Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has multiple roles in orchestrating whole-body energy homeostasis. In addition, VAT is now considered an immune site harboring an array of innate and adaptive immune cells with a direct role in immune surveillance and host defense. We report that conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) in VAT acquire a tolerogenic phenotype through upregulation of pathways involved in adipocyte differentiation. While activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in cDC1 DCs induces IL-10 production, upregulation of the PPARγ pathway in cDC2 DCs directly suppresses their activation. Combined, they promote an anti-inflammatory milieu in vivo delaying the onset of obesity-induced chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. Under long-term over-nutrition, changes in adipocyte biology curtail β-catenin and PPARγ activation, contributing to VAT inflammation.
Chronic viral infections remain a global health concern. The early events that facilitate viral persistence have been linked to the activity of the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10. However, the mechanisms by which IL-10 facilitates the establishment of chronic infection are not fully understood. Herein, we demonstrated that the antigen sensitivity of CD8+ T cells was decreased during chronic infection and that this was directly mediated by IL-10. Mechanistically, we showed that IL-10 induced the expression of Mgat5, a glycosyltransferase that enhances N-glycan branching on surface glycoproteins. Increased N-glycan branching on CD8+ T cells promoted the formation of a galectin 3-mediated membrane lattice, which restricted the interaction of key glycoproteins, ultimately increasing the antigenic threshold required for T cell activation. Our study identified a regulatory loop in which IL-10 directly restricts CD8+ T cell activation and function through modification of cell surface glycosylation allowing the establishment of chronic infection.
How tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes (TILs) adapt to the metabolic constrains within the tumor microenvironment (TME) and to what degree this affects their ability to combat tumor progression remain poorly understood. Using mouse melanoma models, we report that CD8+ TILs enhance peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α signaling and catabolism of fatty acids (FAs) when simultaneously subjected to hypoglycemia and hypoxia. This metabolic switch partially preserves CD8+ TILs' effector functions, although co-inhibitor expression increases during tumor progression regardless of CD8+ TILs' antigen specificity. Further promoting FA catabolism improves the CD8+ TILs' ability to slow tumor progression. PD-1 blockade delays tumor growth without changing TIL metabolism or functions. It synergizes with metabolic reprogramming of T cells to achieve superior antitumor efficacy and even complete cures.