Emerging evidence suggest sex-specific regulation of dopamine neurons may underlie susceptibility of males to disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In healthy male dopamine neurons, the Y-chromosome gene product, the sex-determining region on the Y chromosome (SRY) modulates dopamine biosynthesis and motor function. We investigated the regulation and function of SRY in a model of dopamine cell injury. Treatment with the dopaminergic toxin, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), significantly elevated SRY mRNA expression (9-fold) in human male dopamine M17 cells. SRY up-regulation occurred via the p-quinone pathway, associated with a 3.5-fold increase in expression of GADD45γ, a DNA damage inducible factor gene and known SRY regulator. In turn, a signaling cascade involving GADD45γ/p38-MAPK/GATA activated the SRY promoter. Knockdown of SRY mRNA in 6-OHDA-treated M17 cells was deleterious, increasing levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), pro-apoptotic marker PUMA mRNA, and cell injury (+25%, +32% and +34%, respectively). Conversely, ectopic over-expression of SRY in 6-OHDA-treated female SH-SY5Y cells was protective, decreasing ROS, PUMA, and cell injury (-40%, -46%, and -30%, respectively). However, the 6-OHDA-induced increase in SRY expression was diminished with higher concentrations of toxins or with chronic exposure to 6-OHDA. We conclude that SRY upregulation after dopamine cell injury is initially a protective response in males, but diminishes with gradual loss in dopamine cells. We speculate that dysregulation of SRY may contribute the susceptibility of males to PD.
Literature context: vitrogen, RRID:AB_141708). Fluoresc
Fmr1 knock-out (ko) mice display key features of fragile X syndrome (FXS), including delayed dendritic spine maturation and FXS-associated behaviors, such as poor socialization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, and hyperactivity. Here we provide conclusive evidence that matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is necessary to the development of FXS-associated defects in Fmr1 ko mice. Genetic disruption of Mmp-9 rescued key aspects of Fmr1 deficiency, including dendritic spine abnormalities, abnormal mGluR5-dependent LTD, as well as aberrant behaviors in open field and social novelty tests. Remarkably, MMP-9 deficiency also corrected non-neural features of Fmr1 deficiency-specifically macroorchidism-indicating that MMP-9 dysregulation contributes to FXS-associated abnormalities outside the CNS. Further, MMP-9 deficiency suppressed elevations of Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E phosphorylation seen in Fmr1 ko mice, which are also associated with other autistic spectrum disorders. These findings establish that MMP-9 is critical to the mechanisms responsible for neural and non-neural aspects of the FXS phenotype.
We have previously demonstrated that rat islets express a high density of angiotensin type 2 receptors and that activation of this receptor evokes insulinotropic effect. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of Compound 21 (C21), a nonpeptide angiotensin type 2 receptor agonist, on islets in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Rats were assigned to five groups: normal, STZ, and STZ plus C21 (0.24, 0.48, and 0.96 mg/kg·d). C21 was continually infused by a sc implanted osmotic minipump for 14 days, and STZ was bolus injected on day 7. Body weight, water intake, urine excretion, and blood glucose were monitored daily. On the last day, the rats received an oral glucose tolerance test, and the pancreata were saved to examine islet morphology and biochemical parameters of oxidative stress and apoptosis. We found that, compared with control STZ rats, C21-treated STZ rats displayed less water intake and urine excretion, lower blood glucose, higher serum insulin concentration, and improved glucose tolerance. These rats had more islets, larger islet mass, and up-regulated insulin protein and proinsulin 2 mRNA expressions in the pancreas. Their islets displayed lower superoxide, decreased gp91 expression, and increased superoxide dismutase 1 expression as well as less apoptosis and down-regulated caspase-3 expression. In the epididymal adipose tissue of these rats, we found a decreased adipocyte size and up-regulated adipocyte protein 2 expression. The protective effects of C21 on β-cells against the toxic effects of STZ were also confirmed in cultured INS-1E cells. These data suggest that C21 ameliorates STZ-induced diabetes by protecting pancreatic islets via antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects.
In an effort to expand human islets and enhance allogeneic islet transplant for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, identifying signaling pathways that stimulate human β-cell proliferation is paramount. TGF-β superfamily members, in particular activin-A, are likely involved in islet development and may contribute to β-cell proliferation. Nodal, another TGF-β member, is present in both embryonic and adult rodent islets. Nodal, along with its coreceptor, Cripto, are pro-proliferative factors in certain cell types. Although Nodal stimulates apoptosis of rat insulinoma cells (INS-1), Nodal and Cripto signaling have not been studied in the context of human islets. The current study investigated the effects of Nodal and Cripto on human β-cell proliferation, differentiation, and viability. In the human pancreas and isolated human islets, we observed Nodal mRNA and protein expression, with protein expression observed in β and α-cells. Cripto expression was absent from human islets. Furthermore, in cultured human islets, exogenous Nodal stimulated modest β-cell proliferation and inhibited α-cell proliferation with no effect on cellular viability, apoptosis, or differentiation. Nodal stimulated the phosphorylation of mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD)-2, with no effect on AKT or MAPK signaling, suggesting phosphorylated SMAD signaling was involved in β-cell proliferation. Cripto had no effect on human islet cell proliferation, differentiation, or viability. In conclusion, Nodal stimulates human β-cell proliferation while maintaining cellular viability. Nodal signaling warrants further exploration to better understand and enhance human β-cell proliferative capacity.
Selenoproteins are involved in the regulation of redox status, which affects several cellular processes, including cell survival and homeostasis. Considerable interest has arisen recently concerning the role of selenoproteins in the regulation of glucose metabolism. Here, we found that selenoprotein T (SelT), a new thioredoxin-like protein of the endoplasmic reticulum, is present at high levels in human and mouse pancreas as revealed by immunofluorescence and quantitative PCR. Confocal immunohistochemistry studies revealed that SelT is mostly confined to insulin- and somatostatin-producing cells in mouse and human islets. To elucidate the role of SelT in β-cells, we generated, using a Cre-Lox strategy, a conditional pancreatic β-cell SelT-knockout C57BL/6J mice (SelT-insKO) in which SelT gene disruption is under the control of the rat insulin promoter Cre gene. Glucose administration revealed that male SelT-insKO mice display impaired glucose tolerance. Although insulin sensitivity was not modified in the mutant mice, the ratio of glucose to insulin was significantly higher in the SelT-insKO mice compared with wild-type littermates, pointing to a deficit in insulin production/secretion in mutant mice. In addition, morphometric analysis showed that islets from SelT-insKO mice were smaller and that their number was significantly increased compared with islets from their wild-type littermates. Finally, we found that SelT is up-regulated by pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in β-pancreatic cells and that SelT could act by facilitating a feed-forward mechanism to potentiate insulin secretion induced by the neuropeptide. Our findings are the first to show that the PACAP-regulated SelT is localized in pancreatic β- and δ-cells and is involved in the control of glucose homeostasis.
We have found a previously unreported precerebellar nucleus located among the emerging fibers of the motor root of the trigeminal nerve in the mouse, which we have called the interfascicular trigeminal nucleus (IF5). This nucleus had previously been named the tensor tympani part of the motor trigeminal nucleus (5TT) in rodent brain atlases, because it was thought to be a subset of small motor neurons of the motor trigeminal nucleus innervating the tensor tympani muscle. However, following injection of retrograde tracer in the cerebellum, the labeled neurons in IF5 were found to be choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) negative, indicating that they are not motor neurons. The cells of IF5 are strongly labeled in mice from Wnt1Cre and Atoh1 CreER lineage fate mapping, in common with the major precerebellar nuclei that arise from the rhombic lip and that issue mossy fibers. Analysis of sections from mouse Hoxa3, Hoxb1, and Egr2 Cre labeled lineages shows that the neurons of IF5 arise from rhombomeres caudal to rhombomere 4, most likely from rhombomeres 6-8. We conclude that IF5 is a significant precerebellar nucleus in the mouse that shares developmental gene expression characteristics with mossy fiber precerebellar nuclei that arise from the caudal rhombic lip.