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Goat Anti-Mouse IgG (H+L) Highly Cross-adsorbed Antibody, Alexa Fluor ?? 488 Conjugated

RRID:AB_138404

Antibody ID

AB_138404

Target Antigen

Mouse IgG (H+L) mouse

Proper Citation

(Molecular Probes Cat# A-11029, RRID:AB_138404)

Clonality

unknown

Comments

Discontinued; This product offered by Molecular Probes (Invitrogen), now part of Thermo Fisher:

Host Organism

goat

Vendor

Molecular Probes

Histone Methylation by SETD1A Protects Nascent DNA through the Nucleosome Chaperone Activity of FANCD2.

  • Higgs MR
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Components of the Fanconi anemia and homologous recombination pathways play a vital role in protecting newly replicated DNA from uncontrolled nucleolytic degradation, safeguarding genome stability. Here we report that histone methylation by the lysine methyltransferase SETD1A is crucial for protecting stalled replication forks from deleterious resection. Depletion of SETD1A sensitizes cells to replication stress and leads to uncontrolled DNA2-dependent resection of damaged replication forks. The ability of SETD1A to prevent degradation of these structures is mediated by its ability to catalyze methylation on Lys4 of histone H3 (H3K4) at replication forks, which enhances FANCD2-dependent histone chaperone activity. Suppressing H3K4 methylation or expression of a chaperone-defective FANCD2 mutant leads to loss of RAD51 nucleofilament stability and severe nucleolytic degradation of replication forks. Our work identifies epigenetic modification and histone mobility as critical regulatory mechanisms in maintaining genome stability by restraining nucleases from irreparably damaging stalled replication forks.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - RR024574(United States)

TRPV1 Agonist, Capsaicin, Induces Axon Outgrowth after Injury via Ca2+/PKA Signaling.

  • Frey E
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 Jun 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Preconditioning nerve injuries activate a pro-regenerative program that enhances axon regeneration for most classes of sensory neurons. However, nociceptive sensory neurons and central nervous system neurons regenerate poorly. In hopes of identifying novel mechanisms that promote regeneration, we screened for drugs that mimicked the preconditioning response and identified a nociceptive ligand that activates a preconditioning-like response to promote axon outgrowth. We show that activating the ion channel TRPV1 with capsaicin induces axon outgrowth of cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons, and that this effect is blocked in TRPV1 knockout neurons. Regeneration occurs only in NF200-negative nociceptive neurons, consistent with a cell-autonomous mechanism. Moreover, we identify a signaling pathway in which TRPV1 activation leads to calcium influx and protein kinase A (PKA) activation to induce a preconditioning-like response. Finally, capsaicin administration to the mouse sciatic nerve activates a similar preconditioning-like response and induces enhanced axonal outgrowth, indicating that this pathway can be induced in vivo. These findings highlight the use of local ligands to induce regeneration and suggest that it may be possible to target selective neuronal populations for repair, including cell types that often fail to regenerate.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - 1R01DK097087(United States)

Functional Domains of NEAT1 Architectural lncRNA Induce Paraspeckle Assembly through Phase Separation.

  • Yamazaki T
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Jun 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

A class of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) has architectural functions in nuclear body construction; however, specific RNA domains dictating their architectural functions remain uninvestigated. Here, we identified the domains of the architectural NEAT1 lncRNA that construct paraspeckles. Systematic deletion of NEAT1 portions using CRISPR/Cas9 in haploid cells revealed modular domains of NEAT1 important for RNA stability, isoform switching, and paraspeckle assembly. The middle domain, containing functionally redundant subdomains, was responsible for paraspeckle assembly. Artificial tethering of the NONO protein to a NEAT1_2 mutant lacking the functional subdomains rescued paraspeckle assembly, and this required the NOPS dimerization domain of NONO. Paraspeckles exhibit phase-separated properties including susceptibility to 1,6-hexanediol treatment. RNA fragments of the NEAT1_2 subdomains preferentially bound NONO/SFPQ, leading to phase-separated aggregates in vitro. Thus, we demonstrate that the enrichment of NONO dimers on the redundant NEAT1_2 subdomains initiates construction of phase-separated paraspeckles, providing mechanistic insights into lncRNA-based nuclear body formation.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI050113(United States)

Visualization of Synchronous or Asynchronous Release of Single Synaptic Vesicle in Active-Zone-Like Membrane Formed on Neuroligin-Coated Glass Surface.

  • Funahashi J
  • Front Cell Neurosci
  • 2018 Jun 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Fast repetitive synaptic transmission depends on efficient exocytosis and retrieval of synaptic vesicles around a presynaptic active zone. However, the functional organization of an active zone and regulatory mechanisms of exocytosis, endocytosis and reconstruction of release-competent synaptic vesicles have not been fully elucidated. By developing a novel visualization method, we attempted to identify the location of exocytosis of a single synaptic vesicle within an active zone and examined movement of synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin (Syp) after exocytosis. Using cultured hippocampal neurons, we induced formation of active-zone-like membranes (AZLMs) directly adjacent and parallel to a glass surface coated with neuroligin, and imaged Syp fused to super-ecliptic pHluorin (Syp-SEP) after its translocation to the plasma membrane from a synaptic vesicle using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM). An AZLM showed characteristic molecular and functional properties of a presynaptic active zone. It contained active zone proteins, cytomatrix at the active zone-associated structural protein (CAST), Bassoon, Piccolo, Munc13 and RIM, and showed an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration upon electrical stimulation. In addition, single-pulse stimulation sometimes induced a transient increase of Syp-SEP signal followed by lateral spread in an AZLM, which was considered to reflect an exocytosis event of a single synaptic vesicle. The diffusion coefficient of Syp-SEP on the presynaptic plasma membrane after the membrane fusion was estimated to be 0.17-0.19 μm2/s, suggesting that Syp-SEP diffused without significant obstruction. Synchronous exocytosis just after the electrical stimulation tended to occur at multiple restricted sites within an AZLM, whereas locations of asynchronous release occurring later after the stimulation tended to be more scattered.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA99978(United States)

The Listeriolysin O PEST-like Sequence Co-opts AP-2-Mediated Endocytosis to Prevent Plasma Membrane Damage during Listeria Infection.

  • Chen C
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2018 Jun 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Listeriolysin O (LLO) is a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin that mediates escape of Listeria monocytogenes from a phagosome, enabling growth of the bacteria in the host cell cytosol. LLO contains a PEST-like sequence that prevents it from killing infected cells, but the mechanism involved is unknown. We found that the LLO PEST-like sequence was necessary to mediate removal of LLO from the interior face of the plasma membrane, where it coalesces into discrete puncta. LLO interacts with Ap2a2, an adaptor protein involved in endocytosis, via its PEST-like sequence, and Ap2a2-dependent endocytosis is required to prevent LLO-induced cytotoxicity. An unrelated PEST-like sequence from a human G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), which also interacts with Ap2a2, could functionally complement the PEST-like sequence in L. monocytogenes LLO. These data revealed that LLO co-opts the host endocytosis machinery to protect the integrity of the host plasma membrane during L. monocytogenes infection.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA111294(United States)
  • NIAID NIH HHS - P01 AI063302()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI027655()

Dynamic Architecture of DNA Repair Complexes and the Synaptonemal Complex at Sites of Meiotic Recombination.

  • Woglar A
  • Cell
  • 2018 Jun 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Meiotic double-strand breaks (DSBs) are generated and repaired in a highly regulated manner to ensure formation of crossovers (COs) while also enabling efficient non-CO repair to restore genome integrity. We use structured-illumination microscopy to investigate the dynamic architecture of DSB repair complexes at meiotic recombination sites in relationship to the synaptonemal complex (SC). DSBs resected at both ends are converted into inter-homolog repair intermediates harboring two populations of BLM helicase and RPA, flanking a single population of MutSγ. These intermediates accumulate until late pachytene, when repair proteins disappear from non-CO sites and CO-designated sites become enveloped by SC-central region proteins, acquire a second MutSγ population, and lose RPA. These and other data suggest that the SC may protect CO intermediates from being dismantled inappropriately and promote CO maturation by generating a transient CO-specific repair compartment, thereby enabling differential timing and outcome of repair at CO and non-CO sites.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA016672(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM053804()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM067268()

A Switch-like Activation Relay of EGFR-ERK Signaling Regulates a Wave of Cellular Contractility for Epithelial Invagination.

  • Ogura Y
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Jun 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

The dynamics of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling underlies its versatile functions in cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and cell motility. Classical studies in Drosophila established that a gradient of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-ERK signaling is essential for these cellular responses. However, we challenge this view by the real-time monitoring of ERK activation; we show that a switch-like ERK activation is essential for the invagination movement of the Drosophila tracheal placode. This switch-like ERK activation stems from the positive feedback regulation of the EGFR-ERK signaling and a resultant relay of EGFR-ERK signaling among tracheal cells. A key transcription factor Trachealess (Trh) permissively regulates the iteration of the relay, and the ERK activation becomes graded in trh mutant. A mathematical model based on these observations and a molecular link between ERK activation dynamics and myosin shows that the relay mechanism efficiently promotes epithelial invagination while the gradient mechanism does not.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - RG53217(United Kingdom)

Collision of Expanding Actin Caps with Actomyosin Borders for Cortical Bending and Mitotic Rounding in a Syncytium.

  • Zhang Y
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Jun 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

The early Drosophila embryo is a large syncytial cell that compartmentalizes mitotic spindles with furrows. Before furrow ingression, an Arp2/3 actin cap forms above each nucleus and is encircled by actomyosin. We investigated how these networks transform a flat cortex into a honeycomb-like compartmental array. The growing caps circularize and ingress upon meeting their actomyosin borders, which become the furrow base. Genetic perturbations indicate that the caps physically displace their borders and, reciprocally, that the borders resist and circularize their caps. These interactions create an actomyosin cortex arrayed with circular caps. The Rac-GEF Sponge, Rac-GTP, Arp3, and actin coat the caps as a growing material that can drive cortical bending for initial furrow ingression. Additionally, laser ablations indicate that actomyosin contraction squeezes the cytoplasm, producing counterforces that swell the caps. Thus, Arp2/3 caps form clearances of the actomyosin cortex and control buckling and swelling of these clearances for metaphase compartmentalization.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM099773(United States)

ER Lipid Defects in Neuropeptidergic Neurons Impair Sleep Patterns in Parkinson's Disease.

  • Valadas JS
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Jun 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Parkinson's disease patients report disturbed sleep patterns long before motor dysfunction. Here, in parkin and pink1 models, we identify circadian rhythm and sleep pattern defects and map these to specific neuropeptidergic neurons in fly models and in hypothalamic neurons differentiated from patient induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Parkin and Pink1 control the clearance of mitochondria by protein ubiquitination. Although we do not observe major defects in mitochondria of mutant neuropeptidergic neurons, we do find an excess of endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial contacts. These excessive contact sites cause abnormal lipid trafficking that depletes phosphatidylserine from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and disrupts the production of neuropeptide-containing vesicles. Feeding mutant animals phosphatidylserine rescues neuropeptidergic vesicle production and acutely restores normal sleep patterns in mutant animals. Hence, sleep patterns and circadian disturbances in Parkinson's disease models are explained by excessive ER-mitochondrial contacts, and blocking their formation or increasing phosphatidylserine levels rescues the defects in vivo.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM073874(United States)

Genome-wide Control of Heterochromatin Replication by the Telomere Capping Protein TRF2.

  • Mendez-Bermudez A
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hard-to-replicate regions of chromosomes (e.g., pericentromeres, centromeres, and telomeres) impede replication fork progression, eventually leading, in the event of replication stress, to chromosome fragility, aging, and cancer. Our knowledge of the mechanisms controlling the stability of these regions is essentially limited to telomeres, where fragility is counteracted by the shelterin proteins. Here we show that the shelterin subunit TRF2 ensures progression of the replication fork through pericentromeric heterochromatin, but not centromeric chromatin. In a process involving its N-terminal basic domain, TRF2 binds to pericentromeric Satellite III sequences during S phase, allowing the recruitment of the G-quadruplex-resolving helicase RTEL1 to facilitate fork progression. We also show that TRF2 is required for the stability of other heterochromatic regions localized throughout the genome, paving the way for future research on heterochromatic replication and its relationship with aging and cancer.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - (United Kingdom)

The Post-anaphase SUMO Pathway Ensures the Maintenance of Centromeric Cohesion through Meiosis I-II Transition in Mammalian Oocytes.

  • Ding Y
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2018 May 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

The production of haploid gametes requires the maintenance of centromeric cohesion between sister chromatids through the transition between two successive meiotic divisions, meiosis I and meiosis II. One mechanism for the cohesion maintenance is shugoshin-dependent protection of centromeric cohesin at anaphase I onset [1-3]. However, how centromeric cohesion is maintained during late anaphase I and telophase I, when centromeric shugoshin is undetectable [1-3], remains largely unexplored. Here we show that the centromeric small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) pathway is critical for the maintenance of centromeric cohesion during post-anaphase-I periods in mouse oocytes. SUMO2/3 and E3 ligase PIAS are enriched near centromeres during late anaphase I and telophase I. Specific perturbation of the centromeric SUMO pathway results in precocious loss of centromeric cohesin at telophase I, although shugoshin-dependent centromeric protection at anaphase I onset remains largely intact. Prevention of the SUMO perturbation during post-anaphase-I periods restores the maintenance of centromeric cohesion through the meiosis I-II transition. Thus, the post-anaphase-I centromeric SUMO pathway ensures continuous maintenance of centromeric cohesion through the meiosis I-II transition.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R03 DA026215(United States)

Hemodynamic Forces Tune the Arrest, Adhesion, and Extravasation of Circulating Tumor Cells.

  • Follain G
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Apr 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Metastatic seeding is driven by cell-intrinsic and environmental cues, yet the contribution of biomechanics is poorly known. We aim to elucidate the impact of blood flow on the arrest and the extravasation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in vivo. Using the zebrafish embryo, we show that arrest of CTCs occurs in vessels with favorable flow profiles where flow forces control the adhesion efficacy of CTCs to the endothelium. We biophysically identified the threshold values of flow and adhesion forces allowing successful arrest of CTCs. In addition, flow forces fine-tune tumor cell extravasation by impairing the remodeling properties of the endothelium. Importantly, we also observe endothelial remodeling at arrest sites of CTCs in mouse brain capillaries. Finally, we observed that human supratentorial brain metastases preferably develop in areas with low perfusion. These results demonstrate that hemodynamic profiles at metastatic sites regulate key steps of extravasation preceding metastatic outgrowth.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL-097751(United States)

Role for Wnt Signaling in Retinal Neuropil Development: Analysis via RNA-Seq and In Vivo Somatic CRISPR Mutagenesis.

  • Sarin S
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Apr 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Screens for genes that orchestrate neural circuit formation in mammals have been hindered by practical constraints of germline mutagenesis. To overcome these limitations, we combined RNA-seq with somatic CRISPR mutagenesis to study synapse development in the mouse retina. Here synapses occur between cellular layers, forming two multilayered neuropils. The outer neuropil, the outer plexiform layer (OPL), contains synapses made by rod and cone photoreceptor axons on rod and cone bipolar dendrites, respectively. We used RNA-seq to identify selectively expressed genes encoding cell surface and secreted proteins and CRISPR-Cas9 electroporation with cell-specific promoters to assess their roles in OPL development. Among the genes identified in this way are Wnt5a and Wnt5b. They are produced by rod bipolars and activate a non-canonical signaling pathway in rods to regulate early OPL patterning. The approach we use here can be applied to other parts of the brain.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - NIH T32 HG002536(United States)

Genetic deletion of xCT attenuates peripheral and central inflammation and mitigates LPS-induced sickness and depressive-like behavior in mice.

  • Albertini G
  • Glia
  • 2018 Apr 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

The communication between the immune and central nervous system (CNS) is affected in many neurological disorders. Peripheral injections of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are widely used to study this communication: an LPS challenge leads to a biphasic syndrome that starts with acute sickness and is followed by persistent brain inflammation and chronic behavioral alterations such as depressive-like symptoms. In vitro, the response to LPS treatment has been shown to involve enhanced expression of system xc-. This cystine-glutamate antiporter, with xCT as specific subunit, represents the main glial provider of extracellular glutamate in mouse hippocampus. Here we injected male xCT knockout and wildtype mice with a single intraperitoneal dose of 5 mg/kg LPS. LPS-injection increased hippocampal xCT expression but did not alter the mainly astroglial localization of the xCT protein. Peripheral and central inflammation (as defined by cytokine levels and morphological activation of microglia) as well as LPS-induced sickness and depressive-like behavior were significantly attenuated in xCT-deficient mice compared with wildtype mice. Our study is the first to demonstrate the involvement of system xc- in peripheral and central inflammation in vivo and the potential therapeutic relevance of its inhibition in brain disorders characterized by peripheral and central inflammation, such as depression.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM091896(United States)

mTOR-dependent alterations of Kv1.1 subunit expression in the neuronal subset-specific Pten knockout mouse model of cortical dysplasia with epilepsy.

  • Nguyen LH
  • Sci Rep
  • 2018 Feb 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cortical dysplasia (CD) is a common cause for intractable epilepsy. Hyperactivation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been implicated in CD; however, the mechanisms by which mTOR hyperactivation contribute to the epilepsy phenotype remain elusive. Here, we investigated whether constitutive mTOR hyperactivation in the hippocampus is associated with altered voltage-gated ion channel expression in the neuronal subset-specific Pten knockout (NS-Pten KO) mouse model of CD with epilepsy. We found that the protein levels of Kv1.1, but not Kv1.2, Kv1.4, or Kvβ2, potassium channel subunits were increased, along with altered Kv1.1 distribution, within the hippocampus of NS-Pten KO mice. The aberrant Kv1.1 protein levels were present in young adult (≥postnatal week 6) but not juvenile (≤postnatal week 4) NS-Pten KO mice. No changes in hippocampal Kv1.1 mRNA levels were found between NS-Pten KO and WT mice. Interestingly, mTOR inhibition with rapamycin treatment at early and late stages of the pathology normalized Kv1.1 protein levels in NS-Pten KO mice to WT levels. Together, these studies demonstrate altered Kv1.1 protein expression in association with mTOR hyperactivation in NS-Pten KO mice and suggest a role for mTOR signaling in the modulation of voltage-gated ion channel expression in this model.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01AI067979(United States)
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD083092()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS081053()

Generation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line from a 51-year-old female with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) carrying a duplication of SLC2A3.

  • Jansch C
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2018 Feb 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Fibroblasts were isolated from a skin biopsy of a clinically diagnosed 51-year-old female attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patient carrying a duplication of SLC2A3, a gene encoding neuronal glucose transporter-3 (GLUT3). Patient fibroblasts were infected with Sendai virus, a single-stranded RNA virus, to generate transgene-free human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). SLC2A3-D2-iPSCs showed expression of pluripotency-associated markers, were able to differentiate into cells of the three germ layers in vitro and had a normal female karyotype. This in vitro cellular model can be used to study the role of risk genes in the pathogenesis of ADHD, in a patient-specific manner.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC009413(United States)

Hedgehog Pathway Drives Fusion-Negative Rhabdomyosarcoma Initiated From Non-myogenic Endothelial Progenitors.

  • Drummond CJ
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Jan 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a pediatric soft tissue sarcoma that histologically resembles embryonic skeletal muscle. RMS occurs throughout the body and an exclusively myogenic origin does not account for RMS occurring in sites devoid of skeletal muscle. We previously described an RMS model activating a conditional constitutively active Smoothened mutant (SmoM2) with aP2-Cre. Using genetic fate mapping, we show SmoM2 expression in Cre-expressing endothelial progenitors results in myogenic transdifferentiation and RMS. We show that endothelium and skeletal muscle within the head and neck arise from Kdr-expressing progenitors, and that hedgehog pathway activation results in aberrant expression of myogenic specification factors as a potential mechanism driving RMS genesis. These findings suggest that RMS can originate from aberrant development of non-myogenic cells.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - K08 CA151649()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA021765()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA216344()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R21AI094333(United States)

System identification of signaling dependent gene expression with different time-scale data.

  • Tsuchiya T
  • PLoS Comput. Biol.
  • 2018 Jan 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cells decode information of signaling activation at a scale of tens of minutes by downstream gene expression with a scale of hours to days, leading to cell fate decisions such as cell differentiation. However, no system identification method with such different time scales exists. Here we used compressed sensing technology and developed a system identification method using data of different time scales by recovering signals of missing time points. We measured phosphorylation of ERK and CREB, immediate early gene expression products, and mRNAs of decoder genes for neurite elongation in PC12 cell differentiation and performed system identification, revealing the input-output relationships between signaling and gene expression with sensitivity such as graded or switch-like response and with time delay and gain, representing signal transfer efficiency. We predicted and validated the identified system using pharmacological perturbation. Thus, we provide a versatile method for system identification using data with different time scales.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 069856(United Kingdom)

Nek9 Phosphorylation Defines a New Role for TPX2 in Eg5-Dependent Centrosome Separation before Nuclear Envelope Breakdown.

  • Eibes S
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2018 Jan 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Centrosomes [1, 2] play a central role during spindle assembly in most animal cells [3]. In early mitosis, they organize two symmetrical microtubule arrays that upon separation define the two poles of the forming spindle. Centrosome separation is tightly regulated [4, 5], occurring through partially redundant mechanisms that rely on the action of microtubule-based dynein and kinesin motors and the actomyosin system [6]. While centrosomes can separate in prophase or in prometaphase after nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD), prophase centrosome separation optimizes spindle assembly and minimizes the occurrence of abnormal chromosome attachments that could end in aneuploidy [7, 8]. Prophase centrosome separation relies on the activity of Eg5/KIF11, a mitotic kinesin [9] that accumulates around centrosomes in early mitosis under the control of CDK1 and the Nek9/Nek6/7 kinase module [10-17]. Here, we show that Eg5 localization and centrosome separation in prophase depend on the nuclear microtubule-associated protein TPX2 [18], a pool of which localizes to the centrosomes before NEBD. This localization involves RHAMM/HMMR [19] and the kinase Nek9 [20], which phosphorylates TPX2 nuclear localization signal (NLS) preventing its interaction with importin and nuclear import. The pool of centrosomal TPX2 in prophase has a critical role for both microtubule aster organization and Eg5 localization, and thereby for centrosome separation. Our results uncover an unsuspected role for TPX2 before NEBD and define a novel regulatory mechanism for centrosome separation in prophase. They furthermore suggest NLS phosphorylation as a novel regulatory mechanism for spindle assembly factors controlled by the importin/Ran system.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM041804(United States)

Endosomal Rab cycles regulate Parkin-mediated mitophagy.

  • Yamano K
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jan 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Damaged mitochondria are selectively eliminated by mitophagy. Parkin and PINK1, gene products mutated in familial Parkinson's disease, play essential roles in mitophagy through ubiquitination of mitochondria. Cargo ubiquitination by E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin is important to trigger selective autophagy. Although autophagy receptors recruit LC3-labeled autophagic membranes onto damaged mitochondria, how other essential autophagy units such as ATG9A-integrated vesicles are recruited remains unclear. Here, using mammalian cultured cells, we demonstrate that RABGEF1, the upstream factor of the endosomal Rab GTPase cascade, is recruited to damaged mitochondria via ubiquitin binding downstream of Parkin. RABGEF1 directs the downstream Rab proteins, RAB5 and RAB7A, to damaged mitochondria, whose associations are further regulated by mitochondrial Rab-GAPs. Furthermore, depletion of RAB7A inhibited ATG9A vesicle assembly and subsequent encapsulation of the mitochondria by autophagic membranes. These results strongly suggest that endosomal Rab cycles on damaged mitochondria are a crucial regulator of mitophagy through assembling ATG9A vesicles.

Funding information:
  • Japan Science and Technology Agency - JPMJCR13M7(International)
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - 16K15095(International)
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - JP15H01196(International)
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - JP16K18545(International)
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - JP26000014(International)
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - JP26111729(International)
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - JP26840033(International)
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - R03 DE018415-02(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - Intramural program(United States)

Inducible and reversible phenotypes in a novel mouse model of Friedreich's Ataxia.

  • Chandran V
  • Elife
  • 2017 Dec 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), the most common inherited ataxia, is caused by recessive mutations that reduce the levels of frataxin (FXN), a mitochondrial iron binding protein. We developed an inducible mouse model of Fxn deficiency that enabled us to control the onset and progression of disease phenotypes by the modulation of Fxn levels. Systemic knockdown of Fxn in adult mice led to multiple phenotypes paralleling those observed in human patients across multiple organ systems. By reversing knockdown after clinical features appear, we were able to determine to what extent observed phenotypes represent reversible cellular dysfunction. Remarkably, upon restoration of near wild-type FXN levels, we observed significant recovery of function, associated pathology and transcriptomic dysregulation even after substantial motor dysfunction and pathology were observed. This model will be of broad utility in therapeutic development and in refining our understanding of the relative contribution of reversible cellular dysfunction at different stages in disease.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR019391(United States)

Sperm Release at Spermiation Is Regulated by Changes in the Organization of Actin- and Microtubule-Based Cytoskeletons at the Apical Ectoplasmic Specialization-A Study Using the Adjudin Model.

  • Li L
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mechanism that regulates sperm release at spermiation is unknown. Herein, we used an animal model wherein rats were treated with adjudin, 1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carbohydrazide, via oral gavage to induce premature release of elongating/elongated spermatids, followed by round spermatids and spermatocytes. Spermatid release mimicking spermiation occurred within 6 to 12 hours following adjudin treatment and, by 96 hours, virtually all tubules were devoid of elongating/elongated spermatids. Using this model, we tracked the organization of F-actin and microtubules (MTs) by immunofluorescence microscopy, and the association of actin or MT regulatory proteins that either promote or demolish cytoskeletal integrity through changes in the organization of actin microfilaments or MTs by coimmunoprecipitation. Adjudin treatment induced an increase in the association of (1) epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (an actin barbed-end capping and bundling protein) or formin 1 (an actin nucleator) with actin and (2) end-binding protein 1 (an MT stabilizing protein) with MT shortly after adjudin exposure (at 6 hours), in an attempt to maintain spermatid adhesion to the Sertoli cell at the apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES). However, this was followed by a considerable decline of their steady-state protein levels, replacing with an increase in association of (1) actin-related protein 3 (a branched actin nucleator that converts actin filaments into a branched/unbundled network) with actin and (2) MT affinity-regulating kinase 4 (an MT destabilizing protein kinase) with MTs by 12 hours after adjudin treatment. These latter changes thus promoted actin and MT disorganization, leading to apical ES disruption and the release of elongating/elongated spermatids, mimicking spermiation. In summary, spermiation is a cytoskeletal-dependent event, involving regulatory proteins that modify cytoskeletal organization.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM071603(United States)

Immunohistochemical detection of vimentin in pancreatic islet β- and α-cells of macrosomic infants of diabetic and nondiabetic mothers.

  • Krivova YS
  • Early Hum. Dev.
  • 2017 Dec 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Expression of the intermediate filament protein vimentin has been recently observed in the pancreatic islet β- and α-cells of humans with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was suggested that the presence of vimentin in endocrine cells may indicate islet tissue renewal, or potentially represent the dedifferentiation of endocrine cells, which could contribute to the onset of type 2 diabetes or islet cell dysfunction. AIM: To analyze the expression of vimentin in pancreatic β- and α-cells of macrosomic infants of diabetic and nondiabetic mothers. SUBJECTS: Pancreatic samples of five macrosomic infants (gestational age 34-40weeks) from three diabetic and two nondiabetic mothers were compared to six control infants (32-40weeks, weight appropriate for gestational age) from normoglycemic mothers. METHODS: Pancreatic autopsy samples were examined by double immunofluorescent labeling with antibodies against vimentin and either insulin or glucagon. Alterations in the endocrine pancreas were measured using morphometric methods, then data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: In the pancreatic islets of macrosomic infants from diabetic and nondiabetic mothers, we observed vimentin-positive cells, some of which simultaneously contained insulin or glucagon. We also quantitatively showed that the presence of such cells was associated with hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the islets, and with an increase in β- and α-cell density. CONCLUSIONS: We speculate that the appearance of vimentin-positive islet cells may reflect induction of differentiation in response to the increased insulin demand, and vimentin may serve as an early marker of endocrine pancreas disorders.

Atg5 Disassociates the V1V0-ATPase to Promote Exosome Production and Tumor Metastasis Independent of Canonical Macroautophagy.

  • Guo H
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Dec 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Autophagy and autophagy-related genes (Atg) have been attributed prominent roles in tumorigenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis. Extracellular vesicles called exosomes are also implicated in cancer metastasis. Here, we demonstrate that exosome production is strongly reduced in cells lacking Atg5 and Atg16L1, but this is independent of Atg7 and canonical autophagy. Atg5 specifically decreases acidification of late endosomes where exosomes are produced, disrupting the acidifying V1V0-ATPase by removing a regulatory component, ATP6V1E1, into exosomes. The effect of Atg5 on exosome production promotes the migration and in vivo metastasis of orthotopic breast cancer cells. These findings uncover mechanisms controlling exosome release and identify means by which autophagy-related genes can contribute to metastasis in autophagy-independent pathways.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR40864(United States)

Generation of hiPSTZ16 (ISMMSi003-A) cell line from normal human foreskin fibroblasts.

  • Dejosez M
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2017 Dec 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Human foreskin fibroblasts from a commercial source were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells to establish a clonal stem cell line, hiPSTZ16 (ISMMSi003-A). These cells show a normal karyotype and full differentiation potential in teratoma assays. The described cells provide a useful resource in combination with other iPS cell lines generated from normal human foreskin fibroblasts to study source- and reprogramming method-independent effects in downstream applications.

A Highly Pathogenic Avian H7N9 Influenza Virus Isolated from A Human Is Lethal in Some Ferrets Infected via Respiratory Droplets.

  • Imai M
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 Nov 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Low pathogenic H7N9 influenza viruses have recently evolved to become highly pathogenic, raising concerns of a pandemic, particularly if these viruses acquire efficient human-to-human transmissibility. We compared a low pathogenic H7N9 virus with a highly pathogenic isolate, and two of its variants that represent neuraminidase inhibitor-sensitive and -resistant subpopulations detected within the isolate. The highly pathogenic H7N9 viruses replicated efficiently in mice, ferrets, and/or nonhuman primates, and were more pathogenic in mice and ferrets than the low pathogenic H7N9 virus, with the exception of the neuraminidase inhibitor-resistant virus, which showed mild-to-moderate attenuation. All viruses transmitted among ferrets via respiratory droplets, and the neuraminidase-sensitive variant killed several of the infected and exposed animals. Neuraminidase inhibitors showed limited effectiveness against these viruses in vivo, but the viruses were susceptible to a polymerase inhibitor. These results suggest that the highly pathogenic H7N9 virus has pandemic potential and should be closely monitored.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - HHSN272201400008C()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI114730()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM044844(United States)

A Split-Abl Kinase for Direct Activation in Cells.

  • Diaz JE
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2017 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

To dissect the cellular roles of individual kinases, it is useful to design tools for their selective activation. We describe the engineering of a split-cAbl kinase (sKin-Abl) that is rapidly activated in cells with rapamycin and allows temporal, dose, and compartmentalization control. Our design strategy involves an empirical screen in mammalian cells and identification of split site in the N lobe. This split site leads to complete loss of activity, which can be restored upon small-molecule-induced dimerization in cells. Remarkably, the split site is transportable to the related Src Tyr kinase and the distantly related Ser/Thr kinase, AKT, suggesting broader applications to kinases. To quantify the fold induction of phosphotyrosine (pTyr) modification, we employed quantitative proteomics, NeuCode SILAC. We identified a number of known Abl substrates, including autophosphorylation sites and novel pTyr targets, 432 pTyr sites in total. We believe that this split-kinase technology will be useful for direct activation of protein kinases in cells.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA191018()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - F32 GM089082()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P41 GM108538()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM097316()
  • NLM NIH HHS - T15 LM007359()

Restoration of Replication Fork Stability in BRCA1- and BRCA2-Deficient Cells by Inactivation of SNF2-Family Fork Remodelers.

  • Taglialatela A
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

To ensure the completion of DNA replication and maintenance of genome integrity, DNA repair factors protect stalled replication forks upon replication stress. Previous studies have identified a critical role for the tumor suppressors BRCA1 and BRCA2 in preventing the degradation of nascent DNA by the MRE11 nuclease after replication stress. Here we show that depletion of SMARCAL1, a SNF2-family DNA translocase that remodels stalled forks, restores replication fork stability and reduces the formation of replication stress-induced DNA breaks and chromosomal aberrations in BRCA1/2-deficient cells. In addition to SMARCAL1, other SNF2-family fork remodelers, including ZRANB3 and HLTF, cause nascent DNA degradation and genomic instability in BRCA1/2-deficient cells upon replication stress. Our observations indicate that nascent DNA degradation in BRCA1/2-deficient cells occurs as a consequence of MRE11-dependent nucleolytic processing of reversed forks generated by fork remodelers. These studies provide mechanistic insights into the processes that cause genome instability in BRCA1/2-deficient cells.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA197774()

Astrocyte-Secreted Glypican 4 Regulates Release of Neuronal Pentraxin 1 from Axons to Induce Functional Synapse Formation.

  • Farhy-Tselnicker I
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Oct 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

The generation of precise synaptic connections between developing neurons is critical to the formation of functional neural circuits. Astrocyte-secreted glypican 4 induces formation of active excitatory synapses by recruiting AMPA glutamate receptors to the postsynaptic cell surface. We now identify the molecular mechanism of how glypican 4 exerts its effect. Glypican 4 induces release of the AMPA receptor clustering factor neuronal pentraxin 1 from presynaptic terminals by signaling through presynaptic protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor δ. Pentraxin then accumulates AMPA receptors on the postsynaptic terminal forming functional synapses. Our findings reveal a signaling pathway that regulates synaptic activity during central nervous system development and demonstrates a role for astrocytes as organizers of active synaptic connections by coordinating both pre and post synaptic neurons. As mutations in glypicans are associated with neurological disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia, this signaling cascade offers new avenues to modulate synaptic function in disease.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS089791()
  • Wellcome Trust - P30 NS072031()

Control of Cell Shape, Neurite Outgrowth, and Migration by a Nogo-A/HSPG Interaction.

  • Kempf A
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Oct 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) critically modulate adhesion-, growth-, and migration-related processes. Here, we show that the transmembrane protein, Nogo-A, inhibits neurite outgrowth and cell spreading in neurons and Nogo-A-responsive cell lines via HSPGs. The extracellular, active 180 amino acid Nogo-A region, named Nogo-A-Δ20, binds to heparin and brain-derived heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) but not to the closely related chondroitin sulfate GAGs. HSPGs are required for Nogo-A-Δ20-induced inhibition of adhesion, cell spreading, and neurite outgrowth, as well as for RhoA activation. Surprisingly, we show that Nogo-A-Δ20 can act via HSPGs independently of its receptor, Sphingosine-1-Phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2). We thereby identify the HSPG family members syndecan-3 and syndecan-4 as functional receptors for Nogo-A-Δ20. Finally, we show in explant cultures ex vivo that Nogo-A-Δ20 promotes the migration of neuroblasts via HSPGs but not S1PR2.

Differential expression of long-term potentiation among identified inhibitory inputs to dopamine neurons.

  • Simmons DV
  • J. Neurophysiol.
  • 2017 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The in vivo firing pattern of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons is controlled by GABA afferents originating primarily from the nucleus accumbens (NAc), rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), and local GABA neurons within the VTA. Although different forms of plasticity have been observed from GABA inputs to VTA dopamine neurons, one dependent on cyclic GMP synthesis and the other on adenylyl cyclase activation, it is unknown whether plasticity is differentially expressed in each. Using an optogenetic strategy, we show that identified inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) from local VTA GABA neurons and NAc afferents exhibit a cyclic GMP-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) that is capable of inhibiting the firing activity of dopamine neurons. However, this form of LTP was not induced from RMTg afferents. Only an adenylyl cyclase-mediated increase in IPSCs was exhibited by all three inputs. Thus discrete plasticity mechanisms recruit overlapping but different subsets of GABA inputs to VTA dopamine neurons.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We describe a mapping of plasticity expression, mediated by different mechanisms, among three distinct GABA afferents to ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons: the rostromedial tegmental nucleus, the nucleus accumbens, and the local GABA neurons within the VTA known to synapse on VTA dopamine neurons. This work is the first demonstration that discrete plasticity mechanisms recruit overlapping but different subsets of GABA inputs to VTA dopamine neurons.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA030530()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH107229()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - 5R01NS052634(United States)

A Dual Role of Caspase-8 in Triggering and Sensing Proliferation-Associated DNA Damage, a Key Determinant of Liver Cancer Development.

  • Boege Y
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Sep 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Concomitant hepatocyte apoptosis and regeneration is a hallmark of chronic liver diseases (CLDs) predisposing to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we mechanistically link caspase-8-dependent apoptosis to HCC development via proliferation- and replication-associated DNA damage. Proliferation-associated replication stress, DNA damage, and genetic instability are detectable in CLDs before any neoplastic changes occur. Accumulated levels of hepatocyte apoptosis determine and predict subsequent hepatocarcinogenesis. Proliferation-associated DNA damage is sensed by a complex comprising caspase-8, FADD, c-FLIP, and a kinase-dependent function of RIPK1. This platform requires a non-apoptotic function of caspase-8, but no caspase-3 or caspase-8 cleavage. It may represent a DNA damage-sensing mechanism in hepatocytes that can act via JNK and subsequent phosphorylation of the histone variant H2AX.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK107220()

Epitranscriptomic Enhancement of Influenza A Virus Gene Expression and Replication.

  • Courtney DG
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 Sep 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Many viral RNAs are modified by methylation of the N6 position of adenosine (m6A). m6A is thought to regulate RNA splicing, stability, translation, and secondary structure. Influenza A virus (IAV) expresses m6A-modified RNAs, but the effects of m6A on this segmented RNA virus remain unclear. We demonstrate that global inhibition of m6A addition inhibits IAV gene expression and replication. In contrast, overexpression of the cellular m6A "reader" protein YTHDF2 increases IAV gene expression and replication. To address whether m6A residues modulate IAV RNA function in cis, we mapped m6A residues on the IAV plus (mRNA) and minus (vRNA) strands and used synonymous mutations to ablate m6A on both strands of the hemagglutinin (HA) segment. These mutations inhibited HA mRNA and protein expression while leaving other IAV mRNAs and proteins unaffected, and they also resulted in reduced IAV pathogenicity in mice. Thus, m6A residues in IAV transcripts enhance viral gene expression.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA009111()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R21 AI130574()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007184()

Nogo-B is the major form of Nogo at the floor plate and likely mediates crossing of commissural axons in the mouse spinal cord.

  • Wang L
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Using Nogo antibodies with defined binding specificity, Nogo-B, but not Nogo-A, was localized on radial glia in the floor plate of mouse embryos. The presence of Nogo-B was confirmed in Nogo-A knockout mice. In explant cultures of embryonic day (E) 11 and E12 spinal cord, blocking of NgR function with antagonist peptide NEP1-40 reduced the crossing of newly arrived commissural axons, resulting in an accumulation of growth cones in the floor plate. Analysis of growth cone morphology demonstrated an increase in size of growth cones in the floor plate after peptide treatment, which was not detected in axons growing toward the midline. In knockout embryos, midline crossing was not affected by absence of Nogo-A. In co-culture experiments using collagen gel, floor plate showed a strong inhibitory effect on the extension of post-commissural neurites from the spinal cord. This effect was abolished by NEP1-40, and was observed neither in pre-commissural neurites, nor in post-commissural neurites grown with floor plate derived from Nogo-A knockout embryo. Furthermore, western blot analysis of conditioned medium from floor plates showed a truncated form of Nogo with molecular weight of 37 kDa, which could mediate the diffusible effect to axon growth. We conclude that Nogo-B is expressed in the floor plate of mouse embryo, which probably mediates axon crossing in the spinal cord by repelling axons out of the midline when they start upregulate NgR. Nogo acts on axon growth not only through a contact-mediated mechanism, but also through a diffusible mechanism.

aPKC Cycles between Functionally Distinct PAR Protein Assemblies to Drive Cell Polarity.

  • Rodriguez J
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Aug 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

The conserved polarity effector proteins PAR-3, PAR-6, CDC-42, and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) form a core unit of the PAR protein network, which plays a central role in polarizing a broad range of animal cell types. To functionally polarize cells, these proteins must activate aPKC within a spatially defined membrane domain on one side of the cell in response to symmetry-breaking cues. Using the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote as a model, we find that the localization and activation of aPKC involve distinct, specialized aPKC-containing assemblies: a PAR-3-dependent assembly that responds to polarity cues and promotes efficient segregation of aPKC toward the anterior but holds aPKC in an inactive state, and a CDC-42-dependent assembly in which aPKC is active but poorly segregated. Cycling of aPKC between these distinct functional assemblies, which appears to depend on aPKC activity, effectively links cue-sensing and effector roles within the PAR network to ensure robust establishment of polarity.

The High-Affinity Interaction between ORC and DNA that Is Required for Replication Licensing Is Inhibited by 2-Arylquinolin-4-Amines.

  • Gardner NJ
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2017 Aug 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

In late mitosis and G1, origins of DNA replication must be "licensed" for use in the upcoming S phase by being encircled by double hexamers of the minichromosome maintenance proteins MCM2-7. A "licensing checkpoint" delays cells in G1 until sufficient origins have been licensed, but this checkpoint is lost in cancer cells. Inhibition of licensing can therefore kill cancer cells while only delaying normal cells in G1. In a high-throughput cell-based screen for licensing inhibitors we identified a family of 2-arylquinolin-4-amines, the most potent of which we call RL5a. The binding of the origin recognition complex (ORC) to origin DNA is the first step of the licensing reaction. We show that RL5a prevents ORC forming a tight complex with DNA that is required for MCM2-7 loading. Formation of this ORC-DNA complex requires ATP, and we show that RL5a inhibits ORC allosterically to mimic a lack of ATP.

Attenuating Staphylococcus aureus Virulence by Targeting Flotillin Protein Scaffold Activity.

  • Koch G
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2017 Jul 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Scaffold proteins are ubiquitous chaperones that bind proteins and facilitate physical interaction of multi-enzyme complexes. Here we used a biochemical approach to dissect the scaffold activity of the flotillin-homolog protein FloA of the multi-drug-resistant human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. We show that FloA promotes oligomerization of membrane protein complexes, such as the membrane-associated RNase Rny, which forms part of the RNA-degradation machinery called the degradosome. Cells lacking FloA had reduced Rny function and a consequent increase in the targeted sRNA transcripts that negatively regulate S. aureus toxin expression. Small molecules that altered FloA oligomerization also reduced Rny function and decreased the virulence potential of S. aureus in vitro, as well as in vivo, using invertebrate and murine infection models. Our results suggest that flotillin assists in the assembly of protein complexes involved in S. aureus virulence, and could thus be an attractive target for the development of new antimicrobial therapies.

Wnt-Dependent Inactivation of the Groucho/TLE Co-repressor by the HECT E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Hyd/UBR5.

  • Flack JE
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Jul 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Extracellular signals are transduced to the cell nucleus by effectors that bind to enhancer complexes to operate transcriptional switches. For example, the Wnt enhanceosome is a multiprotein complex associated with Wnt-responsive enhancers through T cell factors (TCF) and kept silent by Groucho/TLE co-repressors. Wnt-activated β-catenin binds to TCF to overcome this repression, but how it achieves this is unknown. Here, we discover that this process depends on the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase Hyd/UBR5, which is required for Wnt signal responses in Drosophila and human cell lines downstream of activated Armadillo/β-catenin. We identify Groucho/TLE as a functionally relevant substrate, whose ubiquitylation by UBR5 is induced by Wnt signaling and conferred by β-catenin. Inactivation of TLE by UBR5-dependent ubiquitylation also involves VCP/p97, an AAA ATPase regulating the folding of various cellular substrates including ubiquitylated chromatin proteins. Thus, Groucho/TLE ubiquitylation by Hyd/UBR5 is a key prerequisite that enables Armadillo/β-catenin to activate transcription.

SAF-A Regulates Interphase Chromosome Structure through Oligomerization with Chromatin-Associated RNAs.

  • Nozawa RS
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Higher eukaryotic chromosomes are organized into topologically constrained functional domains; however, the molecular mechanisms required to sustain these complex interphase chromatin structures are unknown. A stable matrix underpinning nuclear organization was hypothesized, but the idea was abandoned as more dynamic models of chromatin behavior became prevalent. Here, we report that scaffold attachment factor A (SAF-A), originally identified as a structural nuclear protein, interacts with chromatin-associated RNAs (caRNAs) via its RGG domain to regulate human interphase chromatin structures in a transcription-dependent manner. Mechanistically, this is dependent on SAF-A's AAA+ ATPase domain, which mediates cycles of protein oligomerization with caRNAs, in response to ATP binding and hydrolysis. SAF-A oligomerization decompacts large-scale chromatin structure while SAF-A loss or monomerization promotes aberrant chromosome folding and accumulation of genome damage. Our results show that SAF-A and caRNAs form a dynamic, transcriptionally responsive chromatin mesh that organizes large-scale chromosome structures and protects the genome from instability.

Distribution of ELOVL4 in the Developing and Adult Mouse Brain.

  • Sherry DM
  • Front Neuroanat
  • 2017 May 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

ELOngation of Very Long chain fatty acids (ELOVL)-4 is essential for the synthesis of very long chain-fatty acids (fatty acids with chain lengths ≥ 28 carbons). The functions of ELOVL4 and its very long-chain fatty acid products are poorly understood at present. However, mutations in ELOVL4 cause neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative diseases that vary according to the mutation and inheritance pattern. Heterozygous inheritance of different ELOVL4 mutations causes Stargardt-like Macular Dystrophy or Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 34. Homozygous inheritance of ELOVL4 mutations causes more severe disease characterized by seizures, intellectual disability, ichthyosis, and premature death. To better understand ELOVL4 and very long chain fatty acid function in the brain, we examined ELOVL4 expression in the mouse brain between embryonic day 18 and postnatal day 60 by immunolabeling using ELOVL4 and other marker antibodies. ELOVL4 was widely expressed in a region- and cell type-specific manner, and was restricted to cell bodies, consistent with its known localization to endoplasmic reticulum. ELOVL4 labeling was most prominent in gray matter, although labeling also was present in some cells located in white matter. ELOVL4 was widely expressed in the developing brain by embryonic day 18 and was especially pronounced in regions underlying the lateral ventricles and other neurogenic regions. The basal ganglia in particular showed intense ELOVL4 labeling at this stage. In the postnatal brain, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, pons, and medulla all showed prominent ELOVL4 labeling, although ELOVL4 distribution was not uniform across all cells or subnuclei within these regions. In contrast, the basal ganglia showed little ELOVL4 labeling in the postnatal brain. Double labeling studies showed that ELOVL4 was primarily expressed by neurons, although presumptive oligodendrocytes located in white matter tracts also showed labeling. Little or no ELOVL4 labeling was present in astrocytes or radial glial cells. These findings suggest that ELOVL4 and its very long chain fatty acid products are important in many parts of the brain and that they are particularly associated with neuronal function. Specific roles for ELOVL4 and its products in oligodendrocytes and myelin and in cellular proliferation, especially during development, are possible.

Large Cytoplasm Is Linked to the Error-Prone Nature of Oocytes.

  • Kyogoku H
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 May 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chromosome segregation during meiosis in oocytes is error prone. The uniquely large cytoplasmic size of oocytes, which provides support for embryogenesis after fertilization, might be a predisposing factor for meiotic errors. However, this hypothesis remains unproven. Here, we show that cytoplasmic size affects the functionality of the acentrosomal spindle. Artificially decreasing the cytoplasmic size in mouse oocytes allows the acentrosomal spindle poles to have a better-focused distribution of microtubule-organizing centers and to biorient chromosomes more efficiently, whereas enlargement of the cytoplasmic size has the opposite effects. Moreover, we found that the cytoplasmic size-dependent dilution of nuclear factors, including anaphase inhibitors that are preformed at the nuclear membrane, limits the spindle's capacity to prevent anaphase entry with misaligned chromosomes. The present study defines a large cytoplasmic volume as a cell-intrinsic feature linked to the error-prone nature of oocytes. This may represent a trade-off between meiotic fidelity and post-fertilization developmental competence.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY022030-03(United States)

Small-Molecule Stabilization of 14-3-3 Protein-Protein Interactions Stimulates Axon Regeneration.

  • Kaplan A
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Mar 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Damaged central nervous system (CNS) neurons have a poor ability to spontaneously regenerate, causing persistent functional deficits after injury. Therapies that stimulate axon growth are needed to repair CNS damage. 14-3-3 adaptors are hub proteins that are attractive targets to manipulate cell signaling. We identify a positive role for 14-3-3s in axon growth and uncover a developmental regulation of the phosphorylation and function of 14-3-3s. We show that fusicoccin-A (FC-A), a small-molecule stabilizer of 14-3-3 protein-protein interactions, stimulates axon growth in vitro and regeneration in vivo. We show that FC-A stabilizes a complex between 14-3-3 and the stress response regulator GCN1, inducing GCN1 turnover and neurite outgrowth. These findings show that 14-3-3 adaptor protein complexes are druggable targets and identify a new class of small molecules that may be further optimized for the repair of CNS damage.

The PERK arm of the unfolded protein response regulates satellite cell-mediated skeletal muscle regeneration.

  • Xiong G
  • Elife
  • 2017 Mar 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Regeneration of skeletal muscle in adults is mediated by satellite stem cells. Accumulation of misfolded proteins triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress that leads to unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR is relayed to the cell through the activation of PERK, IRE1/XBP1, and ATF6. Here, we demonstrate that levels of PERK and IRE1 are increased in satellite cells upon muscle injury. Inhibition of PERK, but not the IRE1 arm of the UPR in satellite cells inhibits myofiber regeneration in adult mice. PERK is essential for the survival and differentiation of activated satellite cells into the myogenic lineage. Deletion of PERK causes hyper-activation of p38 MAPK during myogenesis. Blocking p38 MAPK activity improves the survival and differentiation of PERK-deficient satellite cells in vitro and muscle formation in vivo. Collectively, our results suggest that the PERK arm of the UPR plays a pivotal role in the regulation of satellite cell homeostasis during regenerative myogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG029623()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR059810()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR068313()

Caspase-8 Acts in a Non-enzymatic Role as a Scaffold for Assembly of a Pro-inflammatory "FADDosome" Complex upon TRAIL Stimulation.

  • Henry CM
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Feb 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

TRAIL is a potent inducer of apoptosis and has been studied almost exclusively in this context. However, TRAIL can also induce NFκB-dependent expression of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Surprisingly, whereas inhibition of caspase activity blocked TRAIL-induced apoptosis, but not cytokine production, knock down or deletion of caspase-8 suppressed both outcomes, suggesting that caspase-8 participates in TRAIL-induced inflammatory signaling in a scaffold role. Consistent with this, introduction of a catalytically inactive caspase-8 mutant into CASP-8 null cells restored TRAIL-induced cytokine production, but not cell death. Furthermore, affinity precipitation of the native TRAIL receptor complex revealed that pro-caspase-8 was required for recruitment of RIPK1, via FADD, to promote NFκB activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production downstream. Thus, caspase-8 can serve in two distinct roles in response to TRAIL receptor engagement, as a scaffold for assembly of a Caspase-8-FADD-RIPK1 "FADDosome" complex, leading to NFκB-dependent inflammation, or as a protease that promotes apoptosis.

Funding information:
  • Worldwide Cancer Research - 14-0323()

Sex-Dependent Regulation of Aromatase-Mediated Synaptic Plasticity in the Basolateral Amygdala.

  • Bender RA
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Feb 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

The basolateral amygdala (BLA) integrates sensory input from cortical and subcortical regions, a function that requires marked synaptic plasticity. Here we provide evidence that cytochrome P450 aromatase (AROM), the enzyme converting testosterone to 17β-estradiol (E2), contributes to the regulation of this plasticity in a sex-specific manner. We show that AROM is expressed in the BLA, particularly in the basolateral nucleus (BL), in male and female rodents. Systemic administration of the AROM inhibitor letrozole reduced spine synapse density in the BL of adult female mice but not in the BL of male mice. Similarly, in organotypic corticoamygdalar slice cultures from immature rats, treatment with letrozole significantly reduced spine synapses in the BL only in cultures derived from females. In addition, letrozole sex-specifically altered synaptic properties in the BL: in acute slices from juvenile (prepubertal) female rats, wash-in of letrozole virtually abolished long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas it did not prevent the generation of LTP in the slices from males. Together, these data indicate that neuron-derived E2 modulates synaptic plasticity in rodent BLA sex-dependently. As protein expression levels of AROM, estrogen and androgen receptors did not differ between males and females and were not sex-specifically altered by letrozole, the findings suggest sex-specific mechanisms of E2 signaling.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a key structure of the fear circuit. This research reveals a sexually dimorphic regulation of synaptic plasticity in the BLA involving neuronal aromatase, which produces the neurosteroid 17β-estradiol (E2). As male and female neurons in rodent BLA responded differently to aromatase inhibition both in vivo and in vitro, our findings suggest that E2 signaling in BLA neurons is regulated sex-dependently, presumably via mechanisms that have been established during sexual determination. These findings could be relevant for the understanding of sex differences in mood disorders and of the side effects of cytochrome P450 aromatase inhibitors, which are frequently used for breast cancer therapy.

Antibody Validation in Bioimaging Applications Based on Endogenous Expression of Tagged Proteins.

  • Skogs M
  • J. Proteome Res.
  • 2017 Jan 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Antibodies are indispensible research tools, yet the scientific community has not adopted standardized procedures to validate their specificity. Here we present a strategy to systematically validate antibodies for immunofluorescence (IF) applications using gene tagging. We have assessed the on- and off-target binding capabilities of 197 antibodies using 108 cell lines expressing EGFP-tagged target proteins at endogenous levels. Furthermore, we assessed batch-to-batch effects for 35 target proteins, showing that both the on- and off-target binding patterns vary significantly between antibody batches and that the proposed strategy serves as a reliable procedure for ensuring reproducibility upon production of new antibody batches. In summary, we present a systematic scheme for antibody validation in IF applications using endogenous expression of tagged proteins. This is an important step toward a reproducible approach for context- and application-specific antibody validation and improved reliability of antibody-based experiments and research data.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01DK106104(United States)

A Surveillance Mechanism Ensures Repair of DNA Lesions during Zygotic Reprogramming.

  • Ladstätter S
  • Cell
  • 2016 Dec 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Sexual reproduction culminates in a totipotent zygote with the potential to produce a whole organism. Sperm chromatin reorganization and epigenetic reprogramming that alter DNA and histone modifications generate a totipotent embryo. Active DNA demethylation of the paternal genome has been proposed to involve base excision and DNA repair-based mechanisms. The nature and consequence of DNA lesions generated during reprogramming are not known. Using mouse genetics and chemical biology, we discovered that Tet3-dependent zygotic reprogramming generates paternal DNA lesions that are monitored by a surveillance mechanism. In vivo structure-function rescue assays revealed that cohesin-dependent repair of paternal DNA lesions prevents activation of a Chk1-dependent checkpoint that delays mitotic entry. Culturing conditions affect checkpoint stringency, which has implications for human in vitro fertilization. We propose the zygotic checkpoint senses DNA lesions generated during paternal DNA demethylation and ensures reprogrammed loci are repaired before mitosis to prevent chromosome fragmentation, embryo loss, and infertility.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL070029(United States)

Protein synthetic machinery and mRNA in regenerating tips of spinal cord axons in lamprey.

  • Jin LQ
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Polyribosomes, mRNA, and other elements of translational machinery have been reported in peripheral nerves and in elongating injured axons of sensory neurons in vitro, primarily in growth cones. Evidence for involvement of local protein synthesis in regenerating central nervous system (CNS) axons is less extensive. We monitored regeneration of back-labeled lamprey spinal axons after spinal cord transection and detected mRNA in axon tips by in situ hybridization and microaspiration of their axoplasm. Poly(A)+mRNA was present in the axon tips, and was more abundant in actively regenerating tips than in static or retracting ones. Target-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in situ hybridization revealed plentiful mRNA for the low molecular neurofilament subunit and β-tubulin, but very little for β-actin, consistent with the morphology of their tips, which lack filopodia and lamellipodia. Electron microscopy showed ribosomes/polyribosomes in the distal parts of axon tips and in association with vesicle-like membranes, primarily in the tip. In one instance, there were structures with the appearance of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Immunohistochemistry showed patches of ribosomal protein S6 positivity in a similar distribution. The results suggest that local protein synthesis might be involved in the mechanism of axon regeneration in the lamprey spinal cord. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3614-3640, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Neonatal disease environment limits the efficacy of retinal transplantation in the LCA8 mouse model.

  • Cho SH
  • BMC Ophthalmol
  • 2016 Nov 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Mutations of Crb1 gene cause irreversible and incurable visual impairment in humans. This study aims to use an LCA8-like mouse model to identify host-mediated responses that might interfere with survival, retinal integration and differentiation of grafted cells during neonatal cell therapy. METHODS: Mixed retinal donor cells (1 ~ 2 × 104) isolated from neural retinas of neonatal eGFP transgenic mice were injected into the subretinal space of LCA8-like model neonatal mice. Markers of specific cell types were used to analyze microglial attraction, CSPG induction and retinal cell differentiation. The positions of host retinal cells were traced according to their laminar location during disease progression to look for host cell rearrangements that might inhibit retinal integration of the transplanted cells. RESULTS: Transplanted retinal cells showed poor survival and attracted microglial cells, but CSPG was not greatly induced. Retinas of the LCA8 model hosts underwent significant cellular rearrangement, including rosette formation and apical displacement of inner retinal cells. CONCLUSIONS: Local disease environment, particularly host immune responses to injected cells and formation of a physical barrier caused by apical migration of host retinal cells upon disruption of outer limiting membrane, may impose two major barriers in LCAs cell transplantation therapy.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS083726(United States)

Individual sympathetic postganglionic neurons coinnervate myenteric ganglia and smooth muscle layers in the gastrointestinal tract of the rat.

  • Walter GC
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

A full description of the terminal architecture of sympathetic axons innervating the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has not been available. To label sympathetic fibers projecting to the gut muscle wall, dextran biotin was injected into the celiac and superior mesenteric ganglia (CSMG) of rats. Nine days postinjection, animals were euthanized and stomachs and small intestines were processed as whole mounts (submucosa and mucosa removed) to examine CSMG efferent terminals. Myenteric neurons were counterstained with Cuprolinic Blue; catecholaminergic axons were stained immunohistochemically for tyrosine hydroxylase. Essentially all dextran-labeled axons (135 of 136 sampled) were tyrosine hydroxylase-positive. Complete postganglionic arbors (n = 154) in the muscle wall were digitized and analyzed morphometrically. Individual sympathetic axons formed complex arbors of varicose neurites within myenteric ganglia/primary plexus and, concomitantly, long rectilinear arrays of neurites within circular muscle/secondary plexus or longitudinal muscle/tertiary plexus. Very few CSMG neurons projected exclusively (i.e., ∼100% of an arbor's varicose branches) to myenteric plexus (∼2%) or smooth muscle (∼14%). With less stringent inclusion criteria (i.e., ≥85% of an axon's varicose branches), larger minorities of neurons projected predominantly to either myenteric plexus (∼13%) or smooth muscle (∼27%). The majority (i.e., ∼60%) of all individual CSMG postganglionics formed mixed, heterotypic arbors that coinnervated extensively (>15% of their varicose branches per target) both myenteric ganglia and smooth muscle. The fact that ∼87% of all sympathetics projected either extensively or even predominantly to smooth muscle, while simultaneously contacting myenteric plexus, is consistent with the view that these neurons control GI muscle directly, if not exclusively. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2577-2603, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - U01 MH105971(United States)

Isoform-specific localization of Nogo protein in the optic pathway of mouse embryos.

  • Wang L
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Aug 1

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Abstract:

Expression of Nogo protein was investigated in the optic pathway of embryonic mice by using isoform-specific antibodies Bianca and 11C7, which recognize Nogo-A/B and Nogo-A, respectively. Our previous reports from using antibody N18 have shown that Nogo is localized on the radial glia in the retina and at the midline of the ventral diencephalon in mouse embryos during the ingrowth of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) axons. This glial-specific localization is markedly different from findings in other studies. This study showed Nogo-A/B primarily on radial glia in the retina at E13 and then later on retinal ganglion cells and axons at E14 and E15, whereas Nogo-A was expressed preferentially by RGCs and their axons. In the ventral diencephalon, Nogo-A/B was expressed strongly on radial glia, particularly in those located in the midline region of the chiasm but also on RGC axons. In Nogo-A knockout embryos, the isoform Nogo-B (revealed by Bianca) was observed on radial glia in the ventral diencephalon and on RGCs and their axons. We concluded that Nogo-A is localized on the ganglion cells and retinal axons, whereas Nogo-B is expressed by the radial glia in the optic pathway. Nogo-B may play an important role in guiding axon growth in decisive regions of the visual pathway, which include the optic disc and the optic chiasm. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2322-2334, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL122494(United States)

Recurrent Inhibition to the Medial Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body in the Mongolian Gerbil (Meriones Unguiculatus).

  • Dondzillo A
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2016 Aug 5

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Abstract:

Principal neurons in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) receive strong and temporally precise excitatory input from globular bushy cells in the cochlear nucleus through the calyx of Held. The extremely large synaptic currents produced by the calyx have sometimes led to the view of the MNTB as a simple relay synapse which converts incoming excitation to outgoing inhibition. However, electrophysiological and anatomical studies have shown the additional presence of inhibitory glycinergic currents that are large enough to suppress action potentials in MNTB neurons at least in some cases. The source(s) of glycinergic inhibition to MNTB are not fully understood. One major extrinsic source of glycinergic inhibitory input to MNTB is the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body. However, it has been suggested that MNTB neurons receive additional inhibitory inputs via intrinsic connections (collaterals of glycinergic projections of MNTB neurons). While several authors have postulated their presence, these collaterals have never been examined in detail. Here we test the hypothesis that collaterals of MNTB principal cells provide glycinergic inhibition to the MNTB. We injected dye into single principal neurons in the MNTB, traced their projections, and immunohistochemically identified their synapses. We found that collaterals terminate within the MNTB and provide an additional source of inhibition to other principal cells, creating an inhibitory microcircuit within the MNTB. Only about a quarter to a third of MNTB neurons receive such collateral inputs. This microcircuit could produce side band inhibition and enhance frequency tuning of MNTB neurons, consistent with physiological observations.

Distinctive Features of the Human Marginal Zone and Cajal-Retzius Cells: Comparison of Morphological and Immunocytochemical Features at Midgestation.

  • Tkachenko LA
  • Front Neuroanat
  • 2016 Apr 6

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Abstract:

Despite a long history of research of cortical marginal zone (MZ) organization and development, a number of issues remain unresolved. One particular issue is the problem of Cajal-Retzius cells (C-R) identification. It is currently based on morphology and Reelin expression. The aim of this research is to investigate MZ cytoarchitectonics and Reelin-producing cells morphotypes in the superior temporal, pre- and postcentral cortex at GW24-26. We used Reelin (Reln) as the marker for C-R cells and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and neurofilament heavy chain protein (N200) as markers of neuronal maturation. The MZ of all of the investigated areas had the distinct cytoarchitectonic of alternating cell sparse (MZP, SR) and cell dense (SGL, DGL) layers. The distribution of the neuromarkers across the MZ also showed layer specificity. MAP2-positive cells were only found in the SGL. N200 and Reelin-positive neurons in the MZP. N200-positive processes were forming a plexus at the DGL level. All of the N200-positive neurons found were in the MZP and had distinctive morphological features of C-R cells. All of the N200-positive neurons in MZ were also positive for Reelin, whereas MAP2-positive cells lack Reelin. Thus, the joint use of two immunomarkers allowed us to discern the C-R cells based on their morphotype and neurochemistry and indicate that the Reelin-positive cells of MZ at 24-26 GW were morphologically C-R cells. In the current study, we identified three C-R cells morphotypes. Using a 3D reconstruction, we made sure that all of them belonged to the single morphotype of triangular C-R cells. This approach will allow future studies to separate C-R cells from other Reelin-producing neurons which appear at later corticogenesis stages. In addition, our findings support the assumption that a plexus could be formed not only with C-R cells processes but also possibly by other cell processes by the poorly researched DGL, which is only allocated as a part of the human MZ.

Registered report: RAF inhibitors prime wild-type RAF to activate the MAPK pathway and enhance growth.

  • Bhargava A
  • Elife
  • 2016 Feb 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology seeks to address growing concerns about reproducibility in scientific research by conducting replications of selected experiments from a number of high-profile papers in the field of cancer biology. The papers, which were published between 2010 and 2012, were selected on the basis of citations and Altmetric scores (Errington et al., 2014). This Registered Report describes the proposed replication plan of key experiments from 'RAF inhibitors prime wild-type RAF to activate the MAPK pathway and enhance growth' by Hatzivassiliou and colleagues, published in Nature in 2010 (Hatzivassiliou et al., 2010). Hatzivassiliou and colleagues examined the paradoxical response of RAF-WT tumors to treatment with RAF inhibitors. The key experiments being replicated include Figure 1A, in which the original authors demonstrated that treatment of a subset of BRAF(WT) tumor cell lines with RAF small molecule inhibitors resulted in an increase in cell viability, Figure 2B, which reported that RAF inhibitor activation of the MAPK pathway was dependent on CRAF but not BRAF, and Figure 4A, where the dimerization of BRAF and CRAF was modulated by the RAF inhibitor PLX4720, but not GDC-0879. The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is a collaboration between the Center for Open Science and Science Exchange, and the results of the replications will be published by eLife.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC009405(United States)

Immunogold characteristics of VGLUT3-positive GABAergic nerve terminals suggest corelease of glutamate.

  • Stensrud MJ
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Dec 15

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Abstract:

There is compelling evidence that glutamate can act as a cotransmitter in the mammalian brain. Interestingly, the third vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT3) is primarily found in neurons that were anticipated to be nonglutamatergic. Whereas the function of VGLUT3 in acetylcholinergic and serotoninergic neurons has been elucidated, the role of VGLUT3 in neurons releasing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is not settled. We have previously shown that VGLUT3 is found together with the vesicular GABA transporter (VIAAT) on synaptic vesicle membranes in the hippocampus. Now we provide novel electron microscopic data from the rat hippocampus suggesting that glutamate is enriched in inhibitory nerve terminals containing VGLUT3 compared to those lacking VGLUT3. The opposite was found for GABA; VGLUT3-positive inhibitory terminals contained lower density of GABA labeling compared to VGLUT3-negative inhibitory terminals. In addition, semiquantitative confocal immunofluorescence showed that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor labeling was present more frequently in VGLUT3-positive/VIAAT-positive synapses versus in VGLUT3-negative/VIAAT-positive synapses. Electron microscopic immunogold data further suggest that NMDA receptors are enriched in VGLUT3 containing inhibitory terminals. Our data reveal new chemical characteristics of a subset of GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus. The analyses suggest that glutamate is coreleased with GABA from hippocampal basket cell-synapses to act on NMDA receptors.

Neuronal Organization of the Brain in the Adult Amphioxus (Branchiostoma lanceolatum): A Study With Acetylated Tubulin Immunohistochemistry.

  • Castro A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Oct 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Amphioxus (Cephalochordata) belongs to the most basal extant chordates, and knowledge of their brain organization appears to be key to deciphering the early stages of evolution of vertebrate brains. Most comprehensive studies of the organization of the central nervous system of adult amphioxus have investigated the spinal cord. Some brain populations have been characterized via neurochemistry and electron microscopy, and the overall cytoarchitecture of the brain was studied by Ekhart et al. (2003; J. Comp. Neurol. 466:319-330) with general staining methods and retrograde transport from the spinal cord. Here, the cytoarchitecture of the brain of adult amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum was reinvestigated by using acetylated tubulin immunohistochemistry, which specifically stains neurons and fibers, in combination with some ancillary methods. This method allowed reproducible staining and mapping of types of neuron, mostly in brain regions caudal to the entrance level of nerve 2, and its comparison with spinal cord populations. The brain populations studied and discussed in detail were the Retzius bipolar cells, lamellate cells, Joseph cells, various types of translumenal cells, somatic motoneurons, Rohde nucleus cells, small ventral multipolar neurons, and Edinger cells. These observations expand our knowledge of the distribution of cell types and provide additional data on the number of cells and the axonal tracts and commissural regions of the adult amphioxus brain. The results of this comprehensive study provide a framework for comparison of complex adult populations with the early brain neuronal populations revealed in developmental studies of the amphioxus.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - MOP-38854(Canada)
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY022157-01(United States)

Aging attenuates acquired heat tolerance and hypothalamic neurogenesis in rats.

  • Matsuzaki K
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

This study investigated age-dependent changes in heat exposure-induced hypothalamic neurogenesis and acquired heat tolerance in rats. We previously reported that neuronal progenitor cell proliferation and neural differentiation are enhanced in the hypothalamus of long-term heat-acclimated (HA) rats. Male Wistar rats, 5 weeks (Young), 10-11 months (Adult), or 22-25 months (Old) old, were subjected to an ambient temperature of 32°C for 40-50 days (HA rats). Rats underwent a heat tolerance test. In HA rats, increases in abdominal temperature (Tab ) in the the Young, Adult, and Old groups were significantly smaller than those in their respective controls. However, the increase in Tab of HA rats became greater with advancing age. The number of hypothalamic bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-immunopositive cells double stained with a mature neuron marker, neuronal nuclei (NeuN), of HA rats was significantly higher in the Young group than that in the control group. In Young HA, BrdU/NeuN-immunopositive cells of the preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus appeared to be the highest among regions examined. Large numbers of newborn neurons were also located in the ventromedial and dorsomedial nuclei, as well as the posterior hypothalamic area, whereas heat exposure did not increase such numbers in the Adult and Old groups. Aging may interfere with heat exposure-induced hypothalamic neurogenesis and acquired heat tolerance in rats.

Patterned, but not tonic, optogenetic stimulation in motor thalamus improves reaching in acute drug-induced Parkinsonian rats.

  • Seeger-Armbruster S
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2015 Jan 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

High-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) in motor thalamus (Mthal) ameliorates tremor but not akinesia in Parkinson's disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are effective methods of Mthal stimulation to treat akinesia. Glutamatergic Mthal neurons, transduced with channelrhodopsin-2 by injection of lentiviral vector (Lenti.CaMKII.hChR2(H134R).mCherry), were selectively stimulated with blue light (473 nm) via a chronically implanted fiber-optic probe. Rats performed a reach-to-grasp task in either acute drug-induced parkinsonian akinesia (0.03-0.07 mg/kg haloperidol, s.c.) or control (vehicle injection) conditions, and the number of reaches was recorded for 5 min before, during, and after stimulation. We compared the effect of DBS using complex physiological patterns previously recorded in the Mthal of a control rat during reaching or exploring behavior, with tonic DBS delivering the same number of stimuli per second (rate-control 6.2 or 1.8 Hz, respectively) and with stimulation patterns commonly used in other brain regions to treat neurological conditions (tonic 130 Hz, theta burst (TBS), and tonic 15 Hz rate-control for TBS). Control rats typically executed >150 reaches per 5 min, which was unaffected by any of the stimulation patterns. Acute parkinsonian rats executed <20 reaches, displaying marked akinesia, which was significantly improved by stimulating with the physiological reaching pattern or TBS (both p < 0.05), whereas the exploring and all tonic patterns failed to improve reaching. Data indicate that the Mthal may be an effective site to treat akinesia, but the pattern of stimulation is critical for improving reaching in parkinsonian rats.

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor but not vesicular zinc promotes TrkB activation within mossy fibers of mouse hippocampus in vivo.

  • Helgager J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2014 Dec 1

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Abstract:

The neurotrophin receptor, TrkB receptor tyrosine kinase, is critical to central nervous system (CNS) function in health and disease. Elucidating the ligands mediating TrkB activation in vivo will provide insights into its diverse roles in the CNS. The canonical ligand for TrkB is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). A diversity of stimuli also can activate TrkB in the absence of BDNF, a mechanism termed transactivation. Zinc, a divalent cation packaged in synaptic vesicles along with glutamate in axons of mammalian cortical neurons, can transactivate TrkB in neurons and heterologous cells in vitro. Yet the contributions of BDNF and zinc to TrkB activation in vivo are unknown. To address these questions, we conducted immunohistochemical (IHC) studies of the hippocampal mossy fiber axons and boutons using an antibody selective for pY816 of TrkB, a surrogate measure of TrkB activation. We found that conditional deletion of BDNF resulted in a reduction of pY816 in axons and synaptic boutons of hippocampal mossy fibers, thereby implicating BDNF in activation of TrkB in vivo. Unexpectedly, pY816 immunoreactivity was increased in axons but not synaptic boutons of mossy fibers in ZnT3 knockout mice that lack vesicular zinc. Marked increases of BDNF content were evident within the hippocampus of ZnT3 knockout mice and genetic elimination of BDNF reduced pY816 immunoreactivity in these mice, implicating BDNF in enhanced TrkB activation mediated by vesicular zinc depletion. These findings support the conclusion that BDNF but not vesicular zinc activates TrkB in hippocampal mossy fiber axons under physiological conditions.

Reduced reach-related modulation of motor thalamus neural activity in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

  • Bosch-Bouju C
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Nov 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Motor thalamus (Mthal) is a key node in the corticobasal ganglia (BG) loop that controls complex, cognitive aspects of movement. In Parkinson's disease (PD), profound alterations in neuronal activity occur in BG nuclei and cortex. Because Mthal is located between these two structures, altered Mthal activity has been assumed to underlie the pathogenesis of PD motor deficits. However, to date, inconsistent changes in neuronal firing rate and pattern have been reported in parkinsonian animals. Moreover, although a distinct firing pattern of Mthal neurons, called low-threshold calcium spike bursts (LTS bursts), is observed in reduced preparations, it remains unknown whether they occur or what their role might be in behaving animals. We recorded Mthal spiking activity in control and unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats performing a skilled forelimb-reaching task. We show for the first time that Mthal firing rate in control rats is modulated in a temporally precise pattern during reach-to-grasp movements, with a peak at the time of the reach-end and troughs just before and after it. We identified LTS-like events on the basis of LTS burst characteristics. These were rare, but also modulated, decreasing in incidence just after reach-end. The inhibitory modulations in firing rate and LTS-like events were abolished in parkinsonian rats. These data confirm that nigrostriatal dopamine depletion is accompanied by profound and specific deficits in movement-related Mthal activity. These changes would severely impair Mthal contributions to motor program development in motor cortex and are likely to be an important factor underlying the movement deficits of PD.

Expression profile of PTPIP51 in mouse brain.

  • Koch P
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Dec 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

This study demonstrates the expression of the novel protein protein tyrosine phophatase-interacting protein 51 (PTPIP51) in mammalian brain tissue. Serial sections of the whole adult mouse brain were analyzed for PTPIP51 protein and mRNA by immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, RT-PCR, and in situ hybridization. Recent investigations by Yu et al. (2008) describe PTPIP51 as being capable of activating Raf-1, thereby modulating the MAPK pathway. The role of Raf-1, as well as of 14-3-3, in neurological disorders is well established. PTPIP51 expression was confined to neurons in the following structures: the piriform cortex and their connections to the anterior commissure, nucleus accumbens, paraventricular and supraoptical nuclei, neurohypophysis, superior colliculus, genu of facialis nerve, spinal trigeminal tract, inferior cerebellar peduncle, and cerebellum. In the cerebellum, a subpopulation of Purkinje cells and their dendrites was strongly PTPIP51 positive. Moreover, PTPIP51 was found to be colocalized with vasopressin and its transport protein neurophysin II in the neuroendocrine nuclei and their connections to the neurohypophysis. The data presented here suggest a role of PTPIP51 in neuronal homeostasis, axonal growth, and transport.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - FRN12594(Canada)