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Akt (pan) (40D4) Mouse mAb antibody

RRID:AB_1147620

Antibody ID

AB_1147620

Target Antigen

Akt (pan) (40D4) Mouse mAb mouse, human, non-human primate, rat, h, m, r, mk

Proper Citation

(Cell Signaling Technology Cat# 2920, RRID:AB_1147620)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Applications: W, IP, IHC-P, IF-IC, F

Host Organism

mouse

Vendor

Cell Signaling Technology

Retinoid X Receptor Activation During Adipogenesis of Female Mesenchymal Stem Cells Programs a Dysfunctional Adipocyte.

  • Shoucri BM
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Early life exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is an emerging risk factor for the development of obesity and diabetes later in life. We previously showed that prenatal exposure to the EDC tributyltin (TBT) results in increased adiposity in the offspring. These effects linger into adulthood and are propagated through successive generations. TBT activates two nuclear receptors, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ and its heterodimeric partner retinoid X receptor (RXR), that promote adipogenesis in vivo and in vitro. We recently employed a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) model to show that TBT promotes adipose lineage commitment by activating RXR, not PPARγ. This led us to consider the functional consequences of PPARγ vs RXR activation in developing adipocytes. We used a transcriptomal approach to characterize genome-wide differences in MSCs differentiated with the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone (ROSI) or TBT. Pathway analysis suggested functional deficits in TBT-treated cells. We then compared adipocytes differentiated with ROSI, TBT, or a pure RXR agonist IRX4204 (4204). Our data show that RXR activators ("rexinoids," 4204 and TBT) attenuate glucose uptake, blunt expression of the antidiabetic hormone adiponectin, and fail to downregulate proinflammatory and profibrotic transcripts, as does ROSI. Finally, 4204 and TBT treatment results in an inability to induce markers of adipocyte browning, in part due to sustained interferon signaling. Taken together, these data implicate rexinoids in the development of dysfunctional white adipose tissue that could potentially exacerbate obesity and/or diabetes risk in vivo. These data warrant further screening and characterization of EDCs that activate RXR.

Funding information:
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - AA013745(United States)

A Role for Hypocretin/Orexin in Metabolic and Sleep Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Non-metastatic Breast Cancer.

  • Borniger JC
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jul 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

We investigated relationships among immune, metabolic, and sleep abnormalities in mice with non-metastatic mammary cancer. Tumor-bearing mice displayed interleukin-6 (IL-6)-mediated peripheral inflammation, coincident with altered hepatic glucose processing and sleep. Tumor-bearing mice were hyperphagic, had reduced serum leptin concentrations, and enhanced sensitivity to exogenous ghrelin. We tested whether these phenotypes were driven by inflammation using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against IL-6; despite the reduction in IL-6 signaling, metabolic and sleep abnormalities persisted. We next investigated neural populations coupling metabolism and sleep, and observed altered activity within lateral-hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin (HO) neurons. We used a dual HO-receptor antagonist to test whether increased HO signaling was causing metabolic abnormalities. This approach rescued metabolic abnormalities and enhanced sleep quality in tumor-bearing mice. Peripheral sympathetic denervation prevented tumor-induced increases in serum glucose. Our results link metabolic and sleep abnormalities via the HO system, and provide evidence that central neuromodulators contribute to tumor-induced changes in metabolism.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA194924()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R21 CA191846()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL095372(United States)

Cancer Cells Co-opt the Neuronal Redox-Sensing Channel TRPA1 to Promote Oxidative-Stress Tolerance.

  • Takahashi N
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Jun 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cancer cell survival is dependent on oxidative-stress defenses against reactive oxygen species (ROS) that accumulate during tumorigenesis. Here, we show a non-canonical oxidative-stress defense mechanism through TRPA1, a neuronal redox-sensing Ca2+-influx channel. In TRPA1-enriched breast and lung cancer spheroids, TRPA1 is critical for survival of inner cells that exhibit ROS accumulation. Moreover, TRPA1 promotes resistance to ROS-producing chemotherapies, and TRPA1 inhibition suppresses xenograft tumor growth and enhances chemosensitivity. TRPA1 does not affect redox status but upregulates Ca2+-dependent anti-apoptotic pathways. NRF2, an oxidant-defense transcription factor, directly controls TRPA1 expression, thus providing an orthogonal mechanism for protection against oxidative stress together with canonical ROS-neutralizing mechanisms. These findings reveal an oxidative-stress defense program involving TRPA1 that could be exploited for targeted cancer therapies.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - C06 RR030414(United States)

Synthetic Lethality of Combined Bcl-2 Inhibition and p53 Activation in AML: Mechanisms and Superior Antileukemic Efficacy.

  • Pan R
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Dec 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Evasion of apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer. Bcl-2 and p53 represent two important nodes in apoptosis signaling pathways. We find that concomitant p53 activation and Bcl-2 inhibition overcome apoptosis resistance and markedly prolong survival in three mouse models of resistant acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Mechanistically, p53 activation negatively regulates the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway and activates GSK3 to modulate Mcl-1 phosphorylation and promote its degradation, thus overcoming AML resistance to Bcl-2 inhibition. Moreover, Bcl-2 inhibition reciprocally overcomes apoptosis resistance to p53 activation by switching cellular response from G1 arrest to apoptosis. The efficacy, together with the mechanistic findings, reveals the potential of simultaneously targeting these two apoptosis regulators and provides a rational basis for clinical testing of this therapeutic approach.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MC_U120061476(United Kingdom)
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01 CA055164()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA016672()

Region-Specific Suppression of Hypothalamic Responses to Insulin To Adapt to Elevated Maternal Insulin Secretion During Pregnancy.

  • Ladyman SR
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

As part of the adaptation of maternal glucose regulation during pregnancy to ensure glucose provision to the fetus, maternal insulin concentrations become elevated. However, increased central actions of insulin, such as suppression of appetite, would be maladaptive during pregnancy. We hypothesized that central nervous system targets of insulin become less responsive during pregnancy to prevent overstimulation by the increased circulating insulin concentrations. To test this hypothesis, we have measured insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt (pAkt) in specific hypothalamic nuclei as an index of hypothalamic insulin responsiveness. Despite higher endogenous insulin concentrations following feeding, arcuate nucleus pAkt levels were significantly lower in the pregnant group compared with the nonpregnant group. In response to an intracerebroventricular injection of insulin, insulin-induced pAkt was significantly reduced in the arcuate nucleus and ventromedial nucleus of pregnant rats compared with nonpregnant rats. Similar levels of insulin receptor β and PTEN, a negative regulator of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway, were detected in hypothalamic areas of nonpregnant and pregnant rats. In the ventromedial nucleus, however, levels of phosphorylated PTEN were significantly lower in pregnancy, suggesting that reduced inactivation of PTEN may contribute to the attenuated insulin signaling in this area during pregnancy. In conclusion, these results demonstrate region-specific changes in responsiveness to insulin in the hypothalamus during pregnancy that may represent an adaptive response to minimize the impact of elevated circulating insulin on the maternal brain.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS052671(United States)

Binding of PLD2-Generated Phosphatidic Acid to KIF5B Promotes MT1-MMP Surface Trafficking and Lung Metastasis of Mouse Breast Cancer Cells.

  • Wang Z
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Oct 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Little is known about the cellular events promoting metastasis. We show that knockout of phospholipase D2 (PLD2), which generates the signaling lipid phosphatidic acid (PA), inhibits lung metastases in the mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-Neu transgenic mouse breast cancer model. PLD2 promotes local invasion through the regulation of the plasma membrane targeting of MT1-MMP and its associated invadopodia. A liposome pull-down screen identifies KIF5B, the heavy chain of the motor protein kinesin-1, as a new PA-binding protein. In vitro assays reveal that PA specifically and directly binds to the C terminus of KIF5B. The binding between PLD2-generated PA and KIF5B is required for the vesicular association of KIF5B, surface localization of MT1-MMP, invadopodia, and invasion in cancer cells. Taken together, these results identify a role of PLD2-generated PA in the regulation of kinesin-1 motor functions and breast cancer metastasis and suggest PLD2 as a potential therapeutic target for metastatic breast cancer.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA112403()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA193455()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL119478()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM114260()

Reactive Neutrophil Responses Dependent on the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase c-MET Limit Cancer Immunotherapy.

  • Glodde N
  • Immunity
  • 2017 Oct 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Inhibitors of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-MET are currently used in the clinic to target oncogenic signaling in tumor cells. We found that concomitant c-MET inhibition promoted adoptive T cell transfer and checkpoint immunotherapies in murine cancer models by increasing effector T cell infiltration in tumors. This therapeutic effect was independent of tumor cell-intrinsic c-MET dependence. Mechanistically, c-MET inhibition impaired the reactive mobilization and recruitment of neutrophils into tumors and draining lymph nodes in response to cytotoxic immunotherapies. In the absence of c-MET inhibition, neutrophils recruited to T cell-inflamed microenvironments rapidly acquired immunosuppressive properties, restraining T cell expansion and effector functions. In cancer patients, high serum levels of the c-MET ligand HGF correlated with increasing neutrophil counts and poor responses to checkpoint blockade therapies. Our findings reveal a role for the HGF/c-MET pathway in neutrophil recruitment and function and suggest that c-MET inhibitor co-treatment may improve responses to cancer immunotherapy in settings beyond c-MET-dependent tumors.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - 2-U54-AI-057153(United States)

Chemical Proteomics Identifies Druggable Vulnerabilities in a Genetically Defined Cancer.

  • Bar-Peled L
  • Cell
  • 2017 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The transcription factor NRF2 is a master regulator of the cellular antioxidant response, and it is often genetically activated in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) by, for instance, mutations in the negative regulator KEAP1. While direct pharmacological inhibition of NRF2 has proven challenging, its aberrant activation rewires biochemical networks in cancer cells that may create special vulnerabilities. Here, we use chemical proteomics to map druggable proteins that are selectively expressed in KEAP1-mutant NSCLC cells. Principal among these is NR0B1, an atypical orphan nuclear receptor that we show engages in a multimeric protein complex to regulate the transcriptional output of KEAP1-mutant NSCLC cells. We further identify small molecules that covalently target a conserved cysteine within the NR0B1 protein interaction domain, and we demonstrate that these compounds disrupt NR0B1 complexes and impair the anchorage-independent growth of KEAP1-mutant cancer cells. Our findings designate NR0B1 as a druggable transcriptional regulator that supports NRF2-dependent lung cancers.

Adipose Tissue Macrophage-Derived Exosomal miRNAs Can Modulate In Vivo and In Vitro Insulin Sensitivity.

  • Ying W
  • Cell
  • 2017 Oct 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

MiRNAs are regulatory molecules that can be packaged into exosomes and secreted from cells. Here, we show that adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in obese mice secrete miRNA-containing exosomes (Exos), which cause glucose intolerance and insulin resistance when administered to lean mice. Conversely, ATM Exos obtained from lean mice improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity when administered to obese recipients. miR-155 is one of the miRNAs overexpressed in obese ATM Exos, and earlier studies have shown that PPARγ is a miR-155 target. Our results show that miR-155KO animals are insulin sensitive and glucose tolerant compared to controls. Furthermore, transplantation of WT bone marrow into miR-155KO mice mitigated this phenotype. Taken together, these studies show that ATMs secrete exosomes containing miRNA cargo. These miRNAs can be transferred to insulin target cell types through mechanisms of paracrine or endocrine regulation with robust effects on cellular insulin action, in vivo insulin sensitivity, and overall glucose homeostasis.

Angiopoietin-2 in white adipose tissue improves metabolic homeostasis through enhanced angiogenesis.

  • An YA
  • Elife
  • 2017 Mar 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

Despite many angiogenic factors playing crucial roles in metabolic homeostasis, effects of angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) in adipose tissue (AT) remain unclear. Utilizing a doxycycline-inducible AT-specific ANG-2 overexpression mouse model, we assessed the effects of ANG-2 in AT expansion upon a high-fat diet (HFD) challenge. ANG-2 is significantly induced, with subcutaneous white AT (sWAT) displaying the highest ANG-2 expression. ANG-2 overexpressing mice show increased sWAT vascularization and are resistant to HFD-induced obesity. In addition, improved glucose and lipid metabolism are observed. Mechanistically, the sWAT displays a healthier expansion pattern with increased anti-inflammatory macrophage infiltration. Conversely, ANG-2 neutralization in HFD-challenged wild-type mice shows reduced vascularization in sWAT, associated with impaired glucose tolerance and lipid clearance. Blocking ANG-2 causes significant pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic changes, hallmarks of an unhealthy AT expansion. In contrast to other pro-angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), this is achieved without any enhanced beiging of white AT.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P01 DK088761()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK055758()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK099110()

Androgen Deficiency Exacerbates High-Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Alterations in Male Mice.

  • Dubois V
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Feb 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Androgen deficiency is associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in men, but the mechanisms behind these associations remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the combined effects of androgen deficiency and high-fat diet (HFD) on body composition and glucose homeostasis in C57BL/6J male mice. Two models of androgen deficiency were used: orchidectomy (ORX) and androgen receptor knockout mice. Both models displayed higher adiposity and serum leptin levels upon HFD, whereas no differences were seen on a regular diet. Fat accumulation in HFD ORX animals was accompanied by increased sedentary behavior and occurred in spite of reduced food intake. HFD ORX mice showed white adipocyte hypertrophy, correlated with decreased mitochondrial content but not function as well as increased lipogenesis and decreased lipolysis suggested by the up-regulation of fatty acid synthase and the down-regulation of hormone-sensitive lipase. Both ORX and androgen receptor knockout exacerbated HFD-induced glucose intolerance by impairing insulin action in liver and skeletal muscle, as evidenced by the increased triglyceride and decreased glycogen content in these tissues. In addition, serum IL-1β levels were elevated, and pancreatic insulin secretion was impaired after ORX. Testosterone but not dihydrotestosterone supplementation restored the castration effects on body composition and glucose homeostasis. We conclude that sex steroid deficiency in combination with HFD exacerbates adiposity, insulin resistance, and β-cell failure in 2 preclinical male mouse models. Our findings stress the importance of a healthy diet in a clinical context of androgen deficiency and may have implications for the prevention of metabolic alterations in hypogonadal men.

Funding information:
  • HHMI - R35NS097974(United States)

Registered report: Tumour micro-environment elicits innate resistance to RAF inhibitors through HGF secretion.

  • Blum D
  • Elife
  • 2014 Dec 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology seeks to address growing concerns about reproducibility in scientific research by conducting replications of 50 papers in the field of cancer biology published between 2010 and 2012. This Registered Report describes the proposed replication plan of key experiments from "Tumour micro-environment elicits innate resistance to RAF inhibitors through HGF secretion" by Straussman and colleagues, published in Nature in 2012 (Straussman et al., 2012). The key experiments being replicated in this study are from Figure 2A, C, and D (and Supplemental Figure 11) and Figure 4C (and Supplemental Figure 19) (Straussman et al., 2012). Figure 2 demonstrates resistance to drug sensitivity conferred by co-culture with some stromal cell lines and identifies the secreted factor responsible as HGF. In Figure 4, Straussman and colleagues show that blocking the HGF receptor MET abrogates HGF’s rescue of drug sensitivity. The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is a collaboration between the Center for Open Science and Science Exchange, and the results of the replications will be published by eLife.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R03 NS071442(United States)

Deletion of growth hormone receptors in postnatal skeletal muscle of male mice does not alter muscle mass and response to pathological injury.

  • Vijayakumar A
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Oct 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

In this study, we investigated whether loss of GH receptor (GHR) signaling in postnatal skeletal muscle alters muscle mass and regenerative ability in adult mice and whether this was dependent on IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling. To do so, we used mouse models with skeletal muscle-specific loss of GHR signaling (mGHRKO), IGF-1R and insulin receptor signaling (MKR), or both GHR and IGF-1R/insulin receptor signaling (mGHRKO/MKR). We did not find a reduction in muscle cross-sectional area, fiber type composition, or response to pathological muscle injury in male mGHRKO and mGHRKO/MKR mice when compared with control and MKR mice, respectively. This could potentially be explained by unchanged skeletal muscle Igf-1 expression in mGHRKO and mGHRKO/MKR mice relative to control and MKR mice, respectively. Furthermore, MKR and mGHRKO/MKR mice, but not mGHRKO mice, demonstrated reduced fiber fusion after cardiotoxin injection, suggesting that IGF-1, and not GH, promotes fiber fusion in adult mice. In summary, our data suggest that GHR signaling in postnatal skeletal muscle does not play a significant role in regulating muscle mass or muscle regeneration. Additionally, in our model, muscle Igf-1 expression is not dependent on GHR signaling in postnatal skeletal muscle.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01HD065339(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - U01 NS090595(United States)

Investigating new therapeutic strategies targeting hyperinsulinemia's mitogenic effects in a female mouse breast cancer model.

  • Rostoker R
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 May 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Epidemiological and experimental studies have identified hyperinsulinemia as an important risk factor for breast cancer induction and for the poor prognosis in breast cancer patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recently it was demonstrated that both the insulin receptor (IR) and the IGF-IR mediate hyperinsulinemia's mitogenic effect in several breast cancer models. Although IGF-IR has been intensively investigated, and anti-IGF-IR therapies are now in advanced clinical trials, the role of the IR in mediating hyperinsulinemia's mitogenic effect remains to be clarified. Here we aimed to explore the potential of IR inhibition compared to dual IR/IGF-IR blockade on breast tumor growth. To initiate breast tumors, we inoculated the mammary carcinoma Mvt-1 cell line into the inguinal mammary fat pad of the hyperinsulinemic MKR female mice, and to study the role of IR, we treated the mice bearing tumors with the recently reported high-affinity IR antagonist-S961, in addition to the well-documented IGF-IR inhibitor picropodophyllin (PPP). Although reducing IR activation, with resultant severe hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, S961-treated mice had significantly larger tumors compared to the vehicle-treated group. This effect maybe secondary to the severe hyperinsulinemia mediated via the IGF-1 receptor. In contrast, PPP by partially inhibiting both IR and IGF-IR activity reduced tumor growth rate with only mild metabolic consequences. We conclude that targeting (even partially) both IR and IGF-IRs impairs hyperinsulinemia's effects in breast tumor development while simultaneously sparing the metabolic abnormalities observed when targeting IR alone with virtual complete inhibition.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - R01 NS040929(United States)