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Myelin Basic Protein antibody

RRID:AB_1141521

Antibody ID

AB_1141521

Target Antigen

Myelin Basic Protein antibody human, mouse, rat, mouse, rat

Proper Citation

(Abcam Cat# ab40390, RRID:AB_1141521)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

validation status unknown, seller recommendations provided in 2012: Immunofluorescence; Western Blot; Immunohistochemistry; Immunohistochemistry - frozen; Immunocytochemistry; Immunohistochemistry - fixed; ICC/IF, IHC-FoFr, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, WB

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Abcam

Oligodendroglia are particularly vulnerable to oxidative damage after neurotrauma in vivo.

  • Giacci MK
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jun 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Loss of function following injury to the central nervous system is worsened by secondary degeneration of neurons and glia surrounding the injury and initiated by oxidative damage. However, it is not yet known which cellular populations and structures are most vulnerable to oxidative damage in vivo Using Nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), oxidative damage was semi-quantified within cellular subpopulations and structures of optic nerve vulnerable to secondary degeneration, following a partial transection of the optic nerve in adult female PVG rats. Simultaneous assessment of cellular subpopulations and structures revealed oligodendroglia as the most vulnerable to DNA oxidation following injury. 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) was used to label cells that proliferated in the first 3 days after injury. Injury led to increases in DNA, protein and lipid damage in OPCs and mature oligodendrocytes at 3 days, regardless of proliferative state, associated with a decline in the numbers of OPCs at 7 days. O4+ pre-oligodendrocytes also exhibited increased lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, EdU+ mature oligodendrocytes derived after injury demonstrated increased early susceptibility to DNA damage and lipid peroxidation. However, EdU- mature oligodendrocytes with high 8OHdG immunoreactivity were more likely to be caspase3+. By day 28, newly derived mature oligodendrocytes had significantly reduced MYRF mRNA indicating that the myelination potential of these cells may be reduced. The proportion of caspase3+ oligodendrocytes remained higher in EdU- cells. Innovative use of NanoSIMS together with traditional immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation have enabled the first demonstration of subpopulation specific oligodendroglial vulnerability to oxidative damage, due to secondary degeneration in vivo.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTInjury to the central nervous system is characterised by oxidative damage in areas adjacent to the injury. However, the cellular subpopulations and structures most vulnerable to this damage remain to be elucidated. Here we use powerful NanoSIMS techniques to show increased oxidative damage in oligodendroglia and axons and to demonstrate that cells early in the oligodendroglial lineage are the most vulnerable to DNA oxidation. Further immunohistochemical and in situ hybridisation investigation reveals that mature oligodendrocytes derived after injury are more vulnerable to oxidative damage than their counterparts existing at the time of injury and have reduced MYRF mRNA, yet pre-existing oligodendrocytes are more likely to die.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK-061436(United States)

Defining an Analytic Framework to Evaluate Quantitative MRI Markers of Traumatic Axonal Injury: Preliminary Results in a Mouse Closed Head Injury Model.

  • Haber M
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 May 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a hallmark of traumatic brain injury (TBI) pathology. Recently, the Closed Head Injury Model of Engineered Rotational Acceleration (CHIMERA) was developed to generate an experimental model of DAI in a mouse. The characterization of DAI using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; diffusion tensor imaging, DTI) may provide a useful set of outcome measures for preclinical and clinical studies. The objective of this study was to identify the complex neurobiological underpinnings of DTI features following DAI using a comprehensive and quantitative evaluation of DTI and histopathology in the CHIMERA mouse model. A consistent neuroanatomical pattern of pathology in specific white matter tracts was identified across ex vivo DTI maps and photomicrographs of histology. These observations were confirmed by voxelwise and regional analysis of DTI maps, demonstrating reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in distinct regions such as the optic tract. Similar regions were identified by quantitative histology and exhibited axonal damage as well as robust gliosis. Additional analysis using a machine-learning algorithm was performed to identify regions and metrics important for injury classification in a manner free from potential user bias. This analysis found that diffusion metrics were able to identify injured brains almost with the same degree of accuracy as the histology metrics. Good agreement between regions detected as abnormal by histology and MRI was also found. The findings of this work elucidate the complexity of cellular changes that give rise to imaging abnormalities and provide a comprehensive and quantitative evaluation of the relative importance of DTI and histological measures to detect brain injury.

R-Ras1 and R-Ras2 Are Essential for Oligodendrocyte Differentiation and Survival for Correct Myelination in the Central Nervous System.

  • Sanz-Rodriguez M
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 May 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Rapid and effective neural transmission of information requires correct axonal myelination. Modifications in myelination alter axonal capacity to transmit electric impulses and enable pathological conditions. In the CNS, oligodendrocytes (OLs) myelinate axons, a complex process involving various cellular interactions. However, we know little about the mechanisms that orchestrate correct myelination. Here, we demonstrate that OLs express R-Ras1 and R-Ras2. Using female and male mutant mice to delete these proteins, we found that activation of the PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2-MAPK pathways was weaker in mice lacking one or both of these GTPases, suggesting that both proteins coordinate the activity of these two pathways. Loss of R-Ras1 and/or R-Ras2 diminishes the number of OLs in major myelinated CNS tracts and increases the proportion of immature OLs. In R-Ras1-/- and R-Ras2-/--null mice, OLs show aberrant morphologies and fail to differentiate correctly into myelin-forming phenotypes. The smaller OL population and abnormal OL maturation induce severe hypomyelination, with shorter nodes of Ranvier in R-Ras1-/- and/or R-Ras2-/- mice. These defects explain the slower conduction velocity of myelinated axons that we observed in the absence of R-Ras1 and R-Ras2. Together, these results suggest that R-Ras1 and R-Ras2 are upstream elements that regulate the survival and differentiation of progenitors into OLs through the PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2-MAPK pathways for proper myelination.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In this study, we show that R-Ras1 and R-Ras2 play essential roles in regulating myelination in vivo and control fundamental aspects of oligodendrocyte (OL) survival and differentiation through synergistic activation of PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2-MAPK signaling. Mice lacking R-Ras1 and/or R-Ras2 show a diminished OL population with a higher proportion of immature OLs, explaining the observed hypomyelination in main CNS tracts. In vivo electrophysiology recordings demonstrate a slower conduction velocity of nerve impulses in the absence of R-Ras1 and R-Ras2. Therefore, R-Ras1 and R-Ras2 are essential for proper axonal myelination and accurate neural transmission.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA BC011010-06(United States)

Axonal domain disorganization in Caspr1 and Caspr2 mutant myelinated axons affects neuromuscular junction integrity, leading to muscle atrophy.

  • Saifetiarova J
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2018 Mar 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Bidirectional interactions between neurons and myelinating glial cells result in formation of axonal domains along myelinated fibers. Loss of axonal domains leads to detrimental consequences on nerve structure and function, resulting in reduced conductive properties and the diminished ability to reliably transmit signals to the targets they innervate. Thus, impairment of peripheral myelinated axons that project to the surface of muscle fibers and form neuromuscular junction (NMJ) synapses leads to muscle dysfunction. The goal of our studies was to determine how altered electrophysiological properties due to axonal domain disorganization lead to muscle pathology, which is relevant to a variety of peripheral neuropathies, demyelinating diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders. Using conventional Contactin-Associated Protein 1 (Caspr1) and Caspr2 single or double mutants with disrupted paranodal, juxtaparanodal, or both regions, respectively, in peripheral myelinated axons, we correlated defects in NMJ integrity and muscle pathology. Our data show that loss of axonal domains in Caspr1 and Caspr2 single and double mutants primarily alters distal myelinated fibers together with presynaptic terminals, eventually leading to NMJ denervation and reduction in postsynaptic endplate areas. Moreover, reduction in conductive properties of peripheral myelinated fibers together with NMJ disintegration leads to muscle atrophy in Caspr1 mutants or muscle fiber degeneration accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction in Caspr1/Caspr2 double mutants. Together, our data indicate that proper organization of axonal domains in myelinated fibers is critical for optimal propagation of electrical signals, NMJ integrity, and muscle health, and provide insights into a wide range of pathologies that result in reduced nerve conduction leading to muscle atrophy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM063074()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F32 NS092448()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS050356()

Heterophilic Type II Cadherins Are Required for High-Magnitude Synaptic Potentiation in the Hippocampus.

  • Basu R
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Sep 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hippocampal CA3 neurons form synapses with CA1 neurons in two layers, stratum oriens (SO) and stratum radiatum (SR). Each layer develops unique synaptic properties but molecular mechanisms that mediate these differences are unknown. Here, we show that SO synapses normally have significantly more mushroom spines and higher-magnitude long-term potentiation (LTP) than SR synapses. Further, we discovered that these differences require the Type II classic cadherins, cadherins-6, -9, and -10. Though cadherins typically function via trans-cellular homophilic interactions, our results suggest presynaptic cadherin-9 binds postsynaptic cadherins-6 and -10 to regulate mushroom spine density and high-magnitude LTP in the SO layer. Loss of these cadherins has no effect on the lower-magnitude LTP typically observed in the SR layer, demonstrating that cadherins-6, -9, and -10 are gatekeepers for high-magnitude LTP. Thus, Type II cadherins may uniquely contribute to the specificity and strength of synaptic changes associated with learning and memory.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY022073()

Distinct Neural Circuits for the Formation and Retrieval of Episodic Memories.

  • Roy DS
  • Cell
  • 2017 Aug 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

The formation and retrieval of a memory is thought to be accomplished by activation and reactivation, respectively, of the memory-holding cells (engram cells) by a common set of neural circuits, but this hypothesis has not been established. The medial temporal-lobe system is essential for the formation and retrieval of episodic memory for which individual hippocampal subfields and entorhinal cortex layers contribute by carrying out specific functions. One subfield whose function is poorly known is the subiculum. Here, we show that dorsal subiculum and the circuit, CA1 to dorsal subiculum to medial entorhinal cortex layer 5, play a crucial role selectively in the retrieval of episodic memories. Conversely, the direct CA1 to medial entorhinal cortex layer 5 circuit is essential specifically for memory formation. Our data suggest that the subiculum-containing detour loop is dedicated to meet the requirements associated with recall such as rapid memory updating and retrieval-driven instinctive fear responses.

Peripubertal Stress With Social Support Promotes Resilience in the Face of Aging.

  • Morrison KE
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

The peripubertal period of development is a sensitive window, during which adverse experiences can increase the risk for presentation of cognitive and affective dysfunction throughout the lifespan, especially in women. However, such experiences in the context of a supportive social environment can actually ameliorate this risk, suggesting that resilience can be programmed in early life. Affective disorders and cognitive deficits commonly emerge during aging, with many women reporting increased difficulty with prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent executive functions. We have developed a mouse model to examine the interaction between peripubertal experience and age-related changes in cognition and stress regulation. Female mice were exposed to peripubertal chronic stress, during which they were either individually housed or housed with social interaction. One year after this stress experience, mice were examined in tasks to access their cognitive ability and flexibility in stress reactive measures. In a test of spatial memory acquisition and reversal learning where aged females normally display a decreased performance, the females that had experienced stress with social interaction a year earlier showed improved performance in reversal learning, a measure of cognitive flexibility. Because peripuberty is a time of major PFC maturation, we performed transcriptomic and biochemical analysis of the aged PFC, in which long-term changes in microRNA expression and in myelin proteins were found. These data suggest that stress in the context of social support experienced over the pubertal window can promote epigenetic reprogramming in the brain to increase the resilience to age-related cognitive decline in females.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R21 MH098506(United States)

Early and Late Loss of the Cytoskeletal Scaffolding Protein, Ankyrin G Reveals Its Role in Maturation and Maintenance of Nodes of Ranvier in Myelinated Axons.

  • Saifetiarova J
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Mar 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mechanisms that govern node of Ranvier organization, stability, and long-term maintenance remain to be fully elucidated. One of the molecular components of the node is the cytoskeletal scaffolding protein, ankyrin G (AnkG), which interacts with multiple members of the nodal complex. The role of AnkG in nodal organization and maintenance is still not clearly defined as to whether AnkG functions as an initial nodal organizer or whether it functions as a nodal stabilizer after the nodal complex has been assembled. Using a mouse model system, we report here that perinatal and juvenile neuronal ablation of AnkG has differential consequences on nodal stability. Early loss of AnkG creates immature nodes with abnormal morphology, which undergo accelerated destabilization within a month, resulting in rapid voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channel and βIV spectrin loss with reduced effects on neurofascin 186. On the other hand, late ablation of AnkG from established nodal complexes leads to slow but progressive nodal destabilization over 10 months, primarily affecting βIV spectrin, followed by NaV channels, with modest impact on neurofascin 186. We also show that ankyrin R and βI spectrin are not sufficient to prevent nodal disorganization after AnkG ablation. Additionally, nodal disorganization in both early and late AnkG mutants is accompanied by axonal pathology and neurological dysfunction. Together, our results suggest that AnkG plays an indispensable role in the maturation and long-term stabilization of the newly assembled nodal complex, and that loss of AnkG after nodal stabilization does not lead to rapid nodal disassembly but to loss of specific nodal components in a time-dependent manner.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Nodes of Ranvier are the myelin-free gaps along myelinated axons that allow fast communication between neurons and their target cells by propagating action potentials in a saltatory manner. The cytoskeletal scaffolding protein ankyrin G (AnkG) has been thought to play an important role in node formation; however, its precise role in nodal assembly, stability, and maintenance is still not clear. By using spatiotemporal ablation of AnkG, we report its differential role in nodal maturation and stabilization. We show that early AnkG-deficient nodes fail to mature and undergo rapid destabilization. In contrast, nodes that assemble with AnkG are much more stable and undergo gradual disintegration with sequential loss of nodal components in the absence of AnkG.